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Advancing sport mega-event research - five critical themes

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Conference presentation from AEME 2017 on 6th July 2017 at Cardiff Metropolitan University.

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Advancing sport mega-event research - five critical themes

  1. 1. Advancing sport mega-event research: five key themes – a thematic review Seth Kirby seth.kirby@anglia.ac.uk @sethkirbyaru Theme: Future directions in event research
  2. 2. Session contents 1. Study background and current scope of sporting mega-event research 2. Theme one: Mega sporting event attributes and interactions with burgeoning global trends 3. Theme two: Mega-event legacy planning and the importance of leveraging better outcomes 4. Theme three: Examining mega-event impacts using scenario-based techniques 5. Theme four: Adopting integrative environmental and TBL approaches in mega-event research 6. Theme five: The significance of undervalued and untapped markets linked to mega-event places 7. Future thinking, key considerations, implications and summary
  3. 3. Current scope of sporting mega-event research • Priority is given to Olympic Games impacts - main focus area of this study • Content analysis of secondary data facilitated the role in the process of this subjec area i.e. sport mega-events - Using keyword terms (‘future’, ‘event’) and database searches (IJEFM, JS&T) • Scant evidence predominantly concerning the impacts and outcomes of events, namely those associated with the environment e.g. climate change • As Alan Jepson will highlight in the next presentation - shortage of research exploring the impact of events and festival attendance upon quality of life • Events management field has made rather sluggish progress in conceptualising and developing internationally respected and discipline specific theory - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Baloglu and Assante (1999); Baum, Lockstone-Binney and Robertson (2013); Holmes and Ali-Knight (2017); Jepson and Stadler (2017); Kim, Boo and Kim (2013); Mair and Whitford (2013); Stepchenkova, Kirilenko and Morrison (2009)
  4. 4. Theme one: Mega sporting event attributes and interactions with burgeoning global trends • The future of mega sporting events is likely to be shaped by: - Burgeoning consumer trends; - Continual proliferation in the technological revolution; - Transform the supply and cultural makeup of the sport mega-events’ structure and experience • Dimensions of mega-events will interact positively and negatively with climate change, technological advancement, geopolitical states etc. • Event tourism sector is very sensitive and prone to the threats of climatic conditions e.g. Winter Olympic Games • Major political turbulence and flux could have significant connotations for event tourism flows and sustainability of tourism destinations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Farid et al (2016); Hanna, Scarles, Cohen and Adams (2016); Jopp, DeLacy and Mair (2010); Landauer, Goodsite and Juhola (2017); Scott, Steiger, Rutty and Johnson (2015); Steiger and Stotter (2013); Weaver (2010); Webster (2017); Webster and Ivanov (2015)
  5. 5. Key drivers of change - Technology and Generation Y • Changing and increasing role of technology in society such as virtual tech and augmented reality - Led to the desire to facilitate co-created, real-time and personalised experiences - Consumers are creating ‘digital lives’ due to the growing dependence and immersion from digital devices • Growth in Generation Y – characteristics: active users of social media and mobile technology, within-generation differences and peer influence - Generation Y (millennial travellers) actors need to feel sufficiently involved and engaged in their visitor experiences using 'experiential strategies' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Greenwood and Quinn (2017); Huh and Chang (2017); Leask, Fyall and Barron (2013); Nusair, Bilgihan, Okumus and Cobanoglu (2013); Robertson, Yeoman, Smith and McMahon-Beattie (2015); Zhang, Omran and Cobanoglu (2017)
  6. 6. Wicked problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Stewart and Rayner (2016); Weber and Khademian (2008); McKinsey (2011); WWF (2016)
  7. 7. European tourism trends - Ageless society - life expectancy, death rate, ageing population - The future of wealth - gaps between countries and families - Magic nostalgia - romanticising the authentic past - Gamification of price - real time price advantages - New tourists - emerging markets - BRICS, MINT and Next Eleven (N-11) nations - Accumulation of social capital - sharing, exchanging (social media) - Scarcity of resources - sustainable resource levels - Fluid identity - independent of background and place - Mobile society and emerging technologies (digital amnesia) - Extended families - from the traditional horizontal family to the modern vertical family - Security and conflict issues, political turbulence and instability - terrorism - Peak oil - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Adapted from Postma, Yeoman and Oskam (2013); Buckley, Gretzel, Scott, Weaver and Becken (2015); Greenwood and Quinn (2017); Scalera and Talpová (2014); Shahbaz, Mahalik, Shah and Sato (2016); Schänzel and Yeoman (2015); Maharaj (2015); Singleton (2016); Webster (2017)
  8. 8. Event and festival consumer trends - Everyday exceptional - Magic nostalgia - The leisure upgrade - Mobile living - Performative leisure - Authentic experiences - Affluence - Ageless society - Accumulation of social capital - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Yeoman (2013)
  9. 9. Theme two: Mega-event legacy planning LEGACY - A mega-event sport legacy whether positive or negative can be exemplified by a plethora of characteristics and impacts - No consensus has been reached on the type of legacy that can be created from a mega-event - Rhetoric and dilemmas of legacy are issues both for international and local organising committees of mega-events - There is a real lack of evidence illustrating how mega-events affect host communities and their changing structures in society - Limited contextual, local and immediate analysis of legacy undertaken coupled with the potential for studies to explore long term mega-event legac propositions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Gratton and Preuss, (2008); Leopkey and Parent (2012); Pappalepore and Duignan (2016); Preuss (2007)
