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Postmodern (stapascamodern)

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Postmodern (stapascamodern)

  1. 1. + postmodern ARCHITECTUR AL HISTORY AND THEORY
  2. 2. + The end of modern architecture ------------------------------------------------------------ 1972 [C. Jenks]
  3. 3. + Minoru Yamasaki: the Pruitt-Igoe Housing, St. Louis ---winner of CIAM Award, destroyed in 1972
  4. 4. Relationship of Man and Nature Ideology and Art BEFORE MODERN MODERN AFTER MODERN Man Rational Ecole de Beaux Arts Renaissance Bauhaus CIAM Relationship of Man and Nature Ideology and Art Man Rational Pluralism Metaphor Communication De-Construction etc. etc. etc. etc. The End of mo- dernism
  5. 5. + postmodern Back to History “Return of "wit, ornament and reference“- breaking away from convention”
  6. 6. + [post] modern Start to questioning many things Renewing architecture from the inside
  7. 7. + Late Modern  FRANK LOYD WRIGHT  LE CORBUSIER  ALDO ROSSI : MENGKRITIK KERAS ‘FORM FOLLOW FUNCTION  LOUIS I. KAHN : mulai dari ruang  ‘EXPERIENCE’ architecture
  8. 8. + TEAM X
  9. 9. + Peter & Alison Smithson Architecture is not made with the brain
  10. 10. + Ralph Erskine [1960] Mengkritisi bahwa pemahaman tentang modern terlalu naif sehingga membelenggu kebebasan Mengajukan proposisi house participating dalam pembangunan perumahan
  11. 11. + Aldo van Eyck [1962] Mengkritisi bahwa Industrialisasi bangunan mereduksi arsitektur menjadi “packaging of space” Mengajukan proposisi integrasi “twin phenomena” ketimbang separasi dalam design
  12. 12. + NEW STATEMENT
  13. 13. + Robert Venturi A controversial critic of the purely functional and spare designs of modern orthodox architecture,Venturi has been considered a counterrevolutionary Less is Bore
  14. 14. + Robert Venturi The Author of Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, 1966 The book was metaphorically the postmodern rebuttal to Modernism’s most influential manifesto, Le Corbusier’s Towards a New Architecture, published nearly forty years before
  15. 15. + Vanna Venturi house
  16. 16. + Robert Venturi (1966) LESS is BORE Both-andeither or Hybrid formPure form Riches of meaningClarity of meanings "Learning from Las Vegas" (1972-1978)
  17. 17. + With regards to Robert Venturi
  18. 18. + Learning from Las Vegas
  19. 19. + Las Vegas Modernist 'honesty' was replaced by Postmodern superficiality at first, which revealed multiple layers of meaning ressed in humor
  20. 20. + Aesthetics and order in Las Vegas treatment of walls, proportions of windows, the relation of wall-space to window-space. treatment of the exterior of a building as a whole the effect of our senses of the treatment of the interior, the sequence of rooms
  21. 21. + Signage and Communication over space
  22. 22. + Complexity in architecture The new architecture is self-similar, like tree growths. If you look at any leaf on any tree branch it's similar to but not exactly a repetition of the previous branch. So the new science of complexity or showing how an architecture can be produced just as quickly, cheaply and efficiently by using computer production methods to get the slight variation, the self-similarity.
  23. 23. + Charles Jenks •The death of modern architecture [1972] •The new language of architecture [1981] •Architecture of the Jumping universe [1995] •What is postmodernism? [1996] •The new paradigm in architecture [2004]
  24. 24. + According to Jenks it's a big black box, huge, scale-less and repetitive, endlessly repetitive.These black boxes were built all over the world in every downtown from the 60s to the 80s, and still there's some of them are still being built. “ I mean it is dumb and boring frankly, although it has great details and it has a sleek elegance and it became the businessman's vernacular. “ Mies van der Rohe's Chicago Civic Centre.
  25. 25. +Charles Jencks on Postmodern Architecture  1. The most obvious new convention concerns beauty and composition. Instead of Renaissance harmony and Modernist integration, we have dissonant beauty or disharmonious harmony. In a new pluralist society an oversimplified unity is either false or unchallenging. The juxtaposition of tastes and world views is more real than modernism was prepared to allow. This also comes from contemporary science's conviction that the universe is dynamic and changing. Classical forms have mirrored a universe that was static and in harmony. The Renaissance gave us architecture that was well proportioned, on Greek lines, and mirrored the microcosm and the macrocosm. Now, we don't have any one theory of the microcosm that is "true".
