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The Psychological Contract of Knowledge Sharing  ( KS )  in technological organizations Dr. Ora Setter Faculty of Manageme...
Overview <ul><li>What is a Psychological Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management model </li></ul><ul><li>Is KS a na...
Psychological Contract <ul><li>Perception of mutual obligations between employee and organization </li></ul><ul><li>Old co...
The new, agile organization <ul><li>Solutions driven  ( not product or service ) </li></ul><ul><li>Inside teaming  –  mult...
ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT CONTENT TECHNOLOGY PROCESSES BUSINESS STRATEGY  ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND POLITICS TECHNOLOGICAL T...
Is KS natural? <ul><li>Traditional attributions about barriers to KS : </li></ul><ul><li>“ What ’ s in it for me ” </li></...
<ul><li>“ Sharing and using knowledge are often unnatural acts ” </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Davenport,  -  Some principles o...
Lets go to nature  …
Ks is natural -  animals do it   <ul><li>KS is essential to specie survival :  It is  a natural act . </li></ul><ul><li>An...
WHY?  <ul><li>Because they  gain collectively  by  acquiring information  about : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food and other res...
… And people do it by <ul><li>Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Mentorin...
Because .. <ul><li>People like to see their knowledge and expertise used </li></ul><ul><li>People like to help their colle...
So … <ul><li>If it is so natural for us to share knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>And it is unnatural for us not to share … </l...
Force field  ( Kurt Lewin ) <ul><li>Restraining Forces </li></ul>Driving Forces
The  “ stop ”  model <ul><li>Restraining Forces  to KS arise  from four levels : </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><l...
Social Barriers <ul><li>Knowledge defines who is  “ in ”  and who is  “ out ” :  it is both cause and effect of social seg...
Why? <ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability and certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with Cognitive complexity <...
Result : <ul><li>People will share knowledge only with their  “ in - group ”  members . </li></ul><ul><li>Is the whole org...
Research finding show that <ul><li>In 250+ employees ’  organizations  –  weak holistic we - feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Pro...
To Overcome the Social Barriers We Need to  <ul><li>Encourage the holistic view of the organization  -  news and informati...
Technological Barriers <ul><li>“ Technology reflects its ’  developers and influences its ’  users ” </li></ul><ul><li>Alt...
Why? <ul><li>The problem of  “ media efficacy ” </li></ul><ul><li>People do not  “ think intranet ” </li></ul><ul><li>Acce...
Results <ul><li>KS is mediated through opaque technology, so : </li></ul><ul><li>It takes  time and effort  to share knowl...
Overcome the technological barriers <ul><li>KISS !!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust applications to bandwidth and hardware  –  ...
Organizational Barriers <ul><li>Culture, culture, culture … </li></ul><ul><li>No organizational Sharing Space </li></ul><u...
Culture <ul><li>Information or technical focused  ( not people ) </li></ul><ul><li>Centralistic </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucr...
Organizational space <ul><li>“ How can an organization transfer knowledge effectively? Hire smart people and let them talk...
Solutions : <ul><li>Knowledge cafe </li></ul><ul><li>Talk room  –  actual and virtual </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge fair </l...
University, linux, cyberculture Consultants,  “ expert exchange ”  microsoft example Cooperation and creation “ fountain o...
Problems with Market ideology <ul><li>Incompleteness of information </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetry of knowledge </li></ul><ul...
Problems with covenant <ul><li>Reliance on motivation and goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>Power disguised as ideology </li></ul...
result : <ul><li>Insecurity  ( and hoarding ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trust in peers and managers  ( and withholding inf...
Current Trend <ul><li>Mix  –  up between covenant and market : </li></ul><ul><li>Covenant organizations  ( civil service )...
Result <ul><li>No clear expectations about KS :  </li></ul><ul><li>what are the obligations? </li></ul><ul><li>what are th...
Adequate organizational practices <ul><li>Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Prizes  ( NIHBIDIA ) </l...
Personal barriers <ul><li>Ignorance as to the extent and relevance of our knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of the c...
Problems with personal barriers <ul><li>We don ’ t know that we know what we know, we don ’ t know how we know it </li></u...
Result <ul><li>“ Tunnel vision ”  and  “ silo organization ” </li></ul><ul><li>This is the main barrier </li></ul>
What to do? <ul><li>Open communication channels </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of f2f and virtual meetings </li></ul><ul><l...
Organizational culture Personal insecurities Technological opaqueness Social boundaries
Changing the psychological contract <ul><li>Clarify mutual obligations to include explicitly knowledge sharing as part of ...
Changing the contract <ul><li>Change, if not done in cooperation, is perceived as  “ breach ” </li></ul><ul><li>The change...
