Chapter 5: Police Officers and the Law
<ul><li>After completion of this chapter, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand procedural laws, and ho...
<ul><li>Police practices are affected by city and county councils, state legislatures, and the federal Congress </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Supreme Court has power to establish rules that trial courts must follow </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of evidence stipu...
<ul><li>Prohibits the use of evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Mapp v. Ohio  (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Police searched Mapp’s house without a search warrant, probable cause, or c...
<ul><li>Rights of the accused are based on the United States Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Amendment and the Right...
<ul><li>Police detect suspicious activity </li></ul><ul><li>Police present probable cause evidence to a judge </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Search Incident to Lawful Arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Plain-View Search </li></ul><ul><li>Consent to Search </li></ul...
<ul><li>A warrantless search is permitted when there is clear and present danger to  public safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S...
<ul><li>Premises to be searched is entered incorrectly in the search warrant document </li></ul><ul><li>Acting in good fai...
<ul><li>Electronic Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Wiretapping: a search and seizure involving telephones </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>1985  Tennessee v. Garner  (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Deadly Force restricted to situations when the lives of office...
<ul><li>In defining admissible testimony, rules of evidence also reflect case law relating to the Fifth and Sixth Amendmen...
<ul><li>Confessions inadmissible if obtained by use of force </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Mississippi  (1936) </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Miranda v. Arizona  (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>The court issued an opinion which summarized all the rights of a citi...
 
<ul><li>Lineups must be fair, and must meet the following requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>Suspects have the right to have ...
<ul><li>The FBI is the federal agency most actively engaged in gathering intelligence information  </li></ul><ul><li>Since...
<ul><li>Material Witness Law (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows individuals to be held ‘indefinitely’  </li></ul><ul><li>Crit...
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Week 5 Lecture

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Week 5 Lecture

  1. 1. Chapter 5: Police Officers and the Law
  2. 2. <ul><li>After completion of this chapter, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand procedural laws, and how they govern police actions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify landmark cases that established the exclusionary rule </li></ul><ul><li>Describe exceptions to seizure without a warrant </li></ul><ul><li>Understand a citizen’s rights while being interrogated </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the circumstances when police can make an arrest or hold someone in custody </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Police practices are affected by city and county councils, state legislatures, and the federal Congress </li></ul><ul><li>These legislative bodies pass laws that limit or expand police jurisdiction, create standards, and provide remedies for unacceptable police practices </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Supreme Court has power to establish rules that trial courts must follow </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of evidence stipulate how evidence can be introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Defines the qualifications of an expert witness </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Prohibits the use of evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Established in the federal court case of Weeks v. United States (1914) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence against Weeks obtained without a warrant violated his constitutional rights </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Mapp v. Ohio (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Police searched Mapp’s house without a search warrant, probable cause, or consent </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court required states to use the exclusionary rule </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Rights of the accused are based on the United States Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Amendment and the Right to Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence gathered in a manner that violates constitutional rights of the accused cannot be used in court </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Police detect suspicious activity </li></ul><ul><li>Police present probable cause evidence to a judge </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant must be approved by the judge </li></ul><ul><li>Police execute the warrant properly, evidence is then admissible </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Search Incident to Lawful Arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Plain-View Search </li></ul><ul><li>Consent to Search </li></ul><ul><li>Search of Automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>Search of Persons </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>A warrantless search is permitted when there is clear and present danger to public safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searches of airline and bus passengers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searches of subway passengers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Border searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School searches </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Premises to be searched is entered incorrectly in the search warrant document </li></ul><ul><li>Acting in good faith, police search that location </li></ul><ul><li>If police find criminal activity, then they can still seize evidence in good faith </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Electronic Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Wiretapping: a search and seizure involving telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Local law enforcement agencies must meet stringent requirements to intercept </li></ul><ul><li>Homeland Security under USA Patriot Act can perform search without warrants </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>1985 Tennessee v. Garner (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Deadly Force restricted to situations when the lives of officers or a citizen are jeopardized </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>In defining admissible testimony, rules of evidence also reflect case law relating to the Fifth and Sixth Amendments </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Confessions inadmissible if obtained by use of force </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Mississippi (1936) </li></ul><ul><li>Ashcraft v. Tennessee (1944) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Miranda v. Arizona (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>The court issued an opinion which summarized all the rights of a citizen during police custody, arrest and interrogation </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Lineups must be fair, and must meet the following requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>Suspects have the right to have an attorney present </li></ul><ul><li>A lineup must contain suspects who are similar and match the description given by the witness </li></ul><ul><li>A lineup must contain actual suspects and not police personnel masquerading as suspect </li></ul><ul><li>A lineup must contain persons who are known to the police not to be capable of being the offender </li></ul>Pearson Education, Inc. © 2010
  18. 19. <ul><li>The FBI is the federal agency most actively engaged in gathering intelligence information </li></ul><ul><li>Since September 11 th , 2001, new legislation has enhanced the FBI’s intelligence gathering capacity </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Material Witness Law (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows individuals to be held ‘indefinitely’ </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized for eroding ‘due process’ </li></ul>

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