0131389033 ppt04


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0131389033 ppt04

  1. 1. Chapter 4: Roles and Functions of the Police
  2. 2. <ul><li>After completion of this chapter, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the historical development of American policing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how jurisdiction relates to contemporary policing </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the major federal and state law enforcement agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Be familiar with the hiring and training process for police officers </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to discuss various social factors that influence policing strategies </li></ul>Pearson Education, Inc. © 2010
  3. 3. <ul><li>Parliament passes the London Metropolitan Police Act in 1829 </li></ul><ul><li>Established first full-time paid police force </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Robert Peel known as the ‘Father of Modern Policing’ </li></ul><ul><li>Peel’s officers called ‘Bobbies’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Early American police modeled after the London Metropolitan Police </li></ul><ul><li>A distinct characteristic of American policing is that thousands of police agencies have their own jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>The jurisdiction of policing can be divided into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Police Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local police </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3 different types of federal agencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military Police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native American Tribal Police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilian Police </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Perform law enforcement duties on military bases, federal lands, and in cases involving military personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Each branch of the military service has its own criminal justice system, including courts and correctional institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Based upon the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Each Native American reservation has the legal authority to establish its own tribal police </li></ul><ul><li>Research suggests Native American reservations have been neglected by the U.S. criminal justice system </li></ul><ul><li>Their rate of violent victimizations is more than twice the rate as that for the nation as a whole </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>U.S. Marshals Service </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Secret Service </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Bureau of Investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Enforcement Administration </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Highway patrols focus on traffic enforcement and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate criminal activities, especially in municipalities or counties that be biased toward the case </li></ul><ul><li>All states have an agency with the exception of Hawaii </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Oldest policing authority in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Chief law enforcement officer of the county </li></ul><ul><li>Typically elected to a four-year term </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities include: law enforcement, court service and protection, and jail operations </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Most visible with over 12,000 municipal police departments </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of Police appointed by a mayor, city council, or a police commission </li></ul><ul><li>Chief does not have civil service job protection </li></ul><ul><li>Budget for a department is one of a city's largest expenses </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Special police have limited jurisdiction both in geographic and police powers </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>airport police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>park police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transit police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public school police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>college and university police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public housing police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>game wardens </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Police applicants are examined on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screened for criminal and driving records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical agility test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug screen testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygraph (in some states) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Those passing selection process attend a ‘police academy’ for up to 1,100 hours of training </li></ul><ul><li>After graduation recruits are assigned to a ‘field-training program’ up to 1 year on a probationary period </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Community Policing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on decentralized strategies that promote crime prevention rather than rapid response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on promoting the quality of life in a community rather than solely law enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of alternatives other than arrest and force to solve the cause of problems </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Problem-Oriented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase effectiveness by attacking underlying problems that cause incidents that consume patrol time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on expertise of line officers to study problems and develop solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closer involvement with public to ensure the police are addressing their needs </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Broken Window Theory: belief that ignoring public order violations leads to community neglect, which in turn breeds crime </li></ul><ul><li>Zero-Tolerance Strategy: strict police enforcement of the laws, even for minor violations </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Effectiveness is still not well documented </li></ul><ul><li>Popular with the public </li></ul><ul><li>May have little impact on crime rates </li></ul><ul><li>Does reduce citizen’s fear of crime </li></ul>