AS Level History Scramble for and Decolonization of Africa
Scramble For Theories Africa Hobson – Metropolitan The scramble was for purely Lenin – Metropolitan economic reasons, benefitting An economic crisis in the the capitalist elite who could capitalist system led to sell surplus goods in new expansion and colonies to open markets overseas as the poor new markets. in Britain couldnt afford them. Schumpeter – Metropolitan Hobsbawn – Metropolitan Old aristocrats were trying to Technology allowed countries gain power and glory to stay in the ability to take of colonies the public eye. so they did.Cain and Hopkins – Metropolitan Gentlemanly capitalists were investing in colonies, hoping to make a profit and putting Historytheir interests over those of the country. Flipbook
Robinson and Gallagher - Peripheral AJP Taylor – International RelationsThe British reluctantly colonized The delicately balanced position Africa after the felts forced to of European powers led to theprotect their investments against colonization of Africa as a local Egyptian nationalism. sparring ground as an alternative to European war.Paul Kennedy – International Relations European powers wished to have the same power and status as Britain so colonized, forcing Britain to do the same Timeline to defend her interests and keep dominance. Sudan - 1882 Sudan – 1882 British Gen. Charles "Chinese" Former British Gen. Charles Gordon (49) retired from "Chinese" Gordon, Field active duty and moved to Marshal in the Turkish army, Jerusalem commanded the Egyptian forces in Sudan Sudan -1883 Nov 3 Sudan – 1883-1884A poorly trained Egyptian army, British officered Egyptian armiesLed by British General William were defeated by theHicks, marched toward El Obeid forces of El Mahdi, called in the Sudan--straight into a Dervishes by the British at theMahdist ambush and massacre. battle of El Obeid.
Sudan - 1884 Jan Lord Garnet Wolseley, adjutant- Sudan - 1884 Jan 18 General of the British Army, General Charles ("Chinese") asked Charles Gordon to come Gordon departed London for out of retirement and lead an Khartoum. evacuation of 15,000 European and Egyptian civilians from Khartoum, Sudan. Gordon agreed. Sudan – 1884 Mar 11 Gen. Gordon learned that the . telegraph cable to Cairo had Sudan - 1884 Feb 18 been cut. Khartoum soldiersGeneral Charles Gordon arrived killed 5 Mahdists at Halfaya. in Khartoum to battle the Mahdist insurgents in return Mahdi and his terrorists. massacred 150 men from the Khartoum garrison as they were cutting wood. Sudan – 1884 Mar 13 Sudan - 1884 Mar 16 Siege of Khartoum, Sudan, A 2nd counter-attack atbegan. Gen. Gordon ordered a Halfaya failed and Gordon counter-attack at Halfaya and ordered 2 commanders to be troops rescued some 500 executed. from a Mahdist assault Sudan - 1884 Oct 22General Charles Gordon received Sudan - 1884 Nov 3a letter from Mahdi near Khartoum. A British steamboat arrived at Gordon was sent to Khartoum to evacuate the Egyptian garrison. Khartoum with news that a Gordon decided to hold the city relief force was on its way. against El Mahdi.
Sudan - 1885 Jan 26 Sudan – 1885 Jan 2 Gordon (51), British gov-gen of Gen. Wolseley received the Sudan, was killed on the palace last distress signal of Gen. steps in the garrison at Khartoum Gordon in Khartoum. by the forces of Muhammad Ahmed, El Mahdi. Sudan - 1885 Jun 22 Sudan – 1885 Jan 28 In Sudan Muhammad Ahmad , Gen’l. Garnet Wolseley arrived the Mahdi, at Khartoum to relieve Gen’l. died of typhus. His chiefGordon, but arrived 2 days late. deputy, Abdallahi ibn El Mahdi died soon thereafter Muhammad took over the but was succeeded by the administration of the nascent Khalifa Mahdist state Sudan – 1886 Sudan – 1896 Sep 21 Henry Stanley (1841-1904), General Horatio Kitcheners Welsh-born journalist, led the army occupied Dongola, Sudan. Emin Pasha Relief Expedition Gen’l. Herbert Kitchener led to "rescue" Emin Pasha, the the British conquest of the governor of Equatoria in Sudan. the southern Sudan .Sudan – 1898 Apr 8 British General Kitchener Sudan – 1897 Aug 31 defeated the Khalifa, leader of General Kitchener occupied the dervishes in Sudan, at the Berber, North of Khartoum. Battle of Atbara. Anglo-Egyptian forces crushed 6,000 Sudanese.
