Language or languages ?


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The paper was presented international seminar in ,University of Hyderabad,Hyderabad,India, regarding endarged languages.March 2008.

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Language or languages ?

  1. 1. International Seminar 1-3 March. 2008, Hyderabad. LANGUAGE OR LANGUAGES? SEYED HOSSEIN FAZELI Department of Linguistics, University of Mysore, Mysore.
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>1. The history of vocabulary “Culture” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nature and reality of “culture” </li></ul><ul><li>3. The categories of definitions of “culture” </li></ul><ul><li>4. Language, thought and culture </li></ul><ul><li>5. Language, Culture and Society </li></ul><ul><li>6. Language learning </li></ul><ul><li>7. Culture, learning and communication </li></ul><ul><li>8. The analysis of the social content of language teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>9.Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>10.Today, English as an International language </li></ul><ul><li>11. Official language or languages in one country </li></ul><ul><li>12-Translation </li></ul><ul><li>13. Language contact </li></ul><ul><li>14. Motivated factors to learn other languages </li></ul><ul><li>15. Multi complex category of factors </li></ul><ul><li>16. Results </li></ul><ul><li>English in Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Importance of relationship of language and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and language are two unseperatable sides of human communication system </li></ul><ul><li>A language of one society reflects the culture of that society </li></ul><ul><li>Language and culture are inter-linked to each others in various ways </li></ul><ul><li>Language is human society’s most precious possession not only because of its communicative values, but also because language is the vehicle of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is the embodiment of all that a society believes produces </li></ul><ul><li>Language becomes an integral part of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Language and culture go hand in hand interacting with and shaping together CONTINUE … </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The acquisition of one language is done through or with culture </li></ul><ul><li>Society and culture are more than background and even more than context </li></ul><ul><li>Language and society are so inter-linked and so much apart each other that are cannot be thought of except in relation to the other </li></ul><ul><li>Language for the individual is his tool for interaction with community as well as the community’s tool for interaction with the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Language acquiring is just one aspect of acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>The two languages are not translation of each others </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization in a literal sense is international integration </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into single society </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of globalization which work to linguistic homogenization and cultural homogenization is done through modernization, translation, standardization and the others </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered languages are not concluded to languages themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Endanger with or through languages due to endanger treasure of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Various issues have been affect that the endangered state and condition occur </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. The history of word “Culture” <ul><li>Origin of concept “culture” </li></ul><ul><li>It is derived form the classical or may be pre-classical Latin (Cultura) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1750, it was used to describe the human society for the first time in Germany language </li></ul><ul><li>In 1871,Tylore defined it as a clear scientific definition </li></ul><ul><li>In 1926, ”Culture” was added to Webster dictionary (for the same meaning) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Nature and reality of “culture” <ul><li>It refers to some “property” of community </li></ul><ul><li>culture is something that everybody has </li></ul><ul><li>Material culture and Non-material culture </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is knowledge includes “know-how “and “how-that” (1957, Goodenough) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural knowledge , Shared non-cultural knowledge , Non-shared non-cultural knowledge in one society </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li> is general; however, it is particular. </li></ul><ul><li> is dynamic, however, it is static. </li></ul><ul><li> is accepted through force, however, it is free will </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of the study of culture </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3.The categories of definitions of “culture” <ul><li>The Descriptive type- The factorial elements of culture -Tylor 1871 </li></ul><ul><li>The Traditional type - The social heritage or tradition -Sapir 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>The Normative type - </li></ul><ul><li> The rule or way -Young 1934 </li></ul><ul><li> The values and ideas -Sorokin 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>The Psychological type - </li></ul><ul><li> Culture as adjustment -Small 1905 </li></ul><ul><li> The learning -Opler 1947 </li></ul><ul><li> The habits -Murdock 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>The structural type- The model, pattern or organization of culture </li></ul><ul><li>-Willey 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>The Genetical type- </li></ul><ul><li> Culture is as a production - Falsom 1928 </li></ul><ul><li> The ideas in culture - Ward 1903 </li></ul><ul><li> The symbols of culture - Whyite 1943 </li></ul>
