Latin AmericaInter-related Physical and Human            Geographies http://geographyeducation.org/regional/south-america/
The Andes—Historical Divide
General Outline•   Natural Disasters•   Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)•   Human Development Index (HDI)•   Border Issues
Natural hazards-Archipelago
1996   Montserrat
Andes--Perfect Subduction Zone
Chilean Economy• Pacific Rim• Elongated, Andes• Southern Hemisphere
Atacama Desert• Orographic Lifting• Cold Ocean Currents
Agricultural Region-Las Pampas• Grains, Livestock• Breadbasket• Similar to Midwest in USA
Brazilian Agriculture• Coffee, Citrus, Tobacco (1st)
General Outline•   Natural Disasters•   Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)•   Human Development Index (HDI)•   Border Issues
Altitudinal Zonation
ALTITUDINAL ZONATION             TIERRA CALIENTE                 (Tropical)          Bananas, Cocoa, Sugar, Rice  3000’   ...
ALTITUDINAL ZONATION                   TIERRA TEMPLADA                       (Temperate)                  Coffee, Rice, Co...
ALTITUDINAL ZONATION                     TIERRA FRIA                   (Mid-latitude like)                   Corn, Wheat, ...
ALTITUDINAL ZONATION                             TIERRA HELADA                                 (Alpine)        12,000’    ...
Culture and Altitudinal Zonation            Indigenous              Areas        Spanish      settlements African Influence
SOUTHAMERICA’S CULTURE SPHERES
The Caribbean… A carnival of abundance          The Carribean…“Races of all continents have miscegenated there, cultures a...
South American Drug Trade
MAINLAND vs RIMLAND
General Outline•   Natural Disasters•   Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)•   Human Development Index (HDI)•   Border Issues
HDI-Levels of Human Development • Income       • Life Expectancy • Literacy     • Education
HDICountry       HDI (2012)Mexico        57Guatemala     131Belize        93El Salvador   105Honduras      121Nicaragua   ...
Regional Consequences• Migration  – Source countries?  – Destinations?• Foreign Investment  – Where would you invest?• Pol...
Alajuela, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica Airport
General Outline•   Natural Disasters•   Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)•   Human Development Index (HDI)•   Border Issues
GDP PER CAPITA ALONG THE US-MEXICAN BORDER
De-Industrialization job loss in USA
NAFTA-Foreign Investment1) Cheap labor2) close to USA marketsMaquiladoras  – Foreign-owned companies
“Twin Cities”
Why drug violence on our doorstep?• Huge drug demand (2/3 of illegal global demand)• Mexico was South America’s “middle ma...
US/Mexico BorderLate 20th Century: 1 Million illegal crossings each year – (~60% Mexicans)        45% of Agricultural labo...
21st Century—limited undocumented migrationhttp://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/07/06/world/americas/immigration.html?hp
Changes in the USA • Tightened:   – Border patrol/Fence   – Employer laws • Loosened:   • Visa requirements   – Less econo...
Changes in Mexico• Improved:  – Economy  – Education  – Politics• Lower birth rates• Agave products
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
Andes and Latin America
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Andes and Latin America

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Presentation for the Massachusetts Geographic Alliance, 2013

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  • An advertisement (Conde Nast Traveler) from 2007. When scale is not shown on a map – beware! On this map, Peru has clipped off Alaska so as not to show the Pacific Ocean at scale. The Japanese are wealthy enough to be world tourists (and they have historical connections with Peru). Their trip across the Pacific to Peru seems only as long as Europeans’ trip across the Atlantic.
  • Amazon, Anacondas and Macaws
  • A breadbasket, similar to American Midwest with Wheat and Livestock.
  • CVC disease limits production
  • No longer a “growing problem”
  • A recently constructed section of the controversial US-Mexico border fence expansion project crosses previously pristine desert sands at sunrise on March 14, 2009 between Yuma, Arizona and Calexico, California. The new barrier between the US and Mexico stands 15 feet tall and sits on top of the sand so it can lifted by a machine and repositioned whenever the migrating desert dunes begin to bury it. The almost seven miles of floating fence cost about $6 million per mile to build.
  • Andes and Latin America