Sudan – 1898 Sep 2 Anglo-Egyptian lines under Gen’l. Kitchener were charged by 50,000 Sudan – 1898 Sep 1 fanatical Dervishes and were mowed down by howitzers,Lord Kitcheners army bombed machine guns and rifles. The Omdurman Dervishes left 11,000 dead and 16,000 wounded. The Anglo-Egyptian army suffered fewer than a dozen casualties. Sudan – 1899 Nov 24 Abdullah ibn Mohammed Sudan – 1898 Sep 6 al-Taaishi, Khelifa Lord Kitchener destroyed of Sudan (1883-99), died. Mahdis tomb in Omdurman British forces took control of the Sudan. Egypt – 1859 Apr 25 Egypt – 1867 Feb 1Construction of the Suez Canal The 1st ship passed through was started. the Suez Canal. Egypt – 1867-1875 Egypt – 1869 Nov 17The Suez Canal Co. issued bonds , The Suez Canal was opened in for some hundred million Egypt,linking the Mediterranean francs to keep afloat. The and the Red seas. The 100 Khedive went bankrupt and the British under Disraeli snapped mile canal eliminated a up the Khedives shares for 4000-mile trip around Africa. £4 million.
Egypt – 1879 Tewfik was appointed as the Egypt – November 1879 Khedive of Egypt and spent Anglo-French dual control of vast amounts on railways, Egypt was established to stopborrowing from European banks further spending. and bankrupting Egypt. Egypt – 1881 Nationalist revolts under Colonel Ahmed Arabi started spreading Egypt – 1882 Sep 13 Across Egypt with violent civil British troops defeated Egyptian disorder in the major towns with forces in the Battle at Europeans being attacked, their Tel-el-Kebirhomes burnt, and in one incident in Alexandria the deaths of fifty expatriates Gold Coast – 1823 First Ashanti war was declared Egypt – 1882 as the Ashanti were trying to Anglo-French dual control of take Fanti land. Sir Charles Egypt ended after the MacArthy was killed at the British occupation began. Battle of Nsamankow on 22nd January 1924. Gold Coast – 1824 The Ashanti swept down to the Gold Coast – 1831 coast, but disease forced them The Pra River was accepted as back. The Ashanti were so successful in subsequent fighting the border in a Anglo-Ashanti that in 1826 they again moved on peace treaty, ending the first the coast. British Congreve Ashanti war. rockets forced their withdrawal.
Gold Coast – 1863 Gold Coast – 1864.Second Anglo-Ashanti war was Second Anglo-Ashanti war declared as a large Ashanti ended as British troops were delegation crossed the river forced to withdraw because pursuing a fugitive, Kwesi of sickness. Gyana Gold Coast – 1872 Zey, king of the Ashanti Gold Coast – 1871 Feb 25 , wrote to the British monarch Britain purchased part of Gold asking for the slave trade to Coast from the Netherlands. be renewed. Gold Coast – 1873 Gold Coast – 1873 Wolseley arrived and made his Third Anglo-Ashanti war was plans before the arrival of his declared as the Ashanti troops in January 1874. He had invaded and made claim fought the Battle of Amoaful on to part of the newly purchased January 31 1874, and, after Dutch Gold Coast. five days fighting, ended with the Battle of Ordahsu. Gold Coast – 1895 Jan Fourth Anglo-Ashanti war was Gold Coast – 1874 July declared so that the BritishThe British forced the Ashanti to sign could conquer the Ashanti the Treaty of Fomena to end the after the rejection of becoming war, with one of the clauses a British protectorate in 1891.It being a demand for 50,000oz only lasted until Feb 1896 and of gold. ended with the exile of Ashanti leaders.
Gold Coast – 1900 Mar Gold Coast – 1900 SepThe war of the golden stool was The British won the war and the declared after the British after Ashanti became part of a crown Frederick Mitchell Hodgson, colony, though mostly ruled demanded that the Ashanti themselves with little reference turn over to the Golden Stool. to the colonial powers. Nigeria – 1879 Nigeria – 1882The United African Company The British from the East andwas formed due to high British The French from the West interest in importing palm oil Started working their way up the from the area and exporting Niger river and eventually cheaper goods such as gin. Clashed near Timbuktu. Nigeria – 1879 Nigeria – 1884 NovThe United African Company The Berlin Conference hostedwas formed due to high British by Bismarck gave Nigeria to interest in importing palm oil the British, forming the “Oil from the area and exporting Rivers Protectorate”. cheaper goods such as gin. Nigeria – 1886 Nigeria – 1886 Goldie hired Lugard to makeThe Royal Niger company was Treaties with the rules of tribesfounded by George Taubman in Northern Nigeria. The French Goldie sent Captain Decour to do the same.