  8. 8. 4.Language, though and culture <ul><li>In language acquisition, cognitive development and linguistic development, go hand in hand, each interacting with and shaping the other </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal labels can shape the way we store events for later recall </li></ul><ul><li>culture as “socially acquired knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>culture is one part of memory </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is really an integral part of the interaction between language and thought </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings for every thing, are in the human </li></ul>
  9. 9. 5. Language, Culture and Society <ul><li>The facility of communication and interaction for social living, is as a result of social being and living in societies as characteristic of the human </li></ul><ul><li>Language does not develop in a vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Language records the cultural history of a community </li></ul><ul><li>A language is part of the culture of a people and the chief means by which the members of a society communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Language is component of culture and central network through which the other components are expressed </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in cultural meanings across language are a problem in learning a new language </li></ul><ul><li>Contacting with people of another society, identifies some characteristics of the behavior ,that show they are as member of a different society </li></ul>
  10. 10. 6. Language learning and teaching <ul><li>Learning is as “acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or skill by study, experience, or instruction” </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of learning, as it is understood today, has been generally influenced by the psychological study of the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is as&quot; showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instruction, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand” </li></ul><ul><li>Your understanding of how the learner learns, will determine the philosophy of education </li></ul>
  11. 11. 7. Culture, learning and communication <ul><li>To understand some materials and subject in one language, we should understand the meanings of the culture expressed by the words of the language </li></ul><ul><li>There can be no real learning of a language, without understanding something of the patterns and values of the culture of which it is a part </li></ul><ul><li>To become truly educated in language, it is necessary to absorb the full cultural meaning of the target language </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking free of the elements meaning units of the learner’s native language, let him to achieve right communication through a second language </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>If we suppose that: </li></ul><ul><li>*M = “Meaning which exists in the mind of sender of message during the specific communication, as it is called Communication A.” </li></ul><ul><li> *M′ = “Meaning which consist in the mind of receiver of message during the specific communication, as it is called Communication A.” </li></ul><ul><li>**Among the two individuals communication, one of the below states, will occur: CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>State one M'/M=1, Two individuals communicate each others completely. </li></ul><ul><li>State two M'/M=0, Two individuals do not communicate each each others. </li></ul><ul><li>State three M'/M <1, Two individuals communicative each others, but not completely. </li></ul><ul><li>State four M'/M >1, Two results will occur: </li></ul><ul><li>A-Complete communication B - Self communication </li></ul>
  14. 14. 8. The analysis of the social content of language teaching and learning <ul><li>The social content of language learning can be regarded as a set of factors that is likely to exercise a powerful influence on language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural factors that bear upon motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic and socio cultural factors in learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Importance to the influence of interethnic relations upon ethno-linguistic attitudes and on language learning </li></ul><ul><li>the social opportunities for contact with the second language </li></ul><ul><li>Educational frame work in which the teaching normally occurs </li></ul>
  15. 15. 9.Globalization <ul><li>Globalization (generally written with a Z) has been defined by Giddens as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (Giddens, 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization in a literal sense is international integration </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into single society </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars from various disciplines such as sociology, political, science and geography have perceived globalization differently and tried to define it from various angles CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Commodity of chains whereby production is coordinated on a global scale </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion of practice, values and technology that have an influence on people’s life world wide </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing technological scale and information flow </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing broader flow of goods, services, money, information and culture </li></ul><ul><li>we can find some of common concepts like mutual interdependence, exchange, and sharing the community around the world in all aspects such as social, economic, cultural and even linguistic aspects CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Although there seems to be a consensus that we are living in increasingly globalized world, there is by no means agreement about related issues Compression of space and time, shrinking of world </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways such as: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Industrial, 2) Financial, 3) Economic, 4) Political, 5) Informational, 6) Cultural, 7) Social and 8) Ecological </li></ul><ul><li>In cultural aspects, there are many international exchanges such as: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Spreading of multiculturalism, 2) International travel and tourism, 3) Immigration, 4) formation or development of a set of universal values, 5) Development of a global telecommunications infrastructure, 6) Internet, Communication satellites and the other related tools, 7) Increase in the number of standards applied globally CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Globalization is the emergence that is common cross-culturally and across national boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>The global communication leads to some extent functional homogenization of culture and language </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenization of culture and homogenization of language, are particularly relevant for translating globalization as a reality </li></ul><ul><li>The active responses of sub-national languages and cultures to the global force are also very important for their own survival and progress </li></ul>
