CorrectionalIssues
Reentry into the Community
   Most Inmates Eventually Released into    Society     Over three-fourths will be on parole     Parole      ▪ Grace or...
 Number of Adults under Parole Supervision, 1980-2007.
   Maconochie     Classification procedure     ▪ Strict imprisonment     ▪ Labor on chain gangs     ▪ Freedom within a l...
   Crofton     Progress through prison and ticket-of-leave     linked     Parole included a series of conditions      ▪...
   United States     Brockway     ▪ Elmira Reformatory     Indeterminate sentencing followed by parole     U.S. Board ...
   Methods of Release from State Prison
   Discretionary Release   Mandatory Release   Probation Release   Reinstatement Release   Other Conditional Releases...
   Procedure     Eligibility      ▪ Sentence      ▪ Statutory criteria      ▪ Conduct prior to incarceration      ▪ Ofte...
   Release Criteria     Normally include at least eight factors      ▪ Offense      ▪ Prior criminal record      ▪ Attit...
   Release Criteria     Discretionary      ▪ Moral judgments      ▪ Culpability      ▪ Adequacy of sentence      ▪ DNA  ...
   Structuring Parole Decisions     Parole guidelines     Three criteria      ▪ Substantial observance of institutional...
   The Impact of Release Mechanisms     Shorten a sentence     Encourages plea bargaining     Mitigates the harshness ...
   Second Chance Act of 2007     Provides federal grants to states and     communities to support reentry initiatives   ...
   Community Supervision     Conditions of release     ▪ Abstain from alcohol     ▪ Stay away from undesirable associate...
   Revocation     Parole can be revoked for two reasons      ▪ Committing a new crime      ▪ Violating conditions of par...
   Revocation     Percentage of Prison Admissions Who are Parole Violators
   Parole Officer     Surveillance      ▪ Restriction      ▪ Enforcement      ▪ Revocation     Assistance      ▪ Jobs  ...
   The Strangeness of Reentry     Changes     Unfamiliar freedom   Supervision and Surveillance     Not really free
   The Problem of Unmet Personal Needs     Education     Money     Job     Drug and alcohol problems     Mental heal...
   Barriers to Success     Employment     ▪ Conviction viewed as       untrustworthy     ▪ Statutory bars     ▪ Expungem...
   Barriers to Success     Civil disabilities      ▪ Right to vote and hold public office      ▪ “War on Drugs”        ▪...
   Four Factors     Get substance abuse under control.     Get a job.     Develop a support group of family and friend...
   Reentry Courts     Judicial supervision     Emphasis on involvement of judicial and     correctional officials in   ...
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0495808652 282842

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0495808652 282842

  1. 1. CorrectionalIssues
  2. 2. Reentry into the Community
  3. 3.  Most Inmates Eventually Released into Society  Over three-fourths will be on parole  Parole ▪ Grace or privilege ▪ Contract of consent ▪ Custody
  4. 4.  Number of Adults under Parole Supervision, 1980-2007.
  5. 5.  Maconochie  Classification procedure ▪ Strict imprisonment ▪ Labor on chain gangs ▪ Freedom within a limited area ▪ Ticket-of-leave or parole with conditional pardon ▪ Full restoration of liberty
  6. 6.  Crofton  Progress through prison and ticket-of-leave linked  Parole included a series of conditions ▪ Report monthly to police
  7. 7.  United States  Brockway ▪ Elmira Reformatory  Indeterminate sentencing followed by parole  U.S. Board of Parole
  8. 8.  Methods of Release from State Prison
  9. 9.  Discretionary Release Mandatory Release Probation Release Reinstatement Release Other Conditional Releases Expiration Release
  10. 10.  Procedure  Eligibility ▪ Sentence ▪ Statutory criteria ▪ Conduct prior to incarceration ▪ Often minimum sentence minus good time ▪ Parole board discretion ▪ One-third to one-half of the maximum sentence
  11. 11.  Release Criteria  Normally include at least eight factors ▪ Offense ▪ Prior criminal record ▪ Attitudes ▪ Institutional adjustment/participation/progress ▪ History of community adjustment ▪ Physical, mental, and emotional health ▪ Insight into causes of past criminal conduct ▪ Adequacy of parole plan
  12. 12.  Release Criteria  Discretionary ▪ Moral judgments ▪ Culpability ▪ Adequacy of sentence ▪ DNA ▪ Legal and ethical issues
  13. 13.  Structuring Parole Decisions  Parole guidelines  Three criteria ▪ Substantial observance of institutional rules ▪ Release will not devalue seriousness of offense or promote disrespect for the law ▪ Release will not jeopardize public welfare
  14. 14.  The Impact of Release Mechanisms  Shorten a sentence  Encourages plea bargaining  Mitigates the harshness of the penal code  Reduce prison populations
  15. 15.  Second Chance Act of 2007  Provides federal grants to states and communities to support reentry initiatives ▪ Employment ▪ Housing ▪ substance abuse ▪ Mental health treatment ▪ Children and family services
  16. 16.  Community Supervision  Conditions of release ▪ Abstain from alcohol ▪ Stay away from undesirable associates ▪ maintain good work habits ▪ Do not leave the community without permission
  17. 17.  Revocation  Parole can be revoked for two reasons ▪ Committing a new crime ▪ Violating conditions of parole  In practice ▪ Usually requires persistent non-compliance or ▪ Arrest on a serious charge  Supreme Court requirements
  18. 18.  Revocation  Percentage of Prison Admissions Who are Parole Violators
  19. 19.  Parole Officer  Surveillance ▪ Restriction ▪ Enforcement ▪ Revocation  Assistance ▪ Jobs ▪ Families ▪ Human service agencies
  20. 20.  The Strangeness of Reentry  Changes  Unfamiliar freedom Supervision and Surveillance  Not really free
  21. 21.  The Problem of Unmet Personal Needs  Education  Money  Job  Drug and alcohol problems  Mental health  Housing
  22. 22.  Barriers to Success  Employment ▪ Conviction viewed as untrustworthy ▪ Statutory bars ▪ Expungement ▪ Pardon
  23. 23.  Barriers to Success  Civil disabilities ▪ Right to vote and hold public office ▪ “War on Drugs” ▪ Access to public assistance and food stamps ▪ Living in public housing ▪ Having a driver’s license ▪ Being a foster parent or adopting children ▪ Receiving student loans
  24. 24.  Four Factors  Get substance abuse under control.  Get a job.  Develop a support group of family and friends.  Get a sense of “who I am.”
  25. 25.  Reentry Courts  Judicial supervision  Emphasis on involvement of judicial and correctional officials in ▪ Prerelease needs of prisoner ▪ Linkages to family ▪ Social services ▪ Housing ▪ Employment

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