A10 history of canada immigration policy


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A10 history of canada immigration policy

  1. 1. 5/12/2010<br />1<br />Overview of the History of Canada’s Immigration PolicyResearched by Janet Dench (CCR) and Ana Rico (FCJ Refugee Centre)<br />
  2. 2. 5/12/2010<br />2<br />People have been coming to Canada for many years ………….<br />
  3. 3. 5/12/2010<br />3<br />Canada’s immigration policies (or lack thereof) have always had significant impacts on the people who were allowed to come<br />Early ‘policy’ was very simple…..<br />
  4. 4. 5/12/2010<br />4<br />1896 - 1905<br />“I think that a stalwart peasant in a sheepskin coat, born to the soil, with a stout wife and a half dozen children, is good quality”<br />Clifford Sifton, Ministry of Interior<br />
  5. 5. 5/12/2010<br />5<br />1901 census<br />Population 5,371,315<br />96% of European origin<br />13% population were immigrants<br />55% foreign-born were citizens<br />4% Chinese were citizens<br />43% immigrants female<br />41% pop of British origin<br />31% French<br /> 22,050 Chinese<br />17, 347 Blacks<br />16,131 Jews<br /> In 1901 the Chinese Head tax doubled from the 1885 level of $50 to $100. <br />
  6. 6. 5/12/2010<br />6<br />1906<br />Immigration Act passed to stop ‘undesirable immigrants’<br />
  7. 7. 5/12/2010<br />7<br />This Act<br />Handicap<br />Becoming an inmate of a prison or hospital<br />Infirmity<br />Committing crimes of ‘moral turpitude’<br />Deportations<br />increased<br />dramatically!!<br />Expanded the list of ‘prohibited immigrants’<br />Allowed deportation of immigrants within 2 (then 3 then 5) years of landing for ….<br />Becoming a public charge<br />Insanity<br />Disease<br />
  8. 8. 5/12/2010<br />8<br />Arrival of Sikhs in BC in 1906-07 resulted in an “anti-Asiatic” parade which ended in a riot<br />                                    <br />State the purpose of the discussion<br />Identify yourself<br />
  9. 9. 5/12/2010<br />9<br /> 1908 - 1910<br />Chinese Immigration Act amended to increase those under the head tax and expand list of prohibited persons<br />Border inspection service created at US-Canada border<br />Continuous journey rule imposed<br />New Act allowed Canada to prohibit immigrants belonging to any race deemed unsuitable and expanded deportation grounds to include immorality and political offences;<br />New Act introduced concept of ‘domicile’<br />First Caribbean Domestic Scheme<br />
  10. 10. 5/12/2010<br />10<br />CENSUS 1911:<br />Population 7,206,643<br />97% population of European origin<br />22% population immigrants<br />47% of these naturalized (9% Chinese, 22% Japanese)<br />39% of immigrants were women<br />Population: 54% British origin<br />29% French origin<br />75,681 Jews<br />27,774 Chinese, <br />9,021 Japanese<br />3,342 ‘Hindus”<br />
  11. 11. 5/12/2010<br />11<br />                                          <br />War Initiatives - Terror suspects???<br />
  12. 12. 5/12/2010<br />12<br />Special Measures….<br />War Measures Act ..<br />Increased govt’s power to arrest, detain and deport<br />‘Enemy aliens’ forced to register themselves and subjected to many restrictions<br />8,000 – 9,000 ‘enemy aliens’ interned..<br />…..released in response to labour shortages…..<br />Wartime<br />Elections Act (1917)<br />Disenfranchised all persons from ‘enemy alien’ countries who had been naturalized since 1902<br />
  13. 13. 5/12/2010<br />13<br />                                          <br />And for women…. (No – not these women)<br />
  14. 14. 5/12/2010<br />14<br />And for the women……<br />Women's division created in 1919 within Immigration Dept to ‘care’ for single women immigrants<br />1919 .. Immigration Act amended to add new grounds for denying entry and deportation – alcoholism, illiteracy.<br />Classes of immigrants could be denied entry because of unsuitability, peculiar habits, modes of life or holding property<br />British-born subject to deportation on political grounds (Winnipeg general strike)<br />
