Modernarch.2

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Modernarch.2

  1. 1. Jordan University of Science and Technology College of Architecture and Design / Department of Architecture Arch. 331 Modern Architecture Instructor: Dr. Raed Al Tal Summer 2012 The Development of Modernist Architecture The Early 20th Century
  2. 2. The decisive changes that marked the 19th century: - Industrialization - Urbanization - and, the growth of nationalism and urbanism
  3. 3. These changes promoted both elation and anxiety. The combination of euphoria and alienation that was the hallmark of the European culture carried through the next decade During the first half of the 20th century, the rampant industrialization matured into international industrial capitalism, which fueled the rise of consumer economies
  4. 4. Momentous historical events that exacerbated this rather schizophrenic attitudes: - World War I - The Great Depression - The rise of dictatorship - World War II Art and architecture manifested the same conflicted mind set through the stark contrast of the lofty utopian vision of artistic groups such as the Bauhaus and De Stijl
  5. 5. 20th Century intellectual Developments New way of thinking including in a wide variety of fields including science, technology economics and politics emerged. These new ideas forced people to revise radically how they understood their worlds. Thus, the intellectuals countered 18th and 19th century assumptions about progress and reason with ideas challenging traditional notions about the physical universe, the structure of society and human nature.
  6. 6. Modernist artists and architects often acknowledged the new discoveries and shifting theoretical bases in their work. Accordingly, much of the history of early 20th century art and architecture is a history of radical rejection – the rejection of traditional limitations and definitions both in art, architecture and the universe .
  7. 7. Examples: Challenging Newtonian Physics: For Isaac Newton the universe is a huge machine consisting of time, space and matter. The early twentieth century witnessed an astounding burst of scientific activities challenging this model of universe, particularly noteworthy the work of Albert Eintstien (1879-1955). In his theory of relativity, he argued that time and space are not absolute, as postulated in Newtonian physics. Rather, Eintstein explained, time and space are relative to the observer and linked with what he called a four dimensional space continuum. He concluded that matter, rather than a solid, tangible reality, was actually another form of energy.
  8. 8. Mind over Matter In the field of thought- philosophy, psychology, and economic theory – significant challenges to the primacy of reason and objective reality emerged. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844- 1900), a German intellectual, rejected the rational. He argued that Western society was decadent and incapable of any creativity precisely because of its extensive reliance on reason at the expense of emotion and passion
  9. 9. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). He developed the fundamental principles for what became known psychoanalysis. And dream analysis “The Interpretations of Dreams.” Unconscious conflicts – oppression and creativity Carl Jung (1875-1961) – personal unconscious and collective unconscious Original models and mental constructions
  10. 10. De Stijl A movement established in Holland by a group of young artists in 1917 and began publishing a magazine, calling both the movement and the magazine De Stijl (The Style). The group was co-founded by the painters Peit Monderian (1872- 1944) (Theosophy ) and Theo van Doesburg (1883- 1931) In addition to promoting utopian ideals, group members believed in the birth of the new age after the World War I. spiritual harmony and order
  11. 11. Cool, elegant, rational - Mondrian's horizontals and verticals, his squares and grids show again and again an artist committed to exploring the parameters of perception and meaning. From naturalism to Cubism, to the arrival at a grammar of almost total abstraction, Mondrian is rightly represented as a essential figure in the unfolding story of Modernism.
  12. 12. 'All the time I'm driven to the spiritual,' he explained. 'Through Theosophy I became aware that art could provide a transition to the finer regions, which I will call the spiritual realm.'
  13. 13. They felt it was a time to balance between individual and universal values, when the machine would assure ease of living. In their first manifesto of De Stijl, they declared: “There is an old and a new consciousness of the age. The old one is directed toward the individual. The new one is directed to the universal.”
  14. 14. They advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and colour; they simplified visual compositions to the vertical and horizontal directions, and used only primary colours along with black and white. it did not follow the general guidelines of an “ism” (Cubism, Futurism, Surrealism),
  15. 15. This composition, from 1922, is an example of “neoplasticism” with three primary colors and two pictorial orientations. The elements are placed in asymmetrical order and dynamic equilibrium. The complementary equilibrium allows Mondrian to archive an “unbalanced equilibrium”.
  16. 16. De Stijl Style in Space Some architects based their designs on Mondarian’s and De Stijl ideas Best example is: The Schroder House in the Netherland , 1924 Designer : Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888-1964) Reitveld came to the group of the De Stijl as a cabinetmaker and made De Stijl furnishings throughout his career.
  17. 17. His architecture carries the same spirit into a larger integrated whole and perfectly expresses van Doesburg’s definition of De Stijl architecture: The new architecture is anti-cubic, i.e, it does not strive to contain the different functional space sells in a single closed cube, but it throws the functional space (as well as canopy planes, balcony volumes, etc.) out from the centre of the cube, so that height, width, and depth plus time become a completely new plastic expression in open spaces…. The plastic architect…. Has no construct in the new field, time-space
