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  • Edu Tourism

    1. 1. L E I S u R E L earning via E dutourism: I n- S it u R ecreation-based E ducation Fenny Setiawan, Prof. Dr. Raja Maznah, Firuz H.Hussin, Lim Boon Yann Faculty of Education, University of Malaya L E I S u R E
    2. 2. Edu Tourism ? Training Program
    3. 3. Edu Tourism Sight-seeing and leisure program To gain new knowledge In different culture and context
    4. 4. Edu Tourism program = Event Based Training
    5. 5. start end schedule training event-based event pre post critical
    6. 6. <ul><li>compact short duration </li></ul><ul><li>minimal analysis/impact </li></ul><ul><li>unreliable evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>convenient implementation </li></ul>Characteristics of Event based programs ?
    7. 7. Limitation of Time
    8. 8. <ul><li>condense training content within a short and compact duration </li></ul><ul><li>establish quick and close rapport between facilitator and participants </li></ul><ul><li>3. respond to in-situ changes during site visits </li></ul><ul><li>4. incorporate recreational activities </li></ul>INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN L E I S u R E
    9. 9. THEORITICAL GROUNDING First Principles M odel (Merrill, 2002) First Principles Model (Merrill, 2002) INTEGRATION Group presentation PROBLEM Training - Education Site Visit - Tourism APPLICATION Hands on activity – designing presentation DEMONSTRATION Field visit – to show the real situation ACTIVATION Gaining attention/rapport during training, fun element
    10. 10. covert immersion Understanding the Learner Learn i ng Env i ronment Participant-observation methodology: The researcher immerses in complete participation of all experiment activities and goes on to actively influence the direction of the group (O’Conner,2002)
    11. 11. Create Rapport
    12. 12. edu tourism program was designed to incorporate instruction hidden behind rapport-building activities in order to maximize impact Methodology
    13. 13. Model learners become motivated because they know that their learning outcome benefits themselves personally. Persona l
    14. 14. Finding – key finding <ul><li>Problems faced in gaining participant – facilitator rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies that promote participant-facilitator rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies that gain learner attention </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    15. 15. 1 Problems faced in gaining participant – facilitator rapport Problems faced Description of possible causes Cultural differences <ul><li>The differences in philosophies and beliefs, </li></ul>Language barrier <ul><li>The difference in language and jargon caused difficulty in communication </li></ul><ul><li>Longer time was need to solicit information or entice proactive dialogue from the learners </li></ul>Seniority/status <ul><li>The seniority or job-rank positions of the participants caused a barrier in the solicitation of rapport and attention </li></ul>
    16. 16. 2 Strategies that promote participant-facilitator rapport Environment (context) Instructional strategies used Distance communication via email, fax, or SMS <ul><li>Obtained as much info as possible on participant profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-arranged all logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Pre- arranged the necessary protocols and correspondence to site visit </li></ul><ul><li>Designed & produced intro-packet (info handouts on venue/housekeeping, goodie-bag souvenirs, etc) </li></ul>Venue at first point of contact (airport) <ul><li>Prepared hand-held signboard </li></ul><ul><li>Ensured facilitator personality is proactive/chatty </li></ul>Informal Situation (Welcome dinner, lunch break, on the bus ) <ul><li>Ensured facilitator provokes a proactive and reactive conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Ensured facilitator always willing to assist and welcomes participants’ questions and inquiries </li></ul>Formal Situation (official site visit) <ul><li>Played leadership role on behalf of the delegation and introduce the participants to the government representatives during the official visits </li></ul><ul><li>Ensured the facilitator played the role of mediator in dialogue sessions and conversations </li></ul><ul><li>also played the role of translator whenever needed) </li></ul>Feedback and closing ceremony <ul><li>Created in-depth intense conversations to solicit information from participants in order to establish long term rapport </li></ul>
    17. 17. 3 Strategies that gain learner attention Types of learner attention Instructional strategies Proactive dialogue <ul><li>Initiate a conversation to the participant in any occasion – during welcome pick up and dinner </li></ul>Reactive dialogue <ul><li>Giving and information about program outline and tourism info and seeking participants interest to gain participant reaction – during informal function </li></ul>Continuos dialogue <ul><li>Intellectual discussion among participant and facilitator – during official site visit </li></ul>Solicit info <ul><li>Initiate a conversation to trigger participant feedback and opinion – after official site visit </li></ul>Solicit long term rapport <ul><li>In-depth communication in informal/ formal context to build long term rapport – during the event and closing ceremony </li></ul>
    18. 18. Hidden Curricula into their instruction (Snyder, 1970) As this case study was one in a series of many edu tourism programmes, the findings are inconclusive as a stand-alone study It is hoped that the findings from this series will contribute towards building a foundation of applicable knowledge in the field of L earning via E dutourism, or I n- S it u R ecreation-based E ducation ( L.E.I.S.u.R.E ) Conclusion
    19. 19. References Bruner, J. S. (1961). The act of discovery . Harvard Educational Review 31 (1): 21–32.   Bruner, J. (1966). Toward a Theory of Instruction . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.   Fowlkes, J. E et al., (1998). Event based approach to training (EBAT). The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 8 (3), 209-221   Hall, E. & Hall, M. (1990). Understanding Cultural Differences: Germans, French, and Americans . Maine, Intercultural Press, Inc.   Hussin, F (2004) Project Paper submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements of Masters in Instructional Technology, University of Malaya: KL   Hussin, F (2005 ) The Osmosis Project a.k.a. Instructional Architecture: Case Studies Exploring an Alternative Framework for ICT-Based In-Situ Learning, Seminar in Instructional Technology Research, University of Malaya.   Hussin,F. & Salleh,U.K. (2006). Using Technology to Deliver Hidden Curricula: Reflections from Action – Researchers on Nurturing Learner Readiness. Proceedings of the Malaysia Education Technology Association Convention, on 9-11 September 2006 at Awana Langkawi.   Joyce, B., Weil, M. with Calhoun, E. (2000). Models of teaching (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.   Knowles, M. (1984). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (3rd Ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing   Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction . Educational Technology Research and Development , 50(3), 43-59.   Snyder, B.R. (1970) The Hidden Curriculum . New York: Alfred A. Knopf.   Wolcott, H.F (2005). The arts of fieldwork . Rowman, Altamira
    20. 20. Thank you Faculty of Education, University of Malaya Fenny Setiawan, Prof. Dr. Raja Maznah, Firuz H.Hussin, Lim Boon Yann