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Stop model - Knowledge sharing

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STOP model for knowledge sharing

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Stop model - Knowledge sharing

  1. 1. The Psychological Contract of Knowledge Sharing ( KS ) in technological organizations Dr. Ora Setter Faculty of Management – Tel Aviv U
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What is a Psychological Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management model </li></ul><ul><li>Is KS a natural act? </li></ul><ul><li>The STOP model </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the KS psychological contract </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychological Contract <ul><li>Perception of mutual obligations between employee and organization </li></ul><ul><li>Old contract : relationship ( loyalty for security ) - covenant </li></ul><ul><li>New contract : transactional – balance sheet </li></ul>
  4. 4. The new, agile organization <ul><li>Solutions driven ( not product or service ) </li></ul><ul><li>Inside teaming – multifunctional, networked, virtual, ad - hoc teams as a structure </li></ul><ul><li>Outside alliances – coopetition </li></ul><ul><li>Ever changing and self reinventing </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge based </li></ul>
  5. 5. ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT CONTENT TECHNOLOGY PROCESSES BUSINESS STRATEGY ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND POLITICS TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSPARENCY KM STRATEGY: REUSE OR INVENTION
  6. 6. Is KS natural? <ul><li>Traditional attributions about barriers to KS : </li></ul><ul><li>“ What ’ s in it for me ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowledge is power ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The culture ” </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge hoarding is the rule </li></ul><ul><li>“ altruistic ” KS is the exception – you have to “ change ” people so as to engage in it </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>“ Sharing and using knowledge are often unnatural acts ” </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Davenport, - Some principles of knowledge management </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lets go to nature …
  9. 9. Ks is natural - animals do it <ul><li>KS is essential to specie survival : It is a natural act . </li></ul><ul><li>Animals communicate with each other to share information and behave in ways that benefit other members of the group at some cost or risk to themselves </li></ul>
  10. 10. WHY? <ul><li>Because they gain collectively by acquiring information about : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food and other resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter and space . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And by Avoiding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical and other small hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>predators or other large dangers . </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. … And people do it by <ul><li>Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Preaching </li></ul><ul><li>Talking </li></ul><ul><li>Gossiping </li></ul><ul><li>Criticizing </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Answering questions </li></ul><ul><li>Creating cultural artifacts </li></ul>
  12. 12. Because .. <ul><li>People like to see their knowledge and expertise used </li></ul><ul><li>People like to help their colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>People want to learn from others </li></ul><ul><li>People get good feeling from the recognition and respect they get </li></ul><ul><li>O ’ Dell & Grayson – If only we knew what we know </li></ul>
  13. 13. So … <ul><li>If it is so natural for us to share knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>And it is unnatural for us not to share … </li></ul><ul><li>How come </li></ul><ul><li>We do not do it? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we have problem with organizational KS? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Force field ( Kurt Lewin ) <ul><li>Restraining Forces </li></ul>Driving Forces
  15. 15. The “ stop ” model <ul><li>Restraining Forces to KS arise from four levels : </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of this presentation – on the knowledge sharer </li></ul>
  16. 16. Social Barriers <ul><li>Knowledge defines who is “ in ” and who is “ out ” : it is both cause and effect of social segmentation : </li></ul>To be “ in ” you have to be “ in the know ” To be “ in the know ” you have to be “ in ”
  17. 17. Why? <ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability and certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with Cognitive complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Ease and comfort </li></ul>
  18. 18. Result : <ul><li>People will share knowledge only with their “ in - group ” members . </li></ul><ul><li>Is the whole organization the “ in - group ” entity, or - departmental / hierarchical level / professional membership? </li></ul><ul><li>How to overcome mergers? </li></ul>Whole parts
  19. 19. Research finding show that <ul><li>In 250+ employees ’ organizations – weak holistic we - feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity is essential for group identity </li></ul><ul><li>Departmental membership is the strongest “ glue ” for inclusion feeling </li></ul><ul><li>People will share with peers as a duty, with others - discretionally </li></ul>
  20. 20. To Overcome the Social Barriers We Need to <ul><li>Encourage the holistic view of the organization - news and information about mission, vision, strategy, plans, actions, and people, and by culture artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage as many different cross - organizational affiliations as possible – f2f and virtual teams and communities </li></ul><ul><li>Add translation capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Define who is the enemy - the “ them ” </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage inside benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage TRUST </li></ul>
  21. 21. Technological Barriers <ul><li>“ Technology reflects its ’ developers and influences its ’ users ” </li></ul><ul><li>Although the I * Net technology is the friendliest of all IT platforms – it was developed by “ techies ” is not yet “ transparent ” to most users </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why? <ul><li>The problem of “ media efficacy ” </li></ul><ul><li>People do not “ think intranet ” </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility, Ease of use : down times, slow response time, broken links and streamlines </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of transparency and privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Overload of “ garbage ” information and not good enough search bots </li></ul>
