Chapter 9 Jails and PrisonsChapter OutlineI. Development of American Jails and Prisons Early Jail Conditions Reform at Last: The Walnut Street Jail Bigger Is Better: Eastern State Penitentiary The Auburn System Southern Penal SystemsII. Contemporary Jails and Prisons The Rising Cost of IncarcerationIII. Jails Native American County Jails Federal Jails City and County Jails Municipal JailsIV. State Prisons Prisoner Classification Special Prison Populations Institutional Racism and IncarcerationV. Federal Prisons The Federal Bureau of Prisons
Federal Correctional FacilitiesVI. PrivatizationVII. Prison Life Sexual Violence in Prisons Prison Gangs Physical Health in Prisons Mental Health in Prisons Prison Violence Prisons—The Human CageLearning ObjectivesAfter completion of this chapter, students should be able to:1. Describe the conditions of early colonial jails2. Explain both the purpose and types of jails3. Know the purpose behind classification systems4. Detail the operations of the Federal Bureau of Prisons5. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of prison privatizationKey TermsChain gang (p. 159) in the southern penal system, a group of convicts chained together duringoutside laborCivil Death (p. 161) was the legal philosophy that barred any prison inmate from bringing alawsuit in a civil court related to their treatment while incarcerated or conditions of incarcerationCongregate work system (p. 158) the practice of moving inmates from sleeping cells to otherareas of the prison for work and meals
Contraband (p. 175) smuggled goods, such as drugs, cigarettes, money, or pornographyConvict lease system (p. 158) in Southern penal systems, leasing prisoners to work for privatecontractors.Correctional officer (p. 171) uniformed jail or prison employee whose primary job is thesecurity and movement of inmatesCounty department of corrections (p. 163) when the sheriff does not supervise the country jail,it is administered by an independent country departmentDeinstitutionalization (p. 178) moving mentally ill people from long-term hospitalization tocommunity-based careDisproportionate confinement (p. 170) refers to the non-random distribution of persons by racein correctional institutions. If the prison population reflected the same demographic as thegeneral population confinement would not reflect racial biasGeneral prison population (p. 168) is the non-restricted population of prison inmates who haveaccess to prison services, programs and recreationsHIV/AIDS (p. 177) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by a virus calledHuman Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV). The disease is a deficiency of the body’s immunesystem. A person can be HIV positive but not have AIDSIncarceration (p. 156) the bodily confinement of a person in a jail or prisonInitial placement (p. 166) the first institution and security level of the convicted defendantInside cell block (p. 157) prison construction in which individual cells are stacked back to backin tiers in the center of a secure buildingJails (p. 162) short term, multipurpose holding facilities that serve as the gateway for thecriminal justice systemLombroso based correctional philosophies (p. 160) divided persons into two distinct types:criminal and non-criminal. Non-criminals were biologically determined and therefore notamenable to rehabilitation or reformMunicipal jail (p. 164) city administered jails for the incarceration of offenders who areconvicted of violating city ordinance in a municipal courtNative American jails (p. 163) are short term incarceration facilities on Native American landthat are under the sovereign control of the Native American tribe
Penitentiary (p. 157) a correctional institution based on the concept that inmates can changetheir criminality through reflection and penitencePrison code (p. 179) is the informal rules and expected behavior established by inmates. Oftenthe prison code is contrary to the official rules and policies of the prison. Violation of the prisoncode can be punished by use of violence or even deathPrison consultants (p. 166) are private persons, who provide convicted defendants advice andcounsel on how best to present themselves during classification and how to behave in prisonPrison economy (p. 169) refers to the exchange of goods, services and contraband by prisonersin the place of moneyPrison farm system (p. 159) in the Southern penal systems, the use of inmate labor to maintainlarge, profit-making prison farms or plantationsPrison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (p. 174) required the Bureau of Justice statistics to surveyjails and prisons, to determine the prevalence of sexual violence within correctional facilitiesPrisoner classification (p. 165) the reception and diagnosis of an inmate to decide theappropriate security level in which to place the prisoner and the services of placementSection 1983 lawsuits (p. 176) are civil lawsuits filed in federal court alleging that thegovernment has violated a constitutional right of the inmateSecurity Risk Groups (p. 175) groups that raise special threats, such as prison gangsSilent system (p. 157) correctional practice of prohibiting inmates from talking to other inmatesSolitary confinement (p. 158) practice of confining an inmate such that there is no contact withother peopleState prisons (p. 165) correctional facilities for prisoners convicted of state crimesSupermax prison (p. 173) is the highest security level of prison operated by the U.S. Bureau ofPrisons. Supermax prisons are considered ―escape-proof‖ regardless of the resources of theinmateTotal Institutions (p. 178) institutions that meet the inmate’s basic needs, discourageindividuality, punish dissent, and segregate those who do not follow the rules.Tuberculosis (p. 177) or TB is a contagious infectious disease caused by a bacterial infectionthat primarily affects the lungs
Warren Court (p. 161) the U.S. Supreme Court years (1953–1969) during which Chief JusticeEarl Warren issued many landmark decisions greatly expanding the constitutional right ofinmates and defendantsChapter Summary Historically speaking, the Pennsylvania Walnut Street Jail and Eastern State Penitentiaryand New York’s Auburn State Prison established distinctively American correctional models.Early American jails and prisons had rehabilitation as a goal. Prison labor was exploited,especially in colonies with indentured servitude and in southern penal systems, which operatedthe convict lease system. Prison reforms came about during the Warren Court era, with rulingsthat inmates had the right to sue the government over prison conditions and civil rightsviolations. Jails are short-term multipurpose facilities that serve as a gateway to the criminal justicesystem. Federal jails are operated through the U.S. Bureau of Prisons. County jails aremaintained by the sheriffs’ departments, and municipal jails by local police departments. Stateprisons house only convicted felony offenders. States run reception and diagnosis centers toclassify incoming inmates and place them in appropriate facilities, minimum, medium, ormaximum-security prisons. Supermax prisons hold the most violent inmates in a highly securedlockdown structure. Prison populations include men, youths, the elderly, women, gang members, inmates livingwith AIDS, and persons with other health problems or mental illnesses, and these populationschallenge the correctional system. Federal prisons such as Alcatraz were built during theprohibition era and are run by the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The federal prison system parallelsthe state prison systems in classification and administration, but federal prisons have higherstandards for employment. Private jails and prisons were sought as a solution to prisonovercrowding and the high cost of building and staffing correctional, but have been plagued withproblems pertaining to professionalismMedia to ExploreGo to www.gangsorus.com to view the Web site ―Gangs or Us,‖ which provides information onstreet and prison gangs.Visit the Federal Bureau of Prisons at www.bop.gov.Visit the City of New York Department of Corrections Web site atwww.nyc.gov/html/doc/html/home/home.shtml.Visit the Web site of Los Angeles County’s Twin Towers Correctional Facility atwww.lasd.org/division/custody/twintowers/index.html.Visit the Web site of the Southern Center for Human Rights at www.schr.org.
Eastern State Penitentiary is now a tourist attraction. You can visit the Web site of Eastern StatePenitentiary at www.easternstate.org.There are a number of Web sites that facilitate public-inmate pen pal correspondence. To viewone such Web site, go to http://writeaprisoner.com.