  19. 19. 10. Today, English as an International language <ul><li>Since 1950s, English is applied as a international language for the most of situations </li></ul><ul><li>The role of Lingua France of English is very clearly </li></ul><ul><li>The most power of such Lingua Franca may lead to situations that many believe that acquiring of their mother-tongue which do not have universal economic, social scientific and political benefits and advantages and they waste their time during acquiring and using their mother tongue for themselves and their children </li></ul><ul><li>And also many others who believe that world with one universal language is wonderful idea that due to unit peaceful world </li></ul><ul><li>Eagerness, zeal and enthusiasm to acquire such international language only plus lack of motivation to acquire their mother tongue during more than one generation lead to death of one language as results of lack of speakers </li></ul>
  20. 20. 11. Official language or languages in one country <ul><li>Multi ligulas are as a usual phenomenon which includes many millions of people in different countries </li></ul><ul><li>There is not particular and exact number among multi lingual people and also the number of languages </li></ul><ul><li>In countries which are called as monolingual countries such as England, France, German and U.S., there are many percentages of speakers of other languages </li></ul><ul><li>For example, in U.S., 10% of people speak languages other than English and in England; more than one hundred languages are spoken </li></ul><ul><li> CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>There are different percentages of multi lingual in different countries and also there are different reasons for such multi lingual situations </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to find balance in number of speakers of different languages in one country ,and the condition without social contradiction </li></ul><ul><li>In such multi lingual situations, in order to balance linguistic condition of country, internal changes of society and government’s policies will be done </li></ul><ul><li>The governments’ policies will be done in different ways such as a selection of one or more native or non-native language or languages for country as official language or languages </li></ul><ul><li> CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>At least two below states may occur: </li></ul><ul><li>1.The acculturation condition among the speakers of particular native languages through mandatory and compulsory acquiring of the particular languages for long time (at least more than one generation). In such condition, the speakers do not have motivation to acquire their mother tongue and they eager to acquire official language only </li></ul><ul><li>2.Different percentages of influences and linguistic borrowing on and in non-official languages by the official language or languages during long time (especially more than one generation). In heavy influences and borrowing, even new language or dialect will be created, or the language or dialect will be forgotten </li></ul>
  23. 23. 12-Translation <ul><li>Translation is transfer of concepts from one language to another in both oral and written forms </li></ul><ul><li>Nowdays, because of importance of knowledge, sciences and modern technology, translation plays a main role </li></ul><ul><li>The number of languages as source or target, or large languages in translation and the topics and subjects for translation are increasing during the time </li></ul><ul><li>Translation in both types, through human and specially machine (because of lack of cultural and social background) due to enter and transfer some strange and unknown values to the target language from source language </li></ul><ul><li> CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>In reality, the languages are not used for symbols merely, but they different ways of view to the world </li></ul><ul><li>Different cultures and languages families among source and target languages make problems more in translation </li></ul><ul><li>Word for word translation and literal translation of text are two main highways of entrance strange values to target language </li></ul><ul><li>Strange values are not set and suitable to the speakers own culture of target languages which are as new lexical items or same words to target language words with new values to target language </li></ul>
  25. 25. 13. Language contact <ul><li>Language contact or contact vernaculars are contact of speakers of different languages which dues to influences and linguistic borrowing </li></ul><ul><li>Such contact is depend on different percentages of contact of speakers, long time of contact, varieties of social economic and political relationships, similarities of languages and the other factors </li></ul><ul><li>Close contact and heavy influence and borrowing for long time will due to death of some organ of language body </li></ul><ul><li>The most dramatic examples of new language are arising out of contact situations are pidgins and after that Creole </li></ul><ul><li> CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>There are some main characteristics which are belonging to pidgin languages contrast to natural languages: </li></ul><ul><li>1.The lexical items of pidgin languages are more limited than natural languages, because pidgin languages have minimum lexical items for communication in particular situations </li></ul><ul><li>2.Pidgin languages are found or created during two or three generations contrast to natural languages, in this way, natural languages has big treasure of cultural background. