PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLANDIn Poland professional and vocational guidance is a responsibility of twoministries:Ministry of National Education and Sport is responsible for vocationalguidance and career planning of school students. The main institutionsmaintained by this ministry providing services related to this are thePsychological and Pedagogical Counselling Centres.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLAND Ministry of Economy, Labour and Social Policy is responsible for professional and vocational guidance of adults and young people who are unemployed or looking for job. The main institutions maintained by the ministry and providing services related to this are 12 Centres for Vocational Information existing at the Regional Labour Offices ; 52 Information and Career Planning Centres also existing at RLO; as well as Units for Information and Group Counselling existing at the District Labour Offices. They all employ professional advisers.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLANDConsultancy related to career planning and vocational guidance is alsoconducted by Voluntary Labour Corps (Ochotniczy Hufiec Pracy - OHP),which have established Educational and Labour Centres whose personnelincludes vocational advisers. With regard to vocational training of youngpeople and preparing them to enter the labour market the importance of theVoluntary Labour Corps will be growing.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLANDOrganizational units of OHP will become specialized entities of the labour market forthat purpose. In order to fulfil this objective a network of Mobile Vocational InformationCentres for Youth will be established; their goal is to remove the barrier related to theaccess to information and prevent social exclusion of young people entering thelabour market. The total number of 50 Mobile Vocational Information Centres forYouth are to be established. Mobile Vocational Information Centres for Youth willconstitute the foundation for building nationwide information system, and providingvocational guidance and labour agencies for young people, under the joint name ofYouth Career Centres.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLANDRelatively new structures which are being established by a growing numberof educational institutions are the School Career Centres, which aredesigned to become school centres of educational and vocationalinformation. Ultimately they are designed to constitute a component of theNational System of Information and Educational and Vocational Guidanceand support the process of vocational counselling and career planning foryoung people. The rationale for establishing such centres results from thedeep conviction that the process of an individual’s professional developmentstarts at a very young age. This is when we develop various qualities suchas approach to work, capabilities and skills; this is when the first decisionsrelated to education are taken.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLAND Therefore aiding the process of career planning and vocational guidance at this early stage will allow for obtaining better results. It is absolutely justified that career planning should start at the level of middle schools (gymnasium), and it obviously should be present at the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education maintain Academic Career Offices. Their services (career counselling, employment opportunities) are addressed at the university students and graduates. The National Labour Office and the Ministry of National Education and Sport have jointly established the National Resource Centre for Vocational Guidance which cooperates with similar Centres in the EU countries under Euroguidance network.
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE EDUCATION IN THE CURRICULUMVocational guidance education is part of the basic national curriculum as a cross-cutting subject. Schools must integrate it into their detailed curricula in separatesubjects such as „citizenship education „ or „ social science”.At ISCED level 2, the compulsory subject called civic education (3 teaching hours perweek in a period of 3 years) comprises elements of vocational guidance and consistsof three subjects: „family education”, „civic education” and „education for activeparticipation in the economic life of the country”.Objectives are as follows:the comprehensive development of students, aimed at preparing them for activeparticipation in the socioeconomic life of a country.
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE EDUCATION IN THE CURRICULUMAt ISCED level 3, introduction to entrepreneurship is the compulsory subject which ismost related to vocational guidance (2 teaching hours in a period of 3 years).Its objectives:• preparation for active participation in economic life;• shaping of the attitude for reliable work and entrepreneurship;• developing communicative skills and teamwork;• developing skills for active job searching and the suitable choice of career;• mechanisms of market economy;• basic rules for running various businesses;• the role of the state and its law in the market economy;• European and world economies.
Traineeships within the framework of the curriculumThe legislation regulating the issue of practical vocational training isthe 1 July 2002 regulation by the Minister of National Education and Sport.The regulation concerns practical vocational training in school workshops, schoollaboratories, continuing education centers and practical training centers, withemployers and on individual farms; it applies to student of public upper secondaryschools offering vocational education as well as young workers/apprentices doingtraineeships as part of their job preparation course.Traineeships are organized by the school.Traineeships for apprentices are organized by their employers.
