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Social justice and social sustainability of mega-event host communities

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Conference presentation from the Tourism Hospitality & Events: Border Crossings & Inter-Connections Research Symposium on 24th May 2017 at the University of Sunderland.

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Social justice and social sustainability of mega-event host communities

  1. 1. Harvesting social justice and social sustainability of mega-event host communities: a dual lens theoretical perspective Seth Kirby seth.kirby@anglia.ac.uk @sethkirbyaru Theme: Event, sport and festival tourism
  2. 2. Session contents 1. Keywords and overview of terms 2. Why research this topic/area? 3. Social justice in the mega-events context 4. Social sustainability in the mega-events context 5. Stakeholder theory and its application 6. Deleuze and Guattari 7. Rio 2016 case study 8. Summary and concluding remarks
  3. 3. Keywords - Social justice - equality, treatment and fairness - Social sustainability - features include justice, quality of life, workers’ righ and stakeholder participation - Mega-events - Olympics, World Fairs, World Cup - Host community - local organising committee, government, residents, businesses etc. - Region - focus is Rio de Janeiro - Porto Maravilha and the Olympic Boulevard (Boulevard Olímpico) - Dual lens - proposed and guised gazing through the lens of: - Deleuzian Guattarian - territorialisation and striated spaces - Stakeholder theory - management and co-creation of sustainability value: - Stems from organisational, management and environmental studies - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Freeman and Reed (1983); Freeman (1984); Deleuze and Guattari (1987); Hörisch, Freeman and Schaltegger (2014); Boström et al (2015); Mair and Duffy (2015)
  4. 4. The importance of researching these topics • Social consequences and ‘intangible’ effects from staging mega- events have received very little attention in the literature • Lack of evidence and limited appraisal - evaluating social sustainability from a mega-event and non mega-event perspective • Dual lens theory - integration of multiple theories provides a new cross-disciplinary contribution - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Chalip (2006); Dempsey, Bramley, Power and Brown (2011); Kim et al (2015); Li, Hsu and Lawton (2015); Mair and Duffy (2015)
  5. 5. The importance of researching these topics continued... • Insufficient applications of stakeholder theory in a mega-event study setting and equally in the events management field more generally • The texts of Deleuze and Guattari have had relatively minimal impact in the subject areas of sport and leisure - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Reid and Arcodia (2002); Pringle and Landi (2017)
  6. 6. The struggle for social justice The hosting of mega-events raises a number of questions and grand challenges: - Social inequality in wider society can be reflected in sporting contexts - Injustices can be generated including displacing and evicting deprived and disadvantaged host communities from their housing and neighbourhoods - Exposing human rights abuses and violations - Event seizure or takeover by the 'elites' as Müller (2015) infers - Acting more favourably for the beneficiaries of such project development - again, serving the political elites? - Do the rationales and rhetoric live up to all the hype? - Difficulty in measuring the 'intangibility' and translating social justice into practic i.e. civic pride, identity, community cohesion etc. - This social change from such an event might not be beneficial for the host community - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Hall (1994); Ryan (2002); de Almeida et al (2015); Mair and Duffy (2015); Müller (2015); Horne (2017a; 2017b); Long, Fletcher and Watson (2017); Talbot and Carter (2017)
  7. 7. Events and tourism as a force for good - The potential of community building and engagement activities in unlocking the key to positive community event outcomes - The transformative capacities and social force of tourism are considered to be significant - Tourism can contribute to social justice and serve as a vehicle for sustainable community development - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Higgins-Desbiolles (2006); Barton and Leonard (2010); Mair and Duffy (2015)
  8. 8. Social sustainability • Social sustainability has been observed to be burgeoning in the academic and policy arena over the last decade • Analysis is emerging which has explored social sustainability from a mega-event perspective - for example, VanWynsberghe, Derom and Maurer (2012) and Fleischer et al (2013) - In addition to major events (Smith, 2009), non mega-events (Taks, 2013) and local festivals (Stevenson, 2016) • Five aspects that are essential to a socially sustainable system and society consist of: trust, common meaning, diversity, capacity for learning and capacity for self-organisation • Dimensions of urban social sustainability are described as social equity and the sustainability of community - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Davidson, 2010; Dempsey et al (2011); Landorf, 2011; VanWynsberghe, Derom and Maurer (2012); Fleischer et al (2013); Stevenson (2016); Missimer, Robert and Broman (2017a)
  9. 9. Criticisms of social sustainability • Incorporating the notion of social sustainability into broader policy frameworks can be problematic due to the concepts: - Vagueness; - Subjective nature; - Openness; - Lack of systems approach; - Lack of actionable approach • Undermining social sustainability has been found to exacerbate existing inequalities in the locality (Stevenson, 2016). - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Boström (2012); Missimer, Robert and Broman (2017b)
  10. 10. Stakeholder theory - Stakeholder theory has been reviewed on numerous occasions and widely addressed over recent years; although in many other disciplines - Remains under investigated and possesses deficiencies in empirical validity - Stakeholder theory cannot ignore the issue of social inequalities across society - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Donaldson and Preston (1995); Friedman and Miles (2002); Lépineux (2005); Laplume, Sonpar and Litz (2008)