  23. 23. Results <ul><li>KS is mediated through opaque technology, so : </li></ul><ul><li>It takes time and effort to share knowledge, the process is not natural, and it ’ s easy to back off </li></ul>
  24. 24. Overcome the technological barriers <ul><li>KISS !!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust applications to bandwidth and hardware – and to computer efficacy and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Design and build KS applications with joint teams of technology, content and process professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Support systems and informal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Train, teach, promote, show, ask, cajole force, order, beg, show, tempt … </li></ul>
  25. 25. Organizational Barriers <ul><li>Culture, culture, culture … </li></ul><ul><li>No organizational Sharing Space </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible and not tangible </li></ul>Organizational Knowledge ideology : Markets Covenants
  26. 26. Culture <ul><li>Information or technical focused ( not people ) </li></ul><ul><li>Centralistic </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic, stable, inflexible </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchic </li></ul><ul><li>Strict division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Rational - productivity and efficiency driven </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and procedures discourage challenging paradigms </li></ul>
  27. 27. Organizational space <ul><li>“ How can an organization transfer knowledge effectively? Hire smart people and let them talk to one another ” </li></ul><ul><li>Need for emotional, physical and temporal space, legitimacy for “ sharing activity ” , contrary to “ don ’ t waste time ” </li></ul><ul><li>We are punished for doing KS </li></ul>
  28. 28. Solutions : <ul><li>Knowledge cafe </li></ul><ul><li>Talk room – actual and virtual </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge fair </li></ul><ul><li>Open forums and chats </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of action </li></ul><ul><li>“ icq ” , “ odigo ” , “ third voice ” , “ gooey ” </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened management </li></ul>
  29. 29. University, linux, cyberculture Consultants, “ expert exchange ” microsoft example Cooperation and creation “ fountain of knowledge ” Exchange and reuse Objective of ks Trust and faith obligations Trust and rules entitlements Conditions focus Re - creation and economy of knowledge Fun and kinship Intangible payment : reciprocity, repute, altruism rewards Development of society Personal utility Value in Partners and servers of knowledge Buyer, seller, broker participants Mission, Public good Property , possession Knowledge is Covenant Market – balance sheet
  30. 30. Problems with Market ideology <ul><li>Incompleteness of information </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetry of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Localness of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Monopolies </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Trade barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( Davenport & Prusak ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Problems with covenant <ul><li>Reliance on motivation and goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>Power disguised as ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Possible abuse of the knowledge shared </li></ul><ul><li>Burnout </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in maintenance </li></ul>
  32. 32. result : <ul><li>Insecurity ( and hoarding ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trust in peers and managers ( and withholding info and knowledge ) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative attitudes to the organization ( and distortion of knowledge ) </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of abuse </li></ul>
  33. 33. Current Trend <ul><li>Mix – up between covenant and market : </li></ul><ul><li>Covenant organizations ( civil service ) are getting more market oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Market organizations are getting more covenant oriented . </li></ul>
  34. 34. Result <ul><li>No clear expectations about KS : </li></ul><ul><li>what are the obligations? </li></ul><ul><li>what are the entitlements? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the contract? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Adequate organizational practices <ul><li>Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Prizes ( NIHBIDIA ) </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Assist ” league </li></ul><ul><li>Clear definition of “ who owns the knowledge ” </li></ul>
  36. 36. Personal barriers <ul><li>Ignorance as to the extent and relevance of our knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of the cow … </li></ul>
  37. 37. Problems with personal barriers <ul><li>We don ’ t know that we know what we know, we don ’ t know how we know it </li></ul><ul><li>We don ’ t reflect on our knowledge, or it is too complex </li></ul><ul><li>We don ’ t appreciate that our knowledge is relevant and valuable </li></ul><ul><li>We don ’ t feel comfortable to “ promote ” our knowledge, we shy from criticism </li></ul><ul><li>We don ’ t push our knowledge when nobody ever asked us about it </li></ul>
  38. 38. Result <ul><li>“ Tunnel vision ” and “ silo organization ” </li></ul><ul><li>This is the main barrier </li></ul>
  39. 39. What to do? <ul><li>Open communication channels </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of f2f and virtual meetings </li></ul><ul><li>A network of expert exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilization of direct managers </li></ul>
  40. 40. Organizational culture Personal insecurities Technological opaqueness Social boundaries
  41. 41. Changing the psychological contract <ul><li>Clarify mutual obligations to include explicitly knowledge sharing as part of the job </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify who owns what knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns usage rights </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of time and space for KS </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify what are the learning duties </li></ul><ul><li>What is exchange and what is duty </li></ul>
  42. 42. Changing the contract <ul><li>Change, if not done in cooperation, is perceived as “ breach ” </li></ul><ul><li>The change of the contract should be perceived as fair, never abusive . </li></ul><ul><li>Change should be pervasive to all organization ’ s levels, not only to lower levels </li></ul>

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