  10. 10. Theme two: The importance of leveraging better outcomes LEVERAGING - Leveraging entails recognising how events can be utilised as resources to enable the attainment of positive outcomes for a host destination - Emerging phenomena of social leveraging is at the very early stages of analysis and could become a key research agenda - Trends indicate: economic leverage, to social leverage and towards the triple bottom-line (TBL) leverage nexus - To leverage better outcomes for host communities there is a need to examine resident and business dynamics post-event more rigorously - The planning and use of event portfolio approaches needs to be extended to assess its full practical limits - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Chalip (2006); O’Brien (2006); O’Brien (2007); O’Brien and Chalip (2007a); O’Brien and Chalip (2007b); Ziakas (2014); Ziakas (2015)
  11. 11. Theme three: Examining mega-event impacts using scenario-based techniques • Can a coordinated system of scenario planning practices enable researchers to predict or standardise mega-event flows and impacts and present a picture of how to adapt to transformational change? • Scenario planning and analysis has been investigated in events management settings sporadically (see refs below), compared to the burgeoning research conducted in other fields such as tourism - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Moital, Jackson and Couillard (2013); Yeoman (2013)
  12. 12. Integrating scenario planning techniques to aid impact analysis • Incorporating Preuss et al’s (2007) model (to the right) with a system of scenario planning may be a wise to consider, especially for tourism planners • There are other appropriate frameworks that could be combined with scenario planning processes to enhance sport mega-event research • This approach may help in adapting to organisational change and developing responsible tourism strategies - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Preuss, Segiun and O’Reilly (2007)
  13. 13. Theme four: Adopting integrative environmental and TBL approaches in mega-event research • The rise of integrative environmental impact frameworks (e.g. ESG and TBL approaches) issues warrants more rigorous analysis to unpack what this means for the local community - This must be assessed at the very early planning stages of a mega-event - Can account for social sustainability processes • Only a handful of recent studies have directed their attention explicitly towards TBL and social sustainability evaluation and impacts from a mega-event perspective • One of the ten critical research agendas established by Ziakas (2015) • The need for inclusion of resident perceptions into delivering sustainable mega- sporting event impacts. • More work on liveable sustainability (e.g. striving for zero impact and carbon neutrality) is required - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Cornelissen, Bob and Swart (2011); Fleischer, Fuhrmann, Haferburg and Krüger (2013); Ritchie, Shipway and Chien (2010); Ross and Leopkey (2017); Tsaur, Yen, Tu, Wang, Liang (2017); VanWynsberghe, Derom and Maurer (2012); Ziakas (2015)
  14. 14. Theme five: The significance of undervalued and untapped markets linked to mega-event places • Sports heritage and nostalgia is a lucrative and untapped market that links systematically to the place branding of events • Sports heritage (e.g. halls of fame/museums) can be used as a device or resource capable of promoting and developing visitor destination awareness • Characteristics: personal and authentic appeal and is attractive in terms of market opportunities • Activities’ and attractions could help leverage and support strategic opportunities for tourism destination development • There is a considerable market for event nostalgia and this is something event hosts can capitalise on to attract tourists in the post-event period • Holds a great deal of relevance to developing a host's placemaking and destination's branding - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Derom and Ramshaw (2016); Friedman (2007); Pinson (2016); Smith (2012); Wood (2007)
  15. 15. Future thinking, key considerations, implications and summary - There are a range of other themes which fall outside of the remit of this paper that could have been highlighted e.g social impacts of mega-events and Olympic legacy stakeholder governance • Critical thinking applications - enable the building of interdisciplinary theory - This can be demonstrated by the recent CfP on critical event studies and critical thinking to realise sustainability in tourism systems -These themes illustrated provide relevance to policy implementation alignments, such as those encompassed in the IOC’s key priorities to 2020 - For example the IOC’s Olympic Agenda highlights key aspects which are to be further positioned as priorities for the organisation (e.g. securing sustainability and legacy) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ► Chalip (2006); Frew and McGillivray (2008); Gratton and Preuss (2008); McGillivray and Frew (2015); Misener and Mason (2006); Taks (2013)
  16. 16. References and further reading • Baloglu, S., Assante, L. M., (1999). A Content Analysis of Subject Areas and Research Methods Used in Five Hospitality Management Journals. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. 23 (1), 53-70. • Baum, T., Lockstone-Binney, L., Robertson, M., (2013). Event studies: finding fool's gold at the rainbow's end? International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 4 (3), 179-185. • Bec, A., McLennan, C., Moyle, B. D., (2016). Community resilience to long- term tourism decline and rejuvenation: a literature review and conceptual model. Current Issues in Tourism. 19 (5), 431-457. • Becken, S., (2013). Developing a framework for assessing resilience of tourism sub-systems to climatic factors. Annals of Tourism Research. 43, 506-528. • Boluk, K., Cavaliere, C. T., Higgins-Desbiolles, F., (2017). Call for Papers: Critical thinking to realize sustainability in tourism systems: reflecting on the 2030 sustainable development goals. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 1-4.