Nigeria – 1895 A massacre occurred due to a dispute with the Nembe over Nigeria – 1893 palm oil as Goldie stopped the Ijaw middlemen from shipping oil The “Oil Rivers Protectorate” directly to firms in Britain while at the Was renamed the “Niger same time insisting on an Coast Protectorate” unhindered access into the Hitherlands. The Nembe took 67 hostages so Goldie had 2000 women and children killed. Nigeria – 1896 Nigeria – 1898 In 1896, Bretonnet was given Anglo-French tension over command of an expedition meant to Nigeria peaked at a standoff establish French control on at Borgu. The French left Bussa, the navigable portions of the Illo and Gomba in exchange Niger River below Bussa.These For 2 small plots of land, at the plans were opposed by the Royal Mouths of the rivers Moshi andNiger Company, claiming the English Niger in the Anglo-Frenchhad already treaty rights on the region. Convention. Nigeria – 1901-02 The Anglo-Aro war was declared Nigeria - 1903 Mar 15 after increasing tension between The British conquest was Aro leaders and British colonialists completed, 500,000 square after years of failed negotiations as the Aro tried to resist miles were now controlled British expansion. The British by the U.K. beat the Aro. Uganda – 1888 Uganda – 1886 Jun 3 The Imperial British East Africa 24 Christians are burnt Company was chartered by to death in Namugongo. William MacKinnon.
Uganda – 1890 Feb Uganda – 1890 Karl Peters explores Lugard was dispatched by the Uganda and makes treaties IBEAC to Uganda, forcing Karl with Mwanga II of Buganda in Peters to leave. favour of the Germans. Uganda – 1890 Jul 1 The Heligoland-Zanzibar treaty Uganda – 1892 Jan 24 Was signed between the British Civil war broke out between And the Germans. The British the Kabaka, French Catholics,Gained Kenya and Uganda, and British Protestants, and theThe Germans gained Heligoland IBEAC. And the Caprivi Strip. ZanzibarStayed under control of the sultan. Uganda – 1892 The IBEAC went broke from financing the civil war and Uganda – 1894 Uganda not being as rich Uganda was declared a British in resources as previously protectorate. believed. The IBEAC demanded government funds for a withdrawal. Kenya – 1890 Jul 1 The Heligoland-Zanzibar treaty Was signed between the British And the Germans. The British Kenya – 1895Gained Kenya and Uganda, and Kenya was declared the BritishThe Germans gained Heligoland East African Protectorate. And the Caprivi Strip. ZanzibarStayed under control of the sultan.
South Africa - 1838 Dec 16 Boers defeated the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River and settled in Natal South Africa – 1806 The Afrikaners while escaping from British rule encountered Cape Town was annexed resistance from the native black to Britain. peoples. In the Battle of Blood River a few hundred Boers repelled an attack by more than 10,000 Zulu warriors. South Africa – 1877 Shepstone annexed the South Africa – 1867 Transvaal in order to save them Diamonds were discovered in from bankruptcy, protect them Kimberly from the Pedi and settle border disputes with the Zulu South Africa – 1879 Jan 11 South Africa – 1879 The Zulu war began with the Paul Kruger of the Transvaal rejection of an ultimatum that offered the British advice onCetswayo could not comply with how to deal with the Zulu fromas demobilizing his army would their own experiences at theleave them open to attack and Battle of Blood River. The destroy the traditional militant British ignored him. culture. South Africa – 1879 Jan 23 South Africa – 1879 Jan 22 Just over 150 British and colonial The Battle of Isandhlwana hill troops successfully defended was an embarrassing defeat the garrison against an intense for the British as 1,300 were assault by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu slaughtered by the tribesmen. warriors at the Battle of Rorkes Drift.