    1. 1. Latin AmericaInter-related Physical and Human Geographies http://geographyeducation.org/regional/south-america/
    2. 2. The Andes—Historical Divide
    3. 3. General Outline• Natural Disasters• Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)• Human Development Index (HDI)• Border Issues
    4. 4. Natural hazards-Archipelago
    5. 5. 1996 Montserrat
    6. 6. Andes--Perfect Subduction Zone
    7. 7. Chilean Economy• Pacific Rim• Elongated, Andes• Southern Hemisphere
    8. 8. Atacama Desert• Orographic Lifting• Cold Ocean Currents
    9. 9. Agricultural Region-Las Pampas• Grains, Livestock• Breadbasket• Similar to Midwest in USA
    10. 10. Brazilian Agriculture• Coffee, Citrus, Tobacco (1st)
    11. 11. General Outline• Natural Disasters• Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)• Human Development Index (HDI)• Border Issues
    12. 12. Altitudinal Zonation
    13. 13. ALTITUDINAL ZONATION TIERRA CALIENTE (Tropical) Bananas, Cocoa, Sugar, Rice 3000’ 750 m Sea SeaLevel Level
    14. 14. ALTITUDINAL ZONATION TIERRA TEMPLADA (Temperate) Coffee, Rice, Corn, Beans 6,500’ 1800 m 3000’ 600 m Sea SeaLevel Level
    15. 15. ALTITUDINAL ZONATION TIERRA FRIA (Mid-latitude like) Corn, Wheat, Potato 12,000’ 3,600 m 6,500’ 2,000 m 3000’ 600 m Sea SeaLevel Level
    16. 16. ALTITUDINAL ZONATION TIERRA HELADA (Alpine) 12,000’ Grazing, Mining 3,600 m 6,500’ 2,000 m 3000’ 600 m Sea SeaLevel Level
    17. 17. Culture and Altitudinal Zonation Indigenous Areas Spanish settlements African Influence
    18. 18. SOUTHAMERICA’S CULTURE SPHERES
    19. 19. The Caribbean… A carnival of abundance The Carribean…“Races of all continents have miscegenated there, cultures andcustoms most foreign to each other have syncretized, nature hasexploited into myriads of forms, and the constant feast of colorand sounds has goaded the formal carnival to paroxysm…” Gabriel García Márquez, Colombian novelist
    20. 20. South American Drug Trade
    21. 21. MAINLAND vs RIMLAND
    22. 22. General Outline• Natural Disasters• Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)• Human Development Index (HDI)• Border Issues
    23. 23. HDI-Levels of Human Development • Income • Life Expectancy • Literacy • Education
    24. 24. HDICountry HDI (2012)Mexico 57Guatemala 131Belize 93El Salvador 105Honduras 121Nicaragua 129Costa Rica 69Panama 58Columbia 88http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index
    25. 25. Regional Consequences• Migration – Source countries? – Destinations?• Foreign Investment – Where would you invest?• Political stability – Military power
    26. 26. Alajuela, Costa Rica
    27. 27. Costa Rica
    28. 28. Costa Rica Airport
    29. 29. General Outline• Natural Disasters• Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)• Human Development Index (HDI)• Border Issues
    30. 30. GDP PER CAPITA ALONG THE US-MEXICAN BORDER
    31. 31. De-Industrialization job loss in USA
    32. 32. NAFTA-Foreign Investment1) Cheap labor2) close to USA marketsMaquiladoras – Foreign-owned companies
    33. 33. “Twin Cities”
    34. 34. Why drug violence on our doorstep?• Huge drug demand (2/3 of illegal global demand)• Mexico was South America’s “middle man” – NAFTA – 9/11• Political corruption
    35. 35. US/Mexico BorderLate 20th Century: 1 Million illegal crossings each year – (~60% Mexicans) 45% of Agricultural laborers in the US were undocumented migrants
    36. 36. 21st Century—limited undocumented migrationhttp://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/07/06/world/americas/immigration.html?hp
    37. 37. Changes in the USA • Tightened: – Border patrol/Fence – Employer laws • Loosened: • Visa requirements – Less economic disparity $6 million per mile
    38. 38. Changes in Mexico• Improved: – Economy – Education – Politics• Lower birth rates• Agave products

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