  17. 17. References • Bosch, O. J. H., Nguyen, N. C., Maeno, T., Yasui, T., (2013). Managing Complex Issues through Evolutionary Learning Laboratories. Systems Research and Behavioral Science. 30, 116-135. • Buckley, R., Gretzel, U., Scott, D., Weaver, D., Becken, S., (2015). Tourism megatrends. Tourism Recreation Research. 40 (1), 59-70. • Chalip, L., (2006). Towards social leverage of sport events. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 11 (2), 109-127. • Christie, L., Gibb, K., (2015). A collaborative approach to event-led regeneration: The governance of legacy from the 2014 Commonwealth Games. Local Economy. 30 (8), 871-887. • Cornelissen, S., Bob, U., Swart, K., (2011). Towards redefining the concept of legacy in relation to sport mega-events: Insights from the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Development Southern Africa. 28 (3), 307-318. • Derom, I., Ramshaw, G., (2016). Leveraging sport heritage to promote tourism destinations: the case of the Tour of Flanders Cyclo event. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 1-21.
  18. 18. References • Farid, H., Hakimian, F., Nair, V., Nair, P. K., Ismail, N., (2016). Trend of research on sustainable tourism and climate change in 21st century. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes. 8 (5), 516-533. • Fleischer, M., Fuhrmann, M., Haferburg, C., Krüger, F., (2013). “Festivalisation” of Urban Governance in South African Cities: Framing the Urban Social Sustainability of Mega-Event Driven Development from Below. Sustainability. 5, 5225-5248. • Frew, M., McGillivray, D., (2008). Exploring Hyper-experiences: Performing the Fan at Germany 2006. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 13 (3), 181-198. • Friedman, M. T., (2007). The spectacle of the past: Leveraging history in Fenway Park and Camden Yards. In: Gammon, S., Ramshaw, G., (eds). Heritage, Sport and Tourism: Sporting Pasts – Tourist Futures. London: Routledge, 103- 122. • Girginov, V., (2011). Governance of the London 2012 Olympic Games legacy. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 47 (5), 543-558.
  19. 19. References • Girginov, V., Hills, L., (2009). The political process of constructing a sustainable London Olympics sports development legacy. International Journal of Sport Policy. 1 (2), 161-181. • Gratton, C., Preuss, H., (2008). Maximizing Olympic Impacts by Building up Legacies. International Journal of the History of Sport. 25 (14), 1922-1938. • Greenwood, C., Quinn, M., (2017). Digital amnesia and the future tourist. Journal of Tourism Futures. 3 (1), 73-76. • Hanna, P., Scarles, C., Cohen, S., Adams, M., (2016). Everyday climate discourses and sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 24 (12), 1624-1640. • Holmes, K., Ali-Knight, J., (2017). The event and festival life cycle – developing a new model for a new context. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 29 (3), 986-1004.
  20. 20. References • Huh, C., Chang, H., (2017). An investigation of Generation Y travellers’ beliefs and attitudes towards green hotel practices: a view from active and passive green Generation Y travellers. International Journal of Tourism Sciences. 1-14. • IOC., (2016). Olympic Agenda 2020: Implementation Plan – 2016 and Beyond [online]. Available from: https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/Docum ents/Olympic-Agenda-2020/Olympic-Agenda-2020-Implementation-Plan- 2016-and-Beyond.pdf [Accessed: 25 March 2017]. • Jepson, A., Stadler, R., (2017). Conceptualising the Impact of Festival and Event Attendance upon Family Quality of Life (QOL). Event Management. 21 (1), 47- 60. • Jopp, R., DeLacy, T., Mair, J., (2010). Developing a framework for regional destination adaptation to climate change. Current Issues in Tourism. 13 (6), 591-605.