South Africa – 1879 Jul 4 South Africa – 1880 Dec 16The Battle of Ulundi finally beat The First Boer war was declared the Zulu forces and Cetswayo as many Boers felt resentfulwas sent into exile. The war was to having to follow British ended. ways from the earlier annexation. South Africa – 1881 Feb 27 South Africa – 1881 Mar 23 The Boers had a massive A peace treaty was signed victory over the British at the that allowed Boer self-government Battle of Majuba Hill where the on the condition that the Boers 92nd Highlanders (one of the accepted Queen’s nominalsupposedly best regiments) was rule and British control over seen fleeing from the Boers. African affairs and native districts South Africa – 1895 Dec 29 The Jameson Raid was set out and The basic plan was that South Africa – 1886 British expatriates in Johannesburg The discovery of gold on the would revolt and seize the Boer armouryWitwatersrand launched the city in Pretoria. Jameson and his force would dash across the border to Johannesburg of Johannesburg. Labor was to "restore order" and with control of provided from Lesotho Johannesburg would control the gold fields. It failed and those involved were jailed. South Africa – 1889 South Africa – 1899 Oct 11 British South Africa Company was The Second Boer war was established by Cecil Rhodes declared after a British ultimatum through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and to the Boers demanding equalthe Exploring Company Ltd., receiving Rights to the uitlanders a royal charter (foreigners)
South Africa – 1899 Oct-Dec South Africa – 1900 Jan-SepThe Boers had the initial offensive A British offensive held someand had many successes at first, successes and relieved Ladysmith primarily, with sieges of And Mafeking. They also captured Ladysmith, Mafeking and Johannesburg and the Transvaal Kimberly. capital, Pretoria. South Africa – 1900 Sep-1902 May The Boers changed their tactics to South Africa – 1901 DecGuirella warfare with skirmishes like The Fawcett commission was Lindley (where 500 Yeomanry sent to South Africa to check surrendered), and at Heilbron conditions of concentration(where a large convoy and its escort camps with unusually high deathwere captured) and other skirmishes rates. Kitchener slowly improved resulting in 1,500 British casualties The conditions of the campsin less than ten days. The British had After the report was filed. To adapt to cope with it. South Africa – 1902 May 31 South Africa – 1910 May 31 The Second Anglo-Boer war The Union of South Africa was came to an end and the formed from the Cape Colony, Transvaal and Orange Free State Natal, the Transvaal and the came under British rule. Orange Free State Rhodesia – 1888 Oct 13 The Rudd Concession was the Signing away of the mineral Rhodesia – 1889 Rights in Matabeleland and British South Africa Company was established by Cecil Rhodes Mashonaland by Charles through the amalgamation of the Rudd and Cecil Rhodes. Deceit Central Search Association and Was used so that Lobengula the Exploring Company Ltd., Didnt fully understand what receiving a royal charter He was signing and many friends,Like Jameson, advised him to sign.
Rhodesia – 1889 Apr Lobengula found out his Rhodesia – 1890 mistakes with the Rudd Rhodes started moving north concession and attempted of Matabeleland where he had to undermine it with the Lippert made treaties with Lobengula Concession which Rhodes And into Mashonaland. later bought out. Rhodesia – 1893 Oct- 1894 Jan Rhodesia – 1890 Sep 12 The First Matabele war was Fort Salisbury was founded Declared as the company hadAs a small city for military volunteer Wanted to avoid problems in force of settlers organised Their territories, but Lobengula by Cecil Rhodes to watch Approved a raid to extract the over Mashonaland.. Mashona chief, leading to a clash Rhodesia – 1896 The first Chimurenga (Second Matabele War) was declared after Mlino convinced everyone it Other Factors – 1875 Nov 7was the white Men causing cattle to Verney Cameron became the die. It went on until Rhodes 1st European to cross persuaded natives to stop and equatorial Africa combined the provinces of Mashonaland and Matabeleland into Southern Rhodesia. Other Factors – 1898 The Fashoda Incident was a Other Factors – 1885 strong tension between Britain King Leopald of Belgium took and France and a possible over the Congo Free State reason for Britain expanding into the Sudan.