  15. 15. 5/12/2010<br />15<br />1921 Census<br />Population 8,787,949<br />97.5% European origin<br />22% immigrants<br />44% immigrants female<br />58% of foreign-born naturalized citizens<br />55% pop British origins<br />33% French origins<br />126,196 Hebrews<br />39,347 Chinese<br />23,342 Japanese<br />18, 291 ‘Negroes’<br />
  16. 16. 5/12/2010<br />16<br />Chinese Immigrants Under Attack<br />                                          <br />Several <br />restrictive <br />laws come <br />into effect<br />
  17. 17. 5/12/2010<br />17<br />1920’s…Attacks on Chinese Immigrants….<br />Opium and Narcotic Drug Act led to deportations: 35% of all the deportations in ’23-’24 in Pacific Division<br />1923 Order issued excluding ‘any immigrant of any Asiatic race’ – except agriculturalists, farm labourers, female domestic servants and wife and children of persons legally in Canada<br />Chinese Immigration Act – more prohibitions.. Humiliation Day<br />Doors opened to British citizens, Americans and citizens of ‘preferred countries’. Limitations placed on immigrants from Austria, Hungary, Poland, etc….<br />
  18. 18. 5/12/2010<br />18<br />Overt Targeting Of Identified Populations Characterized this period. … <br />1930… Order further prohibited the landing of ‘any immigrant of any Asiatic race’ except wives and minor children of Cdn citizens<br />Order requiring Chinese and Japanese to renounce their former citizenship before becoming citizens; impact on Japanese.<br />Deportations on grounds of becoming public charge increased – from 1930 to ’34 the deportations on this ground increased 6x.<br />
  19. 19. 5/12/2010<br />19<br />A time of terror….<br />Communist party made illegal – grounds for deportation (’31)<br />Deportation of unemployed<br />’31 political deportations legalized<br />’32 Red Raid<br />In ’34 94% of applications for naturalization refused<br />Political deportations<br />
  20. 20. 5/12/2010<br />20<br />                                          <br />Faith communities join with others<br />To advocate for Jewish refugees (’38)<br />Opposed by many anti-Semitic groups<br />Cdn National Cttee on Refugees and Victims of Persecution formed<br />Cttee focused on individual cases, as unsuccessful in affecting policy<br />
  21. 21. 5/12/2010<br />21<br />Reluctant moves on refugee issues…..<br />’38 Canada reluctantly participated in Evian Conference on refugees with ‘NO’ mandate. Canada’s immigration department was anti-Semitic (“None is too many”)<br />Canada takes some German refugees, but insists on higher payment from Britain<br />In response to ’38 refugee crisis, Canada insisted it would accept only those who met categories for admissible immigrants<br />2,500 “potentially dangerous enemy aliens” brought to Canada from Britain) and interned (in fact many were Jews)<br />
  22. 22. 5/12/2010<br />22<br />Census ‘41<br />Population 11,506,6755<br />98% pop of European origin<br />18% immigrants<br />45% of these female<br />71% of immigrants naturalized<br />50% population of British origin<br />30% French origin<br />170,241 Jews<br />34,627 Chinese<br />22,174 Africans<br />
  23. 23. 5/12/2010<br />23<br />                                          <br />The End of WW II – Some Change<br />Gov’t resistance to pressure for a more open immigration policy began to give way in the mid ’40;s with:<br />Sponsorships<br />Identity documents<br />Citizenship Act<br />Emergency measures for refugees (economic considerations)<br />
  24. 24. 5/12/2010<br />24<br />However… the ’52 Immigration Act still …<br />Gave the Minister and officials significant powers over selection, admission and deportation.<br />Allowed refusal on grounds of nationality, ethnic group, area of origin, peculiar customs, unsuitability re: climate, rate of assimilation, sexual orientation, etc.<br />
  25. 25. 5/12/2010<br />25<br />                                   <br />Gov’t allowed 4 groups to select and process immigrants in ’53<br />Oops! Conflict arose because the groups (churches) selected the people most in need!!<br />’54 Bar Assn criticized the arbitrary exercise of power by immigration officials and called for a quasi-judiciary Immigration Appeals Board<br />