  11. 11. Stakeholder theory – critical reflection Advocates testify that the theory: • Improves understanding of stakeholder experiences and their relationships and interactions with different stakeholder groups • Aids management attitudes, structures and practices Critics dispute certain claims highlighting: • Concerns with changes in the law and corporate governance - which it fails to account for • Incomplete or missing elements of stakeholder theory such as civil society and social cohesion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Donaldson and Preston (1995); Key (1999); Phillips, Freeman and Wicks (2003); Freeman (2004); Lépineux (2005)
  12. 12. Significance of stakeholder theory Important for organisations in: - Identifying stakeholders - Engaging and facilitating stakeholders in the planning stages - Providing them with a voice during the decision-making process - Collaborating and consulting on external management strategies - The use of this approach has been claimed to be valuable in enhancing competitive advantage when assessed at the planning phase of events - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Reid (2011); Reid and Arcodia (2002)
  13. 13. Deleuze and Guattari - territorialisation and striated spaces - Dynamics of mega-event host urban civic and ‘live spaces’ have received limited critical attention (McGillivray and Frew, 2015) - Recent research has explored the changing dynamics and extended striation and territorialisation of mega-event urban spaces - such as fan parks or zones and live sites - The outcomes of these temporal urban spatial shared interactions are complex, unpredictable, contested and reflect everyday life - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Deleuze and Guattari (1987); Frew and McGillivray (2008); Klauser (2011); McGillivray and Frew (2015); Pavoni and Citroni (2016)
  14. 14. Rio 2016 case study • Evidence from London 2012 suggested that smaller organisations were often squeezed out or displaced from key event zones Compared to Rio 2016 during the Games... • Barring the intensely militarised Olympic Boulevard - spaces were seen to be more open, democratic and easier to access for those small businesses and entrepreneurs • Displays and celebrations of local Carioca culture, alongside official logos and sponsor branding. Meaning... • Host communities seizing upon and leveraging the use of urban civic space for public good, particularly SMEs - traders and vendors - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Duignan and McGillivray (2016)
  15. 15. Concluding remarks • Delineated new characteristics and extended insights from the exponential mega-event phenomena to deepen our understanding • Provided a glimpse into what occurred during the Rio 2016 Games and how these spaces were activated, animated and amplified • Host communities being afforded with the right to openly and actively command these urban civic spaces - Able to deploy radical social justice and sustainability ideals for host communities positioned at the heart of these spaces
  16. 16. References • Barton, A. W., Leonard, S. J., (2010). Incorporating social justice in tourism planning: racial reconciliation and sustainable community development in the Deep South. Community Development. 41 (3), 298-322. • Boström, M., (2012). A missing pillar? Challenges in theorizing and practicing social sustainability: introduction to the special issue. Sustainability: Science, Practice, and Policy. 8 (1), 3-14. • Boström, M., Vifell, A. C., Klintman, M., Soneryd, L., Hallström, K. T., Thedvall, R., (2015). Social Sustainability Requires Social Sustainability Procedural Prerequisites for Reaching Substantive Goals. Nature and Culture. 10 (2), 131- 156. • Chalip, L., (2006). Towards social leverage of sport events. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 11 (2), 109-127. • Davidson, M., (2010). Social Sustainability and the City. Geography Compass. 4 (7), 872-880. • Duignan, M. B., McGillivray, D., (2016). #RioZones blog. Available from: https://riozones.wordpress.com/ [Accessed: 21 May 2017].
  17. 17. References • de Almeida, B. S., Bolsmann, C., Júnior, W. M., de Souza, J., (2015). Rationales, rhetoric and realities: FIFA’s World Cup in South Africa 2010 and Brazil 2014. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 50 (3), 265-282. • Deleuze, G., Guattari F., (1987). A Thousand Plateaus. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. • Dempsey, N., Bramley, G., Power, S., Brown, C., (2011). The social dimension of sustainable development: Defining urban social sustainability. Sustainable Development. 19 (5), 289-300. • Donaldson, T., Preston, L. E., (1995). The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications. Academy of Management Review. 20 (1), 70-71. • Fleischer, M., Fuhrmann, M., Haferburg, C., Krüger, F., (2013). “Festivalisation” of Urban Governance in South African Cities: Framing the Urban Social Sustainability of Mega-Event Driven Development from Below. Sustainability. 5, 5225-5248.
  18. 18. References • Freeman, E. R., (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman. • Freeman, E. R., (2004). The stakeholder approach revisited. Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Unternehmensethik. 5 (3), 228-254. Available from: http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/34707 [Accessed: 21 May 2017]. • Freeman, E. R., Reed, D. L., (1983). Stockholders and stakeholders: A new perspective on corporate governance. California Management Review. 25 (3), 88-106. • Frew, M., McGillivray, D., (2008). Exploring Hyper-experiences: Performing the Fan at Germany 2006. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 13 (3), 181-198. • Friedman, A. L., Miles, S., (2002). Developing stakeholder theory. Journal of Management Studies. 39 (1), 1-21. • Hall, M. C., (1994). Tourism and politics. New York: Wiley.