Other Factors – 1870 Jul 19 The Franco-Prussian War began. Napoleon declared war onBismarck. Emperor Napoleon III of Other Factors – 1896 France declared war on Germany The French annexedunder Otto von Bismarck. Napoleon Madagascar was defeated in three months andAbdicated, leaving tension between The French and Germans. Other Factors - 1895 French West Africa was Other Factors – 1888 Established contraining : Mauritania, The Italians made a pact with Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), Sultan Kenadid making an French Guinea, Côte dIvoireItalian Somaliland Protectorate. (Ivory Coast), Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger. Other Factors – 1885German East Africa was developed Other Factors – 1884 and included what are now German South West AfricaBurundi, Rwanda and Tanganyika (the mainland part of present (now Namibia) was claimed. Tanzania) Other Factors – 1893 France began colonizing West Africa and Timbuktu came under French rule until Mali became independent in 1960
Best Theory – Sudan Best Theory – Egypt Peripheral MetropolitanIt seems as though the biggest The Suez canal plays a vital role Trigger for entering the Sudan in Egypt, whether it is for causing tension between European Was to squash Mahdist and powers or being used as a threatNationalist revolts that may lead by nationalists. As the canal was To problems concerning used as a trade route to India, Investments in Egypt and the the main interest is in generating Suez Canal. profit. Best Theory – Gold Coast International Relations Best Theory – NigeriaGold Coast had been a Dutch Area Metropolitanof land but they were looking to sell Though there was international it. The British knew that If they rivalry over the land surrounding did not take Gold Coast, it would the Niger river, most of it can be offered to the French Germans be put down to the high economic or Italians and they believed they value of the palm oil trade should have it because of situated there. how close it was to the Niger Best Theory – Kenya Best Theory – Uganda International Relations Metropolitan Kenya was given to Britain inExplorers like Peters and Lugard the Berlin Conference seems to had described the riches and have been Used primarily as an mineral wealth in Uganda, Access Point to landlockedencouraging men like Mackinnon Uganda and to fit between with thoughts of making large German East Africa and profit there. Italian Northern Somalia. Best Theory – South Africa Best Theory – Rhodesia Metropolitan Metropolitan The main reason for an interest The main push for Rhodesia in South Africa is because of came from Cecil Rhodes who the diamonds and gold found wanted money and power. He there. If it had not been for that, believed that the gold andit is highly unlikely that towns like diamond seams in the TransvaalKimberly or Johannesburg would may run up further so took over Have come into being. the land for mineral wealth.
Decolonisation Of Theories Africa Metropolitan Peripheral Britain chose to decolonize as Colonial situations in individual there was no strategic value, countries forced Britain to it simply wasnt worth the decolonize. This could include investment of time even if nationalists, a lack of financially profitable or people collaborators or an outside in Britain opposed it. influence such as communism. International Relations Pressures from international communities such as the EECand superpowers like USA and Russia forced Britain to decolonize. Events like WWII, Timeline the debt to Americaand the Suez crisis sped this up. Kenya – 1948 Post-war policy angered many Kenya – 1950 Kenyans, particularly those of British administration bannedthe Kikuyu tribe, many of whom the Mau Mau movement injoined the Mau Mau movement hopes of deterring more people when it was formed with a from joining. blood ritual.
Kenya – 1953 Mar In the first Lari massacre, the Kenya - 1952 Mau Mau had identified A state of emergency was the homes of the Home Guards, declared by colonial and had systematically set administrators because of the upon them and the inhabitants, Mau Mau crisis. and subsequently set them on fire. This was the first massacre. Kenya – 1953 Mar In the second Lari massacre,the Home Kenya – 1953 Apr 8 Guard on descending the hills and Jomo Kenyatta, one of modern reaching the town found most of their homes razed and their families ravaged and Africas earliest nationalist immediately set upon an act of revenge on leaders, was convicted bythe inhabitants in the town who had not been Kenyas British rulers for attacked under the logic that they must be leading the Mau Mau Mau Mau sympathizers. Many more were left dead by these Rebellion against the white settlers attacks than by the original one. This was of his country. the second massacre. Kenya – 1954 Kenya – 1956 The Lyttleton constitution allowed The Mau Mau movement was for Kenyan political parties Defeated and the state of at district level Emergency over. Kenya – 1959 Kenya – 1961 Sep 10 The Hola Camp Massacre Jomo Kenyatta returned to Occurred when a general at the Kenya from exile, during Camp had 11 unco-operative which he had been elected Detainees clubbed to death president of the Kenya National And 77 left with serious African Union. Permanent injuries.
Kenya – 1963 Dec 12 Kenya – 1963 May 27 Kenya gained independenceJomo Kenyatta was elected 1st from Britain and the prime minister of Kenya Kenyan African National Union Party (KANU) began ruling. Uganda – 1945 The first of the Buganda riots Uganda – 1949demanding the ability to bypass The second of the Buganda riots price controls on exporting, the demanding the same as theremoval of Asians and the right previous riots 4 years earlier. to representatives in local government Uganda – 1952 Sir Andrew Cohen became Uganda – 1953Governer-General of Uganda and The Lukiiko (Parliament) of Buganda reorganized the Legislative sought independence from Uganda. Edward Mutesa II, the Kabaka (king)Council (LEGCO)to include African of Buganda demanded that Buganda representatives elected from be separated from the rest of the districts throughout Uganda, protectorate and transferred to Foreign thus creating the basis for a Office jurisdiction representative parliament Uganda – 1953 30 Nov Uganda – 1955 Cohen deposed the Kabaka The Kabaka was allowed backand ordered his exile to London into Uganda.