  21. 21. References • Kim, J., Boo, S., Kim, Y., (2013). Patterns and trends in event tourism study topics over 30 years. International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 4 (1), 66-83. • Landauer, M., Goodsite, M. E., Juhola, S., (2017). Nordic national climate adaptation and tourism strategies - (how) are they interlinked? Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. 1-12. • Leask, A., Fyall, A., Barron, P., (2013). Generation Y: opportunity or challenge – strategies to engage Generation Y in the UK attractions’ sector. Current Issues in Tourism. 16 (1), 17-46. • Leopkey, B., Parent, M. M., (2012). Olympic Games Legacy: From General Benefits to Sustainable Long-Term Legacy. International Journal of the History of Sport. 29 (6), 924-943. • Leopkey, B., Parent, M. M., (2015). Stakeholder perspectives regarding the governance of legacy at the Olympic Games. Annals of Leisure Research. 18 (4), 528-548.
  22. 22. References • Lew, A., (2014). Scale, change and resilience in community tourism planning. Tourism Geographies. 16 (1), 14-22. • Luthe, T., Wyss, R., (2014). Assessing and planning resilience in tourism. Tourism Management. 44, 161-163. • Maani, K. E., Maharaj, V., (2004). Links between systems thinking and complex decision-making. System Dynamics Review. 21 (1), 21-48. • Maharaj, B., (2015). The turn of the south? Social and economic impacts of mega-events in India, Brazil and South Africa. Local Economy. 30 (8), 983- 999. • Mair, J., Whitford, M., (2013). An exploration of events research: event topics, themes and emerging trends. International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 4 (1), 6-30. • McGillivray, D., Frew, M., (2015). From Fan Parks to Live Sites: Mega events and the territorialisation of urban space. Urban Studies. 52 (14), 2649-2663.
  23. 23. References • McKinsey Global Institute., (2011). Resource Revolution: Meeting the world’s energy, materials, food, and water needs. New York: McKinsey & Company. • Misener, L., Mason, D. S., (2006b). Developing Local Citizenship through Sporting Events: Balancing Community Involvement and Tourism Development. Current Issues in Tourism. 9 (4-5), 384-398. • Moital, I., Jackson, C., Le Couillard, J., (2013). Using scenarios to investigate stakeholders’ views on the future of a sporting event. Event Management. 17 (4), 439-452. • Nusair, K., Bilgihan, A., Okumus, F., Cobanoglu, C., (2013). Generation Y travelers’ commitment to online social network websites. Tourism Management. 35, 13-22. • O’Brien, D., (2006). Event Business Leveraging: The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Annals of Tourism Research. 33 (1), 240-261. • O’Brien, D., (2007). Points of Leverage: Maximizing Host Community Benefit from a Regional Surfing Festival. European Sport Management Quarterly. 7 (2), 141-165.
  24. 24. References • O’Brien, D., Chalip, L., (2007a). Sport events and strategic leveraging: pushing towards the triple bottom line. In: Woodside, A. G., Martin, D., (eds). Advancing Tourism Management. Wallingford: CABI, 318-338. • O'Brien, D., Chalip, L., (2007b). Executive training exercise in sport event leverage. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 1 (4), 296-304. • Pappalepore, I., Duignan, M. B., (2016). The London 2012 Cultural Programme: a Consideration of Olympic Impacts and Legacies for Small Creative Organisations in East London. Tourism Management. 54, 344-355. • Parent, M. M., Rouillard, C., Naraine, M. L., (in press). Network governance of a multi-level, multi-sectoral sport event: Differences in coordinating ties and actors. Sport Management Review. (Accepted for publication February 2017). • Pinson, J., (2016). Heritage sporting events: theoretical development and configurations. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 1-20.