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Pidgin languages have simple structure contrast to natural language, such simple structure due to many linguistic ambiguous cases ,social and cultural ambiguous states </li></ul><ul><li>4.Normally, pidgin languages have less social values </li></ul><ul><li>5.The values of lexical items of pidgin languages can be different from lexical items of natural languages which pidgin languages are outcome of their contract </li></ul><ul><li> CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>To conclude: </li></ul><ul><li>* Language contact can due to finding new dialect or language which partly or mostly different from varieties of languages which are in contact </li></ul><ul><li>*Such new dialect or language will have new treasure of cultural and social reflection </li></ul><ul><li>*For long time, through decreasing the number of speakers of language which are in contact, the death of partly or completely will occur and long traditional and big treasure will be forgotten through less reflection in limited vehicle (language) </li></ul>
  28. 28. 14. Motivated factors to learn other languages <ul><li>There are some motivated factors that lead people to acquire other than mother-tongue directly or indirectly, and partly or completely </li></ul><ul><li>14.1. International relationships </li></ul><ul><li>*As it was discussed before, for example, English has a main political, academic and social role among the different countries to communicate each others. For long and much power of such role of English or any language, can due to such feeling that the speakers of different language, believe that their mother-tongue do not have much uses in the world and they will lose their motivation to use and also teach their mother-tongue to their children as next generation CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>14.2.The press </li></ul><ul><li>*Since four hundreds years ago, English is as a primary medium of the press </li></ul><ul><li>*Today, 1/3 of the world’s press are in countries which English has special importance in them and it is logically that if we think that most of such press in English </li></ul><ul><li>*New York Times, Washington post, Wall Street journal and Sunday Times have highest printed press in the world </li></ul><ul><li>*Since the end of 19th century, advertisements play primary role, today, especially advertisements in English CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>14.3.Television, Radio, Cinema and Music </li></ul><ul><li>*It is estimated that serial films in U.S and England channels are watched more than 120 countries </li></ul><ul><li>*Regarding to BFI, in 1996, 80 percent of produced films in the world are in English </li></ul><ul><li>*However, there are some governments’ policies against English in France and German, but only 25 percent of Cinema’s income is for non-English movies in such countries </li></ul><ul><li>*During the recent decades, English has distinctive role in songs </li></ul><ul><li>*549 from 557 famous music groups (99percent) act in English </li></ul><ul><li>language </li></ul><ul><li>*1156 from1219 famous singers (95percent) sing in English CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Nowdays, people believe in what they watched and listen through television, radio, cinema and music and they do as they had watched and listen; in other words, television, radio, cinema and music are people’s religion. Primary medium of this religion is English. In such way, English can affect the languages, cultures and social treasure of different people in different countries. For long time and much moer, such effect can be dangerous because of power of influence </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>14.4. Abroad travel </li></ul><ul><li>*The people travel abroad for different reasons such as business and study </li></ul><ul><li>*The main facility in abroad for communication is language which should be as a international communicative language </li></ul><ul><li>*Living, immigration and traveling which are for long time, due to acquire and use language in order to communicate with the majority in abroad </li></ul><ul><li>*Such acquiring and using language will influence the native language of the speakers and even their native language will be lost for long time </li></ul><ul><li> CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>14.5. Internet </li></ul><ul><li>*80% of registered information in Internet is in English which includes different information of different companies, organizations, universities, and so on </li></ul><ul><li>*However, there is not particular method to determine particular official language in Internet, but if every body wants to find answers for his questions in Internet , it is necessary that he should know English </li></ul><ul><li>*It is estimated that in 2020, one milliard users will use Internet and for such using, mainly, knowing of English is necessary. The progress of knowing and using Internet affect the languages of many speakers </li></ul><ul><li>*One sociologist stated that now days, finding of translation of Destoevsky’s works in English in Internet is easier than finding such works in Russian language in bookshops </li></ul>
  34. 34. 15. Multi complex category of factors <ul><li>**There are some factors which are called as a multi-complex category here, because such factors are not distinctive factors themselves and separate form the others mentioned categories </li></ul><ul><li>15.1 .Political condition </li></ul><ul><li>The political aexation, military occupation, groups’ migration and the other political factors, due to new linguistic outcomes. For example, as result of political asylum, the people will learn language of foreign country </li></ul><ul><li>15.2. Religional factors </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes shifting and acceptance of new religion or triness to maintenance of own religion due to learn new language partly or completely CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>15.3. Cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>**Interesting in other foreign or other than own cultural and social groups can be important motivation to acquire new language, and for long time, joining to such groups due to communicate through such new language only </li></ul><ul><li>15.4. Natural catastrophe </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes, eruption, drough and the other natural catastrophes can be reason for many groups’ migration to areas and countries which different languages are spoken there </li></ul><ul><li>15.5 .Educational, cultural, economical and social factors </li></ul><ul><li>**Such factors, as mentioned before are as separate or related factors to many factors which can act as main reasons to acquire new language and lose mother tongue for long time. </li></ul>