Uganda – 1962 Uganda – 1962 A constitution was drawn up to The elections were held and be implemented with Obote became the Prime independence after the up Minister and the Kabaka became coming elections. the President. Nigeria – 1945 There was a general strike in Nigeria – 1946 Nigeria demanding higher The Richards constitution was cost of living allowances. It made in Nigeria to establish a was a success and in 1946, Federal government. they got it. Nigeria – 1951 Conflicting demands for autonomy andcentral government by the various political Nigeria – 1954 groupings compelled the British in The Lyttleton constitution was written1954 to establish a measure of compromise as a revised version of the to accommodate conflicting demands. In this arrangement, there was to Macpherson constitution after talks be a federal government, in In 1953 in London and 1954 in conjunction with considerable regional Lagos. Autonomy under the Macpherson Constitution. Nigeria – 1960 The final constitution, the Nigeria – 1957 Independence constitution An amendment was made to was written up and Nigeria the Lyttleton constitution. was given independence under Balewa as Prime Minister.
Gold Coast – 1946 Gold Coast – 1948 Feb 18Burns constitution provided new Riots broke out over the rising legislative council that was prices of consumer goods and made of the Governor as the tribesmen seeing the BritishPresident, 6 government officials, cutting down their cocoa trees, 6 nominated members and 18 even though this was trying to elected members. combat swollen root disease. Gold Coast – 1949Arden-Clarke was sent from the Gold Coast – 1951 British colonial office to Nkrumahs Convention Gold Coast as the a Governor Peoples Party won thein order to “save the colony for elections. the British Empire.” Gold Coast – 1952-54 More concessions to black Gold Coast – 1952 politics were made and more Nkrumah became the Prime Ghanians started getting Minister of Gold Coast. involved in an opposition against Nkrumah. Gold Coast – 1954 Gold Coast – 1956The New Patriotic Party and The CPP won 71 seats in the National Liberation Election out of 104, soMovement provided opposition Nkrumah was guaranteed In the elections. Leader of independent Ghana.
South Africa – 1902 The Boer war was a pyrhic victory as the treaty of Gold Coast – 1957 Mar Vereeniging as Britain had to Ghana became an independent pay £45million in compensation, country under Nkrumah. no land taxes would be introduced and Transvaal and Orange free state would get voting rights restored. South Africa – 1910 South Africa was created from South Africa – 1961 united Cape Colony, Natal, South Africa left the British Transvaal and Orange Free Commonwealth and began State. The first leader was a fully independent. Boer and it became a self governing dominion. Rhodesia – 1953-1963 Rhodesia - 1964 Apr 13 The Central African Federation Ian D. Smith became premier (CAF) was a semi-independent of Rhodesia. Smith was Premierstate in southern Africa consisting of the British Colony of Southern of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Rhodesia and Prime Minister formed by Andrew Cohen to of the Republic of Rhodesia try to limit white supremacy and another aparteid regime.. Rhodesia – 1964 Joshua Nkomo and Roger Rhodesia – 1965 Nov 11Mugabe were jailed in Rhodesia Rhodesia under PM Ian D. by Prime Minister Ian Smith Smith unilaterally declared after rivalries in the black Independence from Britainnationalist movement erupted On the 11th hour of the 11th day. into violence.
Other Factors – 1914-1918 Other Factors – 1921 Dec 6WWI lasted between this period Ireland’s 26 southern counties and many colonies contributed became independent fromto the war effort. Many German Britain forming the Irish colonies came under British Free State. or French control. Other Factors – 1922 Feb 28 Other Factors – 1926Britain declared Egypt a sovereign The Balfour declaration definedstate, but British troops remained. what it was to be a dominion. Other Factors – 1939-46 WWII began and again relied Other Factors – 1945 heavily on the empire. It lasted The Cold War began with until 1945 when a period Political and military tension of second colonization is Between NATO and the USSR. said to have taken place to maximise profits to be had. Other Factors – 1946 Jul 1 Britain took out a post-war loan from anti-colonial USA of $3.5 billion to pay off Other Factors – 1947 war debt. American conditions India got independence. of the loan also increased the sterling area problem and devalued British currency.
