Conflict theorists would point to the fact that elites control how cities grow, if and where they will prosper, and where the excluded will live. Emminent domain is a clause in the constituion that has been applied to evict people from their houses for other uses-consider the number of people living around Charlotte Douglas airport who have given up farms and houses so that the airport can expand. Another common tactic of elites is to exclude the poor by making parts of the city inaccesible-through lack of public transit & sidewalks-consider the public transit system in Atlanta
Population and urbanization
Population and Urbanization Introduction to Sociology Seth Allen
Chapter Outline• Demography: The Study of Population• Population Growth in Global Context• A Brief Glimpse at International Migration Theories• Urbanization in Global Perspective• Perspectives on Urbanization and the Growth of Cities• Problems in Global Cities• Urban Problems in the United States• Population and Urbanization in the Future
Population• World’s population of 6.8 billion in 2010 is increasing by more than 76 million people per year.• Between 2000 and 2030, almost all of the world’s 1.4 % annual population growth will occur in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Changes in PopulationChanges occur as a result of three processes:• Fertility (births)• Mortality (deaths)• Migration/Emigration
How Did We Get So Big So Fast?Link to YouTube video
Population PyramidA graphic representation of the distribution of a population by sex and age.
Population Pyramid ExerciseGo to Population Pyramid website and let‟s look some countries. Group #1 Group #2 Group #3 Germany United States China Click on each year from Click on each year Click on each year from 1950 to 2010. Are between 1950 and 1950 to 2015. What do there age groups that 2010. Notice the bulge you notice about the are particularly thin? that emerges beginning age distribution? What Why is this? What is in 1950 and continues does the changes mean happening to the to move up the age for Chinese society? youngest age groups brackets. What over time? generation of people is this?
Population Composition• The biological and social characteristics of a population, including age, sex, race, marital status, education, occupation, income, and size of household.• The sex ratio is the number of males for every hundred females in a given population. – A sex ratio of 100 indicates an equal number of males and females in the population. – A number greater than 100, indicates there are more males than females; if it is less than 100, there are more females than males.
Theories of Population Growth• The Malthusian Perspective• The Marxist Perspective• The Neo-Malthusian Perspective• Demographic Transition Theory
Malthusian Perspective• If left unchecked, the population would exceed the available food supply.• Population would increase in a geometric progression (2, 4, 8, …).• The food supply would increase by an arithmetic progression (1, 2, 3, 4 . . .).
Marxist Perspective• Using technology, food can be produced for a growing population.• Overpopulation will lead to the eventual destruction of capitalism.• Workers will become dissatisfied and develop class-consciousness because of shared oppression.
Marxist Perspective Applied to the Irish Potato Famine of 1846Ireland operated as colony of Britain, who controlled their exports. A disease decimated the potato crop in 1846 and the British were reluctant to act. The British failed to send enough of their own crops to aid the hungry people and over 1 million Irish people died over the next decade.11. Jim Donnelly, “The Irish Famine,” BBC History, The Irish Famine.
The Neo-Malthusian Perspective• Overpopulation and rapid population growth result in global environmental problems.• People should be encouraging zero population growth-roughly 2 children per couple.
Demographic Transition TheoryStage 1: Preindustrial Societies - little population growth, high birth rates offset by high death rates.Stage 2: Early Industrialization - significant population growth, birth rates are relatively high, death rates decline.Stage 3: Advanced Industrialization and Urbanization - very little population growth occurs, birth rates and death rates are low.Stage 4: Postindustrialization - birth rates decline as more women are employed and raising children becomes more costly.
The demographic transitionmodel has been criticized forbeing narrowly applicable to theWestern world. Look how quickly this processhas happened in the rapidlyindustrializing nations of LatinAmerica.
Theories of MigrationConflict Theories Functionalist Theories• Split labor market theory • Neoclassical economic• World systems theory approach • New household economics of migration approach Other Theories • Institutional theory-Groups ‘push’ and ‘pull’ migrants to new nations • Network theory –Family and business networks create channels of migrants
Emergence and Evolution of the City• The earliest humans are believed to have emerged anywhere from 40,000 to 1,000,000 years ago.• Scholars date the development of the first city between 3500 and 3100 BCE.Three preconditions:• A favorable physical environment.• An advanced technology that could produce a social surplus.• A well-developed political system to provide social stability to the economic system.
Preindustrial Cities• The largest preindustrial city was Rome. By 100 C.E., it may have had a population of 650,000 (Chandler and Fox, 1974).• Crowded housing conditions and a lack of adequate sewage facilities increased the hazards from plagues and fires, and death rates were high.• Food supplies were limited.• Migration to the city was difficult.• Concept of nation-state emerged Jericho is believed to be the oldest know city, founded around 8,000 B.C.
Industrial Cities• The Industrial Revolution changed the nature of the city. – Factories attract workers from rural area. – Rapidly developing transportation technology brings more of them, and from farther away. – Urban populations mushroom. – The metropolis is born • A central city and suburbs that dominate the cultural and economic life of a region.
Post Industrial Cities• Economies gradually shift from secondary (manufacturing) production to tertiary (service and information-processing) production.• Cities increasingly rely on an economic structure that is based on scientific knowledge rather than industrial production, and as a result, a class of professionals and technicians grows in size and influence.
Park’s Concentric Model based on Chicago in 1925 What are the some of the challenges of the concentric model? Can it be applied to other cities? Are there geographic, political, and demographic changes that could distort this model?
Conflict Perspectives on Urban Growth•Developers, capitalist class, and government leaders, notindividuals, determine how cities are laid out•Land is developed according to its exchange value andconflicts arise over the use value•Governments subsidize growth in certain areas, allow othersto decline (uneven development theory)•Entire neighborhoods have been „conquered‟ by gatedcommunities and public space is privatized It is easy to see how in a city like Charlotte, government subsidies can influence the economic health of a neighborhood.
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Cities Sociologist Robert Sampson, author of The Great American City, discusses how high community morale can positively affect how people respond to natural disasters (Link) Symbolic interactionists focus on peoples‟ experiences in city life; how they view their neighbors, communities, how they interact, and how they perceive urban living in general.
Simmels View of City Life• Urban life is stimulating; it shapes peoples thoughts and actions.• Many urban residents avoid emotional involvement with each other and try to ignore events taking place around them.• Urban living can be liberating - people have opportunities for individualism and autonomy.
Suburbs• Since World War II, the U.S. population has shifted as people moved to the suburbs.• Suburbanites rely on urban centers for employment but pay property taxes to suburban governments and school districts. What would conflict, functionalist, and symbolic interactionists have to say about suburban life?
Suburban Wars People move to suburbs to find cheaper housing, better schools, and move away from the problems of the city How might conflict theorists view the proposed secession of Ballantyne and other affluent parts of cities?Report from WSOCTV, aired on 4/12/12 (Link)
The World’s Ten Largest MetropolisesQuestions for You:1. Do you see how the Malthusians would be concerned about over-population?2. Notice the cities that are currently the largest in the world-what do you think that this means for the future of global politics?