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Walsh power point_chapter 8


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Walsh power point_chapter 8

  1. 1. Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction Chapter 8 Juvenile Justice
  2. 2. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>civil law </li></ul><ul><li>delinquents versus status offenders </li></ul><ul><li>delinquent—&quot;to leave undone&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflects rehabilitative nature </li></ul></ul>What Is Juvenile Delinquency?
  3. 3. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>juveniles commit a disproportionate percentage of the FBI’s UCR Part 1 index crimes </li></ul><ul><li>youths under eighteen account for 13 percent of arrests for violent crime </li></ul><ul><li>youths under eighteen are only about 6 percent of the American population </li></ul><ul><li>individuals who do not engage in some form of anti-social behavior are statistically abnormal </li></ul>The Extent of Delinquency
  4. 4. Juvenile Justice The Extent of Delinquency (cont.)
  5. 5. Juvenile Justice Developmental Factors and Juvenile Delinquency <ul><li>New York Academy of Sciences, four key messages in 2003: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Much of the behavior characterizing adolescence is rooted in biology intermingling with environmental influences to cause teens to conflict with their parents, take more risks, and experience wide swings in emotion </li></ul><ul><li>2. The lack of synchrony between a physically mature body and a still maturing nervous system may explain these behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>3. Adolescents' sensitivities to rewards appear to be different than in adults, prompting them to seek higher levels of novelty and stimulation to achieve the same feeling of pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>4. With the right dose of guidance and understanding, adolescence can be a relatively smooth transition </li></ul>
  6. 6. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>almost all juveniles commit anti-social acts (especially males) </li></ul><ul><li>only a small percentage (about 15 percent) continue committing crimes </li></ul><ul><li>adolescent limited versus life-course persistents </li></ul><ul><li>reaffirmed by cohort studies </li></ul>Developmental Factors and Juvenile Delinquency (cont.)
  7. 7. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>branch of civil law </li></ul><ul><li>young children considered to be property </li></ul><ul><li>the idea of not assigning culpability to young children is relatively new </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common law, age seven </li></ul></ul>History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice
  8. 8. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>in early Rome, children considered property of father </li></ul><ul><ul><li>patria potestas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>in fourth-century Rome, father’s power was limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paterna pietas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>children under seven were not responsible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>special status for children between seven and fourteen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fourteen cut-off age for adulthood (marriable) </li></ul></ul>History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice (cont.)
  9. 9. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>in thirteenth century, courts adopted parens patriae </li></ul><ul><li>gave king the right to intercede and act in the best interest of the child </li></ul><ul><li>state and not parents had authority over children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>binding out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vagrancy and laziness laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridewells </li></ul></ul>Institutional Control
  10. 10. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>British youth were sent to the colonies as indentured students </li></ul><ul><li>juveniles arrested were placed in jails with adults </li></ul><ul><li>Society for the Prevention of Pauperism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary causes of criminal behavior were economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give children food, shelter, and vocational training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New York House of Refuge in 1825 </li></ul></ul>Childhood in the United States
  11. 11. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>children sent to this facility remained until determined to be rehabilitated </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Parte Crouse (1838) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parental rights are superseded by the best interest of the child doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>purpose of House of Refuge was to train and care for children, but it acted like Bridewells </li></ul>Childhood in the United States (cont.)
  12. 12. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>middle-class discontent with government corruption and inefficiency </li></ul><ul><li>progressives sought for professionalization of public service </li></ul><ul><li>Child Savers began &quot;ideological attack&quot; on the houses of refuge </li></ul><ul><li>believed that juveniles could be molded into better citizens </li></ul>The Child Savers
  13. 13. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>placed children in farms in the western United States </li></ul><ul><li>motives may have been less than altruistic </li></ul><ul><li>many believed the poor to be innately criminal, poverty sign of personal defects </li></ul>The Child Savers (cont.)