  25. 25. References • Postma, A., Yeoman, I., Oskam, J., (2013). The Future of European Tourism. Leeuwarden: European Tourism Futures Institute. • Preuss, H., (2007). The Conceptualisation and Measurement of Mega Sport Event Legacies. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 12 (3-4), 207-227. • Preuss, H., Seguin, B., O'Reilly, N., (2007). Profiling Major Sport Event Visitors: The 2002 Commonwealth Games. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 12 (1), 5-23. • Ritchie, B. W., Shipway, R., Chien, P. M., (2010). The role of the media in influencing residents’ support for the 2012 Olympic Games. International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 1 (3), 202-219. • Robertson, M., Yeoman, I., Smith, K. A. McMahon-Beattie, U., (2015). Technology, society, and visioning the future of music festivals. Event Management. 19 (4), 567-587. • Ross, W. J., Leopkey, B., (2017). The adoption and evolution of environmental practices in the Olympic Games. Managing Sport and Leisure. 1-18.
  26. 26. References • Scalera, F., Talpová, S. Z., (2014). International Recession and MINTs Development: An Investment Opportunity to Relaunch Italian Companies? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 150, 1248-1259. • Schänzel, H. A., Yeoman, I., (2015). Trends in family tourism. Journal of Tourism Futures. 1 (2), 141-147. • Scott, D., Steiger, R., Rutty, M., Johnson, P., (2015). The future of the Olympic Winter Games in an era of climate change. Current Issues in Tourism. 18 (10), 913-930. • Shahbaz, M., Mahalik, M. K., Shah, S. H., Sato, J. R., (2016). Time-varying analysis of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth nexus: Statistical experience in next 11 countries. Energy Policy. 98, 33-48. • Singleton, P. A., (2016). The geopolitics of future tourism development in an expanding EU. Journal of Tourism Futures. 2 (2), 155-164. • Smith, A., (2012). Events and Urban Regeneration: The Strategic Use of Events to Revitalise Cities. London: Routledge.
  27. 27. References • Steiger, R., Stotter, J., (2013). Climate change impact assessment of ski tourism in Tyrol. Tourism Geographies. 15 (4), 577-600. • Stepchenkova, S., Kirilenko, A. P., Morrison, A. M., (2009). Facilitating Content Analysis in Tourism Research. Journal of Travel Research. 47 (4), 454-469. • Stewart, A., Rayner, S., (2016). Planning mega-event legacies: uncomfortable knowledge for host cities. Planning Perspectives. 31 (2), 157-179. • Taks, M., (2013). Social Sustainability of Non-mega Sport Events in a Global World. European Journal for Sport and Society. 10, 121-141. • Tsaur, S., Yen, C., Tu, J., Wang, C., Liang, Y., (2017). Evaluation of the 2010 Taipei International Flora Exposition from the perceptions of host-city residents: a new framework for mega-event legacies measurement. Leisure Studies. 36 (1), 65-88. • Tyrrell, T. J., Johnston, R. J., (2008). Tourism sustainability, resiliency and dynamics: Towards a more comprehensive perspective. Tourism and Hospitality Research. 8 (1), 14-24.
  28. 28. References • VanWynsberghe, R., Derom, I., Maurer, E., (2012). Social leveraging of the 2010 Olympic Games: ‘sustainability’ in a City of Vancouver initiative. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. 4 (2), 185-205. • Weaver, D., (2010). Geopolitical dimensions of sustainable tourism. Tourism Recreation Research. 35 (1), 5-51. • Weber, E. P., Khademian, A. M., (2008). Wicked problems, knowledge challenges, and collaborative capacity builders in network settings. Public Administration Review. 68, 334-349. • Webster, C., (2017). Political turbulence and business as usual: tourism’s future. Journal of Tourism Futures. 3 (1), 4-7. • Webster, C., Ivanov, S., (2015). Geopolitical drivers of future tourist flows. Journal of Tourism Futures. 1 (1), 58-68. • Wood, J., (2007). Olympic opportunity: realising the value of sports heritage for tourism in the UK. In: Gammon, S., Ramshaw, G., (eds). Heritage, Sport and Tourism: Sporting Pasts – Tourist Futures. London: Routledge, 87-102.
  29. 29. References • WWF., (2016). Living Planet Report 2016 - Risk and resilience in a new era. Gland, Switzerland: World Wide Fund For Nature. • Yeoman, I., (2012). 2050 – Tomorrow’s Tourism. Bristol: Channel View Publications. • Yeoman, I., (2013). A futurist's thoughts on consumer trends shaping future festivals and events. International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 4 (3), 249-260. • Zhang, T., Omran, B. A., Cobanoglu, C., (2017). Generation Y’s positive and negative eWOM: use of social media and mobile technology. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 29 (2), 732-761. • Ziakas, V., (2014). Planning and Leveraging Event Portfolios: Towards a Holistic Theory. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management. 23 (3), 327-356. • Ziakas, V., (2015). For the benefit of all? Developing a critical perspective in mega-event leverage. Leisure Studies. 34 (6), 689-702.

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