0131389033 ppt02


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0131389033 ppt02

  1. 1. Chapter 2: Crime: Why and How Much
  2. 2. <ul><li>After completion of this chapter, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a variety of theoretical explanations used to explain criminal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the importance of the Victims’ Rights Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the history and usage of the Uniform Crime Report </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss what is meant by ‘clearance rate’ </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of the National Incident-Based Reporting System </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Criminology is the scientific study of criminal behavior, its causes, patterns, and affects upon society </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Theories in criminology contribute to explaining, predicting, and preventing crime </li></ul><ul><li>Theories provide general principles that will apply to similar cases to show how factors influencing crime are interrelated </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Classical Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological Explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict Theories </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Based on Cesare Beccerra's (1776) belief that people are rational thinking, and will seek pleasure over pain </li></ul><ul><li>He argued that punishment must be appropriate and proportional to the crime </li></ul><ul><li>Classicalist believe criminal behavior is controlled by swift, certain, and appropriate punishment </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), founder of the Positivist School of Criminology </li></ul><ul><li>His theory of ‘atavism’ believed criminals were not fully developed and were throwbacks to primitive man </li></ul><ul><li>He believed criminals had physical characteristics such as long arms, large lips, crooked nose, and excessive body hair, suggesting an ape-like evolution, believed to distinguish criminals from non-criminals </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Biocriminolgy: views the variables of genetics and neurophysiology as influencing criminal behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XYY Chromosome Theory: Patricia Jacobs (1965) discovered some males have an extra ‘Y’ chromosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These so-called ‘supermales’ were found to have higher conviction rates for violent crime </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Theorized that behavior is not a free-will choice, but is controlled by subconscious desires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Superego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Id </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory of psychoanalysis has been applied to the study of criminals </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Social Disorganization </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Association Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Social Control Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Strain Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Deviance </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict Theories </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Robert Ezra Park (1864-1944) studied Chicago’s patterns of rapid industrialization and immigration and viewed crime as more dependant on disruptive social forces than individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent study by Shaw and McKay(1930s) established the Concentric Zone Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Crime rates higher in the ‘zone of transition,’ where there was poverty, a lack of schooling, unemployment, illegitimacy and juvenile delinquency, hence social disorganization </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>First proposed by Edwin Sutherland (1883-1950) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory purports that criminal behavior is learned through association with a peer group that engages in criminal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Used to explain white-collar crime </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Theory of crime causation based on the assumptions that people’s belief in the values of their society and culture make them law-abiding citizens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralization Theory: Sykes and Matza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory assumes that criminals learn techniques that allow them to rationalize their behavior, deny responsibility for their actions and avoid being guilt-ridden </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Robert Merton (1919-2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory purported that people are naturally law-abiding, but resort to crime when frustrated with a lack of legitimate means for economic success </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Theories of crime causation based on the assumption that criminal behavior is learned through participation with deviant subcultures that have a different value system </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Cohen defined ‘reaction formation’ as lower-class youths reject middle-class values they cannot attain and instead join countercultures that express the opposite values </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Conflict Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crime based on Marxism theory that the sources of criminal behavior are class conflict and social inequality, wherein the ruling class use the criminal justice system to control lower class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feminist Criminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on the assumption that gender inequality lies at the heart of crimes in which women are the victims or perpetrators </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The study of victims and their patterns of victimization </li></ul><ul><li>Explains why certain people or groups are victims in specific situations </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Victims’ rights advocacy gave rise to the National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) in 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Victim and Witness Act of 1982 established federal polices for treating crime victims </li></ul><ul><li>Crime Victims’ Rights Act of 2004 provides assurance that victims be protected, notified and heard at various proceedings </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Statistics about crime and research data help shape the operations of police, the courts, and corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Crime data affect social and political policy </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) </li></ul><ul><li>National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) </li></ul><ul><li>National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>First established in 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Approved by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) responsible for collecting and publishing the data </li></ul>
  22. 22. Pearson Education, Inc. © 2010
  23. 23. <ul><li>The percentage of crimes reported to the police that the police have solved </li></ul><ul><li>Solved does not mean that the perpetrator has been arrested, prosecuted, convicted, or incarcerated </li></ul><ul><li>Means that the police are reasonably certain they know who committed the crime </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The FBI recognized shortcomings of the UCR </li></ul><ul><li>This drove a new plan to address the underreporting of crime </li></ul><ul><li>NIBRS will be broader and more inclusive than the UCR </li></ul><ul><li>Will gather more information about the relationship between offender and victim </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and Census Bureau </li></ul><ul><li>A survey of households that began in 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>They mail out to 60,000 homes every 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Followed for 2 ½ years </li></ul>