  14. 14. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>1899, Cook County, Illinois </li></ul><ul><li>every state had a juvenile court by 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>used civil law, preponderance of the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>judges given wide latitude </li></ul><ul><li>different terms (euphemisms?) than the adult system </li></ul>The Beginning of the Juvenile Courts
  15. 15. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>arrested: taken into custody </li></ul><ul><li>indictment/information: petitions the court </li></ul><ul><li>defendant: respondent </li></ul><ul><li>arraigned: hearing </li></ul><ul><li>plead: admits or denies </li></ul><ul><li>jury trial: adjudicatory hearing </li></ul><ul><li>guilty: adjudicates respondent delinquent </li></ul>Terminology
  16. 16. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>pre-sentence investigation report: predispositional or social inquiry report </li></ul><ul><li>incarcerated: detained </li></ul><ul><li>prison: training school </li></ul><ul><li>paroled: aftercare </li></ul>Terminology (cont.)
  17. 17. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>waiver to adult criminal court </li></ul><ul><li>lose status as minors; are legally culpable for alleged crime </li></ul><ul><li>age criterion varies from state to state </li></ul><ul><li>always an option but regularly used only in the late 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>about 1.5 percent of juvenile cases are waived </li></ul>Juvenile Waiver to Criminal Court
  18. 18. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>judicial waiver </li></ul><ul><li>prosecutorial discretion/direct file </li></ul><ul><li>statutory exclusion/legislative waiver </li></ul><ul><li>presumed social benefits have not materialized </li></ul><ul><li>does not guarantee more punitive disposition </li></ul>Juvenile Waiver to Criminal Court (cont.)
  19. 19. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>Haley v. Ohio , 1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourteenth Amendment prohibits police from violating due process clause in obtaining confessions from juveniles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>illegal confessions are inadmissible in court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kent v. United States , 1966 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>waiver decision is a critically important stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>juveniles have constitutional rights </li></ul></ul>Extending Due Process to Juveniles
  20. 20. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>In Re Gault , 1967 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>established five basic due process rights for adjudication hearings: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Proper notification of charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Legal counsel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Confront witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Privilege against self-incrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Appellate review </li></ul></ul>Extending Due Process to Juveniles (cont.)
  21. 21. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>In Re Winship , 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beyond a reasonable doubt standard necessary when incarceration is a possibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McKeiver v. Pennsylvania , 1971 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>juveniles do not have the right to a jury trial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breed v. Jones , 1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>double jeopardy applies between juvenile and adult courts </li></ul></ul>Extending Due Process to Juveniles (cont.)
  22. 22. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>Schall v. Martin , 1977 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>preventative detention is constitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>how do these cases both reflect and refute the doctrine of parens patriae? </li></ul>Extending Due Process to Juveniles (cont.)
  23. 23. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>1973-2003, twenty-two juvenile offenders executed in United States </li></ul><ul><li>thirteen of those in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>four USSC cases </li></ul>The Juvenile Death Penalty
  24. 24. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>Eddings v. Oklahoma , 1982 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>court must consider all mitigating factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thompson v. Oklahoma , 1988 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>age of sixteen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stanford v. Kentucky , 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>constitutionally permissible to execute juveniles who committed their crime when they were sixteen or seventeen </li></ul></ul>The Juvenile Death Penalty (cont.)
  25. 25. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>Roper v. Simmons , 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eighteen is the new age line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eighth Amendment--cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul></ul>The Juvenile Death Penalty (cont.)
  26. 26. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>preceding cases created procedures that mirrored those of adult courts </li></ul><ul><li>Megan’s Law and juvenile sex offenders </li></ul>Eroding Distinctions Between Adult and Juvenile
  27. 27. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>what is restorative justice? </li></ul><ul><li>compromise between hard punishment and soft rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>holds offender accountable while healing the harm done to the victim and the community </li></ul><ul><li>often involves face-to-face contact between victim and criminal </li></ul>Restorative Justice
  28. 28. Juvenile Justice <ul><li>balanced approach focuses on three equally important components for sanctioning of juveniles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hold juveniles accountable </li></ul><ul><li>2. Protect the community </li></ul><ul><li>3. Competency development programs </li></ul><ul><li>VORPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very successful (97 percent satisfaction among victims) </li></ul></ul>Restorative Justice (cont.)