  26. 26. 5/12/2010<br />26<br />’61 Census followed restriction of admission of family members (temporary) & ’60 Bill of Rights ….<br />Population 18,238,247<br />96.8% population European<br />15% immigrants<br />63% of these were citizens<br />44% population of British origin<br />30% French origin<br />
  27. 27. 5/12/2010<br />27<br />’60’s Brought Significant Changes …..<br />’62 – removal of much racial discrimination with new immigration regulations;<br />Assisted loan program extended to Caribbean<br />’66 White paper promoting a balance btwn economic interest and family relationship<br />’67 – Points system<br />1969 Canada finally signs Refugee Convention & Protocol<br />
  28. 28. 5/12/2010<br />28<br />                                          <br />Opening the doors….<br />’71 Multiculturalism policy announced<br />Many immigrants and refugees from new source countries<br />’74 – Creation of ISAP program<br />’78 New Immigration Act which identified 4 categories<br />Refugee sponsorship program<br />
  29. 29. 5/12/2010<br />29<br />1981 Census<br />Population 24,083,500<br />86% had single European origin<br />16% immigrants<br />47% of these female<br />69% immigrants were citizens<br />40% population British origin<br />27% French<br />Greater variety in countries of origin of immigrants<br />
  30. 30. 5/12/2010<br />30<br />                                          <br />The ’86 Administrative Review …<br />MADE MANY PEOPLE HAPPY<br />THE1986 ‘ADMIN REVIEW’<br />
  31. 31. Bill C-55<br />completely revised the refugee determination system creating IRB<br />Proposed two stage process with exception for refugees passing a safe third country which received opposition from refugee advocates<br />Eventually came into effect in 1989<br />5/12/2010<br />31<br />
  32. 32. 5/12/2010<br />32<br />’91 Census….. (domestic worker program, special measures for Salvadorans, CSIS, Singh, ’86 administrative review to clear up backlog, creation of IRB for oral hearings)<br />Population 26,994,045<br />66% single European origin<br />16% population were immigrants<br />81% of these were citizens<br />51% immigrants female<br />
  33. 33. 1990s Overview<br />1990: East European Self-Exiled Class eliminated with fall of iron curtain<br />1993:Bill C-86 proposed restrictive revisions to the refugee determination system<br />1995: Right of Landing Fee modern version of the head tax<br />Bill C-44 restricted right to appeal for permanent residents<br />1999: in July 123 Chinese arrived off the West Coast- the first of 4 such boats that summer<br />5/12/2010<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Canada Post 9/11<br />IRPA: <br />Enacted in June 2002. <br />Safe Third Country Agreement: <br />Enacted December 2004 made most claims at the U.S Canada<br />Border ineligible by declaring the U.S a safe country. <br />New Citizenship Bill: <br />First introduced in 2002 and just recently passed through<br />parliament reduce the Canadian citizenship.<br />Anti-Terrorism Act.<br />Bill C-50 (to reduce the overseas backlog)<br />5/12/2010<br />34<br />
  35. 35. 5/12/2010<br />35<br />Which policies and challenges are affecting today’s refugees and immigrants?<br /><ul><li>IRPA</li></ul>lack of a Refugee Appeal Division<br />Reuniting families and sponsorship<br />Quebec changes for sponsorship <br />Imposition of visas for Mexicans and Czech Republic<br />Safe Third Country Agreement<br />Cancel moratorium country list<br />Immigration programs based on employment:<br />Provincial nominee programs <br />Temporary workers<br /><ul><li>Refugee Reform</li></li></ul><li>Economic Immigration Policy Shifts<br /><ul><li>Skilled Worker program reduced from 50% of all immigrants in 2005 to less than 40% in 2009
  36. 36. Applications restricted to 38 occupations in 2009
  37. 37. Temporary Foreign Workers increased by over 70% between 2004 and 2009
  38. 38. Most of growth in TFW program is result of Low Skill Pilot Project – not eligible for permanent residence
  39. 39. TFWs not eligible for services
  40. 40. Services delayed for those who qualify for Canadian Experience Class
  41. 41. TFWs with “closed” work permits being exploited
  42. 42. Policy shift occurring without debate</li>