  36. 36. 16.Results <ul><li>Language and culture go hand in hand, each interacting with and shaping together </li></ul><ul><li>Language and culture are inter-linked to each others in various ways </li></ul><ul><li>Language is an integral part of culture and the vehicle of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on every one of them, leads to affect the other as it can to be called directly or indirectly </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization, through linguistic homogenization and cultural homogenization, affects on language and culture as modernization, translation, standardization and the others CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Globalization’s effects can be positive and negative effects </li></ul><ul><li>The homogenization of culture due to globalization process results in the marginalization of indigenous cultures </li></ul><ul><li>However, globalization through cultural homogenization, can be helpful in the progress and development of the cultures; if …. </li></ul><ul><li>The members of one culture community should try to maintain their positive aspects of culture and replace negative aspects of their culture through positive aspects of globalization </li></ul><ul><li>The members of one culture community should aware about outcomes of globalization CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>At the language level , globalization leads to growth of many countries </li></ul><ul><li>The technological and advanced communicational facilities make the world to shrink and pave way for homogenization </li></ul><ul><li>many who believe their mother tongue does not have universal role , they waste their time to use their mother tongue or teach it to their children </li></ul><ul><li>many others who believe such language (English) is as a language that can make the world as a peaceful unit world through understanding same language </li></ul><ul><li> CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Some ideas as result of globalization and English or any language with such effect can be dangerous for national, local languages, specially endangered language which are understood to be moribund languages </li></ul><ul><li>The industrialists, traders and their marketing techniques play a major role in shaping the languages </li></ul><ul><li>It should be mentioned that, in fact the control over the language is not in the hands of scholar or academic institutions. It is shaped by the traders and marketing agencies </li></ul>
  40. 40. English in Globalization <ul><li>English is as a language of communication and official language in many countries </li></ul><ul><li>English is not own language of particular community or country </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1945 (after second world war), English became a lingua France </li></ul><ul><li>More than 2/3 of scientists in the world, write their books and articles in English </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 of letters in the world are written in English </li></ul><ul><li>90 percent of all communications in Internet as international network, is in English </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>The education English programs of English radios are used by more than 150 millions in the world </li></ul><ul><li>More than 500 millions of children in elementary schools and more than 800 hundreds in secondary and high school (without china) are familiar with English as a second or foreign language </li></ul><ul><li>However, there are some governments’ policies against English in countries such as France, German, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>There are three circles regarding to English first circle, such as U.S and England, the second circle such as India, which English has much dominance and it is applied as a second language and the third circle ,such as china and Russia which English has special importance as a international language and for such countries is as first foreign language CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>In 1994 , 1/3 of the press in the world, are printed in countries which English has special importance </li></ul><ul><li>In 1995, 110 from 160 of linguistics journals(70 percent) were printed in English </li></ul><ul><li>In 1995, there were 5000 radio station that 45 percent of them were in countries that English has special role </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that English film serials in U.S. and England are watched in more than 120 countries </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996, 80 percent of produced films were in English CONTINUE… </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>85 percent of incomes of world’s cinemas are for English production of Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>In countries such as German and France, although, there are governments’ policies against English, but only, 25 percent of their cinemas incomes are for non-English movies </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990, 549 from 557 of famous music groups act in English </li></ul><ul><li>1156 from 1219 of famous singers, sing in English language </li></ul><ul><li>In 1998, U.S. had the first percentage of income of tourism (50 milliards dollars ) </li></ul><ul><li>Around 80 percent of register of information in Internet, is in English .The users of Internet in 1990 had been one million and in 1993,Tthey became 20 millions and 40 millions in 1995. It is estimated that in 2020, Such numbers will be one milliard </li></ul>
  44. 44. ACKONWLEDGMENT <ul><li>I Acknowledge that I did main from work of the present work based on the work of Hossein Yaghobi. </li></ul>
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  46. 46. <ul><li>THANK </li></ul><ul><li>YOU </li></ul>