Practical vocational trainingPractical vocational training has two forms: traineeships and practical trainingclasses.Practical training classes are organized in order to teach the students and youngworkers the vocational skills necessary to start work in a given profession. Practicalvocational training organized outside school is based on a contract signed by theheadmaster of the school and the institution providing the training, in groups orindividually.Practical vocational training is delivered by teachers of practical vocational training. Inthe case of training provided by an employer, it is delivered by employees withteaching qualifications who are referred to as instructors of practical vocationaltraining.
Practical vocational trainingTraineeships are organized for students to enable them to apply and further develop theacquired skills and knowledge in real working conditions. Traineeships may be organizedthroughout the whole school year and during summer holidays. The curriculum for eachprofession specifies the range of skills and knowledge taught during traineeships. Students belowthe age of 16 have a maximum of 6 hours of practical training per day, and students of 18 andover can have up to 8 hours of training a day.Traineeships organized in firms or on farms have supervisors who are employers or nominatedemployees of the firm or individual farmers. The supervisors of traineeships should have teachingqualifications.
COOPERATION BETWEEN SCHOOLS, EMPLOYERS, PARENTS AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERSContacts with the professional worldSeminars and workshops related to vocational guidance educationprogrammes are organized by schools in cooperation with the professionalworld.There is no national regulation concerning the issue. However, cooperationis taking place on an individual institution, local business and communitybasis. Many schools and businesses take part in the European educationalprogrammes such as Leonardo da Vinci or Comenius.
Guidance services at schoolSince 2003, School Career Centres (Szkolne Ośrodki Kariery – SZOK) have beencreated in schools at lower (gimnazjum) and upper secondary level. Currently, 361centres are operational.The educational counselors who work in them are responsible for the implementationof a specific guidance system for each school. Their role is to provide pupils withinformation on possible educational pathways, the local labour market, labour laws,etc., and to help them acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to make theirfuture career choices. They offer counseling to pupils and parents, individually or ingroups.
Guidance services at schoolThe clients of SzOK are in majority pupils of the school, where the SzOK wasestablished, and pupils from other schools in the area (about 80%) as well as theirparents (over 10%). The next group of clients consist of teachers interested invocational guidance (about 3%) and unemployed youth aged up to 25 years of age(1%). The rest 5% of clients are all people interested in contact with SzOK.
Guidance services at schoolClasses in School Career Centress are implemented in various forms:- activating group classes,- lectures, questions and answers, brainstorming and other workshops,- individual educational and vocational guidance,- diagnose students needs for information and assistance in career planning through interviews,surveys and other methods,- dissemination and discussion with the students the information gained in above way,- watching films,- access to Internet, borrowing books and publications of SZOK and use of other pedagogicalmaterials,- publishing and editing newsletters or school additions,- organizing trips to places connected with the world of education and work - secondary schools,universities, offices and private companies to present various professions, trips to job fairs,learning how to use office equipment.
BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Ministerstwo Pracy i Polityki Społecznej Departament Rynku Pracy www.mpips.gov.pl2. Statystyki UE - http://europa.eu/documentation3. Eurostat, „Profile krajów w zakresie ICT” - Statistics in Focus” oraz „Data in Focus”.4. GUS- Główny Urząd Statystyczny- www.stat.gov.pl5. Polskie Badania Internetu- www.pbi.org.pl6. www.pracuj.pl7. www.rynekpracy.pl8. www.eurostudent.pl9. www.wokolkariery.pl
BIBLIOGRAPHY10. National Centre for Vocational Guidance Resources, (Narodowe Centrum Zasobów Poradnictwa Zawodowego): www.psz.praca.gov.pl11. Educational Assistance and Counselling Centre (Centrum Metodyczne Pomocy Psychologiczno- Pedagogicznej): www.cmppp.edu.pl12. http://bip.men.gov.pl/men_bip/akty_prawne/rozporzadzenie_090207.13. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet14. http://edu.info.pl/file/414915. Country report (CEDEFOP) www.cedefop.europa.eu
BIBLIOGRAPHY16. Guidance policies in the knowledge society. Trends, challenges and responses across Europe. A Cedefop synthesis report. Ronald G. Sultana. Cedefop Panorama series; 85.17. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2004.18. ETV and Cedefop thematic analysis ‘Guidance and counselling for learning, career and employment’19. Eurybase; Eurydice.
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