Other Factors – 1951 Oct 25 Other Factors – 1948-1952 In a general election, Englands Britain developed atomic Labour Party lost to Conservatives. weapons to protect herself Winston Churchill became in the cold war. prime minister, and Anthony Eden became foreign secretary. Other Factors – 1954 Oct 19 Other Factors – 1952-1960 Egypt and Britain concluded a Some 32 white settlers were pact on the Suez Canal, endingkilled by Mau Mau rebels in Kenya. 72 years of British military occupation. More than 10,000 people were Britain agreed to withdraw itskilled during the Mau Mau uprising,with some figures going much higher 80,000-man force within 20 and causing uproar in the months, and Egypt agreed British public. to maintain freedom of canal navigation Other Factors – 1956 Egypt nationalised the Suez canal, which provoked outrage in Britain and France. The British and French Other Factors – 1956 Jan 1 hatched a plan to snatch it back, Sudan became independent which involved Israel invading Egypt, from Britain. which would then allow the British and French to send troops in to "keep the peace", thereby allowing all three countries to get what they wanted Other Factors – 1956 Other Factors – 1958 Americans led by Eisenhower France, Germany, Italy, disapproved strongly of the Belgium, Luxemburg and the Anglo-French action and put Netherlands formed the EEC financial pressure on and started putting pressure Britain until they withdrew. on Britain to decolonize. Eden resigned.
Other Factors – 1959 Devlin was chosen by Prime Other Factors – 1951 Oct 25 Minister Harold Macmillan to In a general election, Englandscompile a report into policing in Labour Party lost to Conservatives. Nyasaland (Malawi). It was Winston Churchill becamehowever highly critical of British prime minister, and Anthony methods so he quickly Eden became foreign secretary. commissioned the Armitage report. Other Factors – 1954 Oct 19 Other Factors – 1952-1960 Egypt and Britain concluded a Some 32 white settlers were pact on the Suez Canal, endingkilled by Mau Mau rebels in Kenya. 72 years of British military occupation. More than 10,000 people were Britain agreed to withdraw itskilled during the Mau Mau uprising,with some figures going much higher 80,000-man force within 20 and causing uproar in the months, and Egypt agreed British public. to maintain freedom of canal navigation Other Factors – 1956 Egypt nationalised the Suez canal, which provoked outrage in Britain and France. The British and French Other Factors – 1956 Jan 1 hatched a plan to snatch it back, Sudan became independent which involved Israel invading Egypt, from Britain. which would then allow the British and French to send troops in to "keep the peace", thereby allowing all three countries to get what they wanted Other Factors – 1956 Other Factors – 1958 Americans led by Eisenhower France, Germany, Italy, disapproved strongly of the Belgium, Luxemburg and the Anglo-French action and put Netherlands formed the EEC financial pressure on and started putting pressure Britain until they withdrew. on Britain to decolonize. Eden resigned.
Kenya – 1963 Kenyatta became the first Prime Post Minister and chose ministers from many different tribesIndependence to avoid tribalism and conflict but made a one party State. Kenya – 1966 Odinga (the vice president) Kenya - 1968 Resigned from Kenyattas 60,000 Kenyan Asians were Government and formed the expelled and went to Kenya Peoples Union as an Britain. opposition Kenya – 1978Kenyatta died, leaving a stablecountry and thriving economy. Kenya – 1978-9 Daniel Moi became A poor harvest caused a crop the next Prime shortage and high prices. Minister of Kenya. Uganda – 1966 Uganda – 1971 A coup on Kabaka Freddies Idi Amin staged a military coup palace forced his exile. and removed Obote from Obote became the new power, becoming the new President. President.
Uganda – 1977 Feb 16 Janani Luwum, the Anglican Uganda – 1972 archbishop of Uganda, andIdi Amin gave 50,000 Ugandan two other men were killed in Asians 90 days to leave what Ugandan authorities said the country. 30,000 came was an automobile accident after to Britain. protests against Idi Amins regime. Uganda – 1978 Oct 30 Uganda troops attacked Uganda – 1979 Apr 11 Tanzania. Uganda under Idi Amin was deposed as Idi Amin went on to annex a president of Uganda as rebels 700-square-mile section of and exiles backed by Tanzanian Tanzania. Pres. Nyerere sent forces seized control. AminTanzanian soldiers and Ugandan escaped to Libya and settled exile volunteers to push back into exile in Saudi Arabia. Amins forces. Ghana – 1959 Uganda – 1980 Dec 17 Anyone who opposed Milton Obote began serving Nkrumah was deported or a 2nd term as president imprisoned, with one opposition of Uganda. prisoner dying in 1961. Ghana – 1964 All political parties apart from Ghana – 1966 the CPP were banned and Nkrumah was overthrown by Ghana became a one party Ankrah in a military coup. state.