  18. 18. "...We didn't avoid older styles because they were ugly, or because we couldn't reproduce them, but because our own times demanded their own form, I mean, their own manifestation. It was of course extremely difficult to achieve all this in spite of the building regulations and that's why the interior of the downstairs part of the house is somewhat traditional, I mean with fixed walls. But upstairs we simply called it and 'attic' and that's where we actually made the house we wanted." —Gerrit Rietveld. from Paul Overy, Lenneke B‫ں‬ller, Frank den Oudsten, Bertus Mulder. The Rietveld Schroder House. p73
  19. 19. The Schroder House in the Netherland , 1924 Designer : Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888-1964)
  20. 20. no attempt to relate to its neighbouring buildings
  21. 21. The foundations and the balconies were the only parts of the building that were made out of concrete. The walls were made of brick and plaster. The window frames and doors were made from wood as well as the floors, which were supported by wooden beams. To support the building, steel girders with wire mesh were used.
  22. 22. This was the first modern, open-plan house. Upstairs, it has one large space that can be divided by screens. The colors of the facade emphasis the structure and relate it to work by the Dutch abstract painter Piet Mondrian. The main living rooms are on the second floor, with more private rooms on the ground floors
  23. 23. The main living rooms are on the second floor, with more private rooms on the ground floors Exterior free floating walls Rectangular planes seem to slide across each others making this structure a kind of three dimensional projection of the rigid but carefully proportioned flat planes in Monderian’s paintings.
  24. 24. Inside there is no static accumulation of rooms, but a dynamic, changeable open zone.
  25. 25. Mrs Schröder, however, felt that as living space it should be usable in either form, open or subdivided. This was achieved with a system of sliding and revolving panels.
  26. 26. Gerrit Thomas Rietveld
  27. 27. Interior Rietveld Schroder House Utrecht, Netherlands 1924
  28. 28. The Bauhaus progressive thought The social dimension of the Bauhaus agenda in its adherence to the socialist principles
  29. 29. The Bauhaus Walter Gropius (1883-1969) Developed in Germany a particular vision of “total architecture” Walter Gropius, Scope of Total Architecture, 1956 He made this concept the foundation of his work and a work of generation of pupils under his influence at a school called the Bauhaus 1919 Gropius was appointed as the director of the Weimer School of Arts and Crafts in Germany. Gropius renamed it into Staatliche Baushaus roughly ( State School of Building) and refer to it as Bauhaus
  30. 30. Gropius developed an extensive curriculum based on certain principles: First, the importance of strong basic design (including principles of composition, two and three dimensionality, and color theory), and craftsmanship as fundamental to good art and architecture; to achieve this integration of art and craft, both art and craft, both a technical instructor and a “teacher of form- an artist – taught in each department
  31. 31. Second, Gropius promoted the unity of art, architecture, and design. He said: “Architects, painters, and sculptors must recognize a new composite character of a building as entity.”
  32. 32. Third, Gropius emphasized thorough knowledge of machine age technologies and materials. He felt that to produce truly successful designs, the artist- architect-craft person had to understand industry and mass production – synthesis between design and production
  33. 33. Bauhaus like De Stijl was found on utopian principles “Together let us conceive and create new building of the future, which will embrace architecture and sculpture and painting in one unity and which will rise one day toward heaven from the hands of a million workers like a crystal symbol of the a new faith.”
  34. 34. Gropius listed the Bauhaus’ goals clearly: - A decidedly positive attitude to the living environment of vehicles and machines - The organic shaping of things in an accordance with their own current laws avoiding all romantic embellishment and whimsy - Restriction of basic forms and colors to what a typical and universally intelligible - Simplicity in complexity, economy in the use of space, materials , time, and money.
  35. 35. 1925-1926
  36. 36. Gropius House · Lincoln, Massachusetts, 1937 He taught at Harvard, the economy of form
  37. 37. With Marcel Breuer. exterior prefabricated spiral staircase, glass block, painted brick free standing wall defines terrace
  38. 38. The steel spiral stair By Marcel Breuer
  39. 39. Marcel Breuer, Chair Tubular steel has lots of qualities; it is affordable for the masses, avant-gard and progressive thought hygienic and provides comfort without the need for springs to be introduced. Leather or cloth support Breuer considered all of his designs to be essential for modern living. Artistic , practical and social, perfect for the mass production
  40. 40. Marcel Breuer, Chair Tubular
  41. 41. “Less is More”
  42. 42. In 1928, Gropius left the Bauhaus and architect Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe (1886-1969) took the directorship of the Bauhaus, moving the school to Berlin His motto is “ Less is More” - the International Style – calling his architecture “ skin and bones” Example ; his glass model for a skyscraper, 1922
  43. 43. glass model for a skyscraper, 1922
  44. 44. -three irregularly shaped towers flow outward from a central court designed to hold a lobby -wholly transparent -The primer walls reveal the regular horizontal pattering of the cantilevered floor planes and their thin vertical supporting elements -The bold use of glass sheathing
  45. 45. 860-880 Lake Shore Drive 1949–1951.
  46. 46. Seagram Building Mies van der Rohe; (with Philip Johnson), New York City, 1957.
  47. 47. Mies-Barcelona-Chair-and-Ottoman
  48. 48. In 1933 Bauhaus was closed by Hitler
  49. 49. Bauhaus Break Up (Again)

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