  19. 19. References • Higgins-Desbiolles, F., (2006). More than an ‘industry’: The forgotten power of tourism as a social force. Tourism Management. 27, 1192-1208. • Hörisch, J., Freeman, E. R., Schaltegger, S., (2014). Applying Stakeholder Theory in Sustainability Management Links, Similarities, Dissimilarities, and a Conceptual Framework. Organization and Environment. 27 (4), 328-346. • Horne, J., (2017a). Sports mega-events – three sites of contemporary political contestation. Sport in Society. 20 (3), 328-340. • Horne, J., (2017b). Understanding the denial of abuses of human rights connected to sports mega-events. Leisure Studies. • Key, S., (1999). Toward a new theory of the firm: A critique of stakeholder “theory”. Management Decision. 37, 317-328. • Kim, W., Jun, H. M., Walker, M., Drane, D., (2015). Evaluating the perceived social impacts of hosting large-scale sport tourism events: Scale development and validation. Tourism Management. 48, 21-32.
  20. 20. References • Klauser, F., (2011). The Exemplification of ‘Fan Zones’: Mediating Mechanisms in the Reproduction of Best Practices for Security and Branding at Euro 2008. Urban Studies. 48 (15), 3203-3219. • Landorf, C., (2011). Evaluating social sustainability in historic urban environments. International Journal of Heritage Studies. 17 (5), 463-477. • Laplume, A. O., Sonpar, K., Litz, R. A., (2008). Stakeholder Theory: Reviewing a Theory That Moves Us. Journal of Management. 34 (6), 1152-1189. • Lépineux, F., (2005). Stakeholder theory, society and social cohesion. Corporate Governance. 5 (2), 99-110. • Li, R., Hsu, C. H. C., Lawton, L. J., (2015). Understanding Residents’ Perception Changes toward a Mega-Event through a Dual-Theory Lens. Journal of Travel Research. 54 (3), 396-410. • Long, J., Fletcher, T., Watson, B., (2017). Sport, Leisure and Social Justice. London: Routledge.
  21. 21. References • Mair, J., Duffy, M., (2015). Community events and social justice in urban growth areas. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. 7 (3), 282-298. • McGillivray, D., Frew, M., (2015). From Fan Parks to Live Sites: Mega events and the territorialisation of urban space. Urban Studies. 52 (14), 2649-2663. • Missimer, M., Robert, K., Broman, G., (2017a). A strategic approach to social sustainability - Part 1: exploring the social system. Journal of Cleaner Production. 140, 32-41. • Missimer, M., Robert, K., Broman, G., (2017b). A strategic approach to social sustainability - Part 2: a principle-based definition. Journal of Cleaner Production. 140, 42-52. • Missimer, M., Robert, K., Broman, G., Sverdrup, H., (2010). Exploring the possibility of a systematic and generic approach to social sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production. 18, 1107-1112. • Müller, M., (2015). How mega-events capture their hosts: event seizure and the World Cup 2018 in Russia. Urban Geography. 1-20.
  22. 22. References • Pavoni, A., Citroni, S., (2016). An Ethnographic Approach to the Taking Place of the Event. In: Lamond, I. R., Platt, L., (eds). Critical Event Studies: Approaches to Research. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 231-252. • Phillips, R., Freeman, R. E., Wicks, A. C., (2003). What stakeholder theory is not. Business Ethics Quarterly. 13 (4), 479-502. • Pringle, R., Landi, D., (2017). Re-reading Deleuze and Guattari’s A Thousand Plateaus. Annals of Leisure Research. 20 (1), 117-122. • Reid, S., (2011). Event stakeholder management: developing sustainable rural event practices. International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 2 (1), 20-36. • Reid, S., Arcodia, C., (2002). Understanding the role of the stakeholder in event management. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 7 (3), 20-22. • Ryan, C., (2002). Equity, management, power sharing and sustainability - Issues of the ‘new tourism’. Tourism Management. 23, 17-26.
  23. 23. References • Smith, A., (2009). Theorising the relationship between major sport events and social sustainability. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 14 (2), 109-120. • Stevenson, N., (2016). Local festivals, social capital and sustainable destination development: experiences in East London. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 24 (7), 990-1006. • Taks, M., (2013). Social Sustainability of Non-mega Sport Events in a Global World. European Journal for Sport and Society. 10, 121-141. • Talbot, A., Carter, T. F., (2017). Human rights abuses at the Rio 2016 Olympics: activism and the media. Leisure Studies. • VanWynsberghe, R., Derom, I., Maurer, E., (2012). Social leveraging of the 2010 Olympic Games: ‘sustainability’ in a City of Vancouver initiative. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. 4 (2), 185-205.

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