Ghana – 1969 Ghana – 1972 The country was returned to In another military coup, democracy and Dr Kofi Akwasi Afrifa became theBusia won in the elections and next head of state. became the head of state. Ghana – 1979 JuneJerry Rawlings took control of Nigeria – 1963 Oct Power and retured it to Nnamdi Azikiwe became theDemocracy in July. Akufo-Addo 1st president of Nigeria and Became the 2nd President of proclaimed a republic.Ghana and 5th Head of State. Nigeria - 1966 About 10,000 people died in riots Nigeria – 1966 Jan 15 following a failed coup led Nigeria’s PM Balewa was primarily by Ibo army officers assassinated in the countrys Though Northerner Gowon came 1st military coup. The coup Out on top.Many fled back to the east ended in civilian rule. ahead of secessionist leader Ojukwu declaring the region its own nation called Biafra. Nigeria – 1967 Jul 6 Nigeria – 1970 Jan 12 The Biafran War erupted. The 30-month civil war ended. TheThe war, which lasted more than Biafran forces surrendered aftertwo years, claimed some 600,000 nearly a million ethnic Igbos lives. died mostly of hunger and disease.
Nigeria – 1970Gowon introduced a new federal Nigeria – 1975 System of 12 states, later Genl. Murtala Muhammad Increased to 19 to recognize staged a 2nd coup after local tribal differences. Nigeria Genl. Gowon postponed a return prospered in the 70s due to to civilian rule. the high price of oil. Nigeria – 1980s Nigeria – 1979 Over the 1980s, economic The first elections in 13 years Problems emerged with a Were held and resulted in Dramatic fall in oil prices. There President Shagari becoming Were another 2 coups, the first The head of state. In 1983 and the second in 1985. Nigeria – 1990s Nigeria –1985 Elections were held in 1990 1990 was set as the date for And 1991, but a final coup return to civilian rule and Was held in 1993 by Genl democratically elected Abacha. politicians. South Africa - 1948 May 26South Africa elected a nationalistgovernment with apartheid policy. South Africa – 1950 Jan 29The National Party of the Dutch Riots broke out in Johannesburg, Afrikaners came to power and South Africa, over Apartheidimposed apartheid. P.W. Botha was among those elected to parliament.
South Africa - 1960 Charles Robberts Swart served South Africa – 1961as the last Governor-General of Unionof South Africa from 1960 to 1961 South Africa broke off from the and the first State President of Commonwealth and became athe Republic of South Africa from fully independent republic. 1961 to 1967 South Africa – 1966 In South Africa District Six, South Africa – 1974 Nov 12 a multicultural community in South Africa was suspended from Cape Town, was declared UN General Assembly over an all-white area. Black were racial policies. allowed to return in 2004 South Africa – 1960 Mar 21 South Africa – 1976 Jun 16 After a day of demonstrations, at White police gunned down which a crowd of black protesters teenagers Hector Pieterson far outnumbered the police, the and Hastings Ndhlovu and South African police opened fire caused a nationwide riot that on the crowd, killing 69 people in left 700 people dead. what became known as the Sharpfeld massacre. Rhodesia – Jul 1964-Dec 1979 Rhodesia – 1966 Apr 16 The Rhodesian Bush War, also Rhodesian PM Ian Smith known as the Second Chimurenga broke diplomatic relations with or the Zimbabwe War of Liberation Britain after failed talks on the was a civil war between HMS Tiger and HMS Fearless. Ian Smiths government, Mugabes ZANU and ZAPU.
Rhodesia – 1979 Apr 10 In Rhodesia the first democratic parliamentary elections were held Rhodesia – 1979 May 31 After the “Patriotic Front” at Rhodesia proclaimed its Lancaster House in London as independence following a it had once again come under British brokered cease-fire. British control during peace talks. Rhodesia – 1980 Mar 4 Robert Mugabes ZANU-PF won Rhodesia – 1979 a parliamentary election, becoming A program of disarmament, PM. Black nationalist guerrillas leddemobilization and reintegration by Robert Mugabe laid down (DDR) was implemented their arms and beat their following the end of a civil war. white-backed opponents at the polls. Rhodesia was renamed Zimbabwe Zimbabwe - 1987 The position of Prime Minister was abolished and Mugabeassumed the new office of executive Zimbabwe – 1980s-current President of Zimbabwe gaining Mugabe reigned with additional powers in the process. intimidation, deposition of any He was re-elected in 1990 and opposing parties and corruption 1996, and in 2002 amid claims of widespread vote-rigging and intimidation.