  26. 26. + The New York A.T.&T. Building
  27. 27. +  2. Pluralism is also important. Stylistic variety is important, and the celebration of difference is always apparent. Different "languages" of art and architecture are mixed together. It is not just a matter of whim, but is tied to specific functions and symbolic intentions. Ambiguity is often valued – it is up to the reader to supply the "unifying text".  3. Postmodern architects try to achieve an urbane urbanism. New buildings should both fit into and extend the urban context, reuse such constants as the street, arcade and piazza, yet acknowledge too the new technologies and means of transportation. Elements of the city must be balanced – public to private, working to living, monument to infill, short blocks to city grid.This will end up looking more like the 18th century European city, where you have small blocks and mixed-use planning, rather than the modern overcentralised city. Charles Jencks on Postmodern Architecture
  28. 28. + Cabot Square, Canary Wharf
  29. 29. + Charles Jencks on Postmodern Architecture 4. Anthropomorphism is another important trait. Many postmodern architects incorporate ornaments and mouldings suggestive of the human body.There might be a hidden or suggested face, for instance, or a full figure.
  30. 30. The Turning Torso
  31. 31. + Charles Jencks on Postmodern Architecture 5. Another theme is the continuum between the past and the present. Recall that for modernism there is a positive break with the past. In postmodern architecture there is parody, nostalgia, and pastiche. It is almost like a half- remembered dream – bits of classical reference. The technical term is "anamnesis" – suggested recollection, or unforgetting. 6.There is a kind of return to painting in postmodernism, although it is a return that does not simply replicate the modernist search for form.There is a return to content.There is no sense that we are looking for the pure "spiritual" form, but rather we are playing with the images of the past, without the narrative of the past.‘Great Urban Construction’ [Aldo Rossi 1978]
  32. 32. + Charles Jencks on Postmodern Architecture 7. Postmodernism uses double- coding, irony, ambiguity, and contradiction.The unexpected is incorporated. Opposites are juxtaposed.
  33. 33. + Charles Jencks on Postmodern Architecture 8.When several codes are used coherently they produce another quality, multivalence. A univalent work or building attempts to refer only to itself. A multivalent building reaches out to the rest of its environment and makes different associations.This ensures that a work will have multiple resonances, and different readings.
  34. 34. +  9.This multivalence comes only with the displacement of conventions and the reinterpretation of tradition. A classical form may be pressed into new service, and look strange to begin with but actually make sense once you understand the references.  10. Postmodernists also try to elaborate new rhetorical figures. Charles Jencks on Postmodern Architecture
  35. 35. + Trafford Centre Manchester
  36. 36. + Trafford Centre Manchester
  37. 37. + Manchester Trafford Centre Pantheon Rome
  38. 38. + Crystal Palace Trafford Centre Manchester
  39. 39. +  11. Postmodernism finally has a return to an absent centre. It has always been linked with other "posts": post-western, post-Christian. It suggests a culture that has a sense of departure, but no clear sense of direction.We don't have any grand narratives anymore, but we are led back to ourselves and our "petit recit" through the work of the postmodernists. And, just as post-industrial incorporates the industrial as well (it is not a repudiation or abandonment), so the post-modern incorporates the modern as well. Charles Jencks on Postmodern Architecture
  40. 40. + Charles Jencks
  41. 41. +Evolutionary Tree [the language of architecture]
  42. 42. + post modern architecture As a style
  43. 43. + Neo eclectic : where reference and ornament have returned to the façade, replacing the aggressively unornamented modern styles. This eclecticism is often combined with the use of non-orthogonal angles and unusual surfaces
  44. 44. + Used classical styles in new combinations: pillars, arches, domes, curtain wall facades; green and roman conventions
  45. 45. + The Federal Branch Bank of Houston by Robert Stern, at first appears as an abstracted Greek temple from far away, but the highly contrasting colors, the broken façade planes, and the gigantic painted ‘brick’ mortar joints reveal a rather postmodern treatment.The front façade of the building resembles more a child’s drawing of house than a temple, and the gaps between the punched planes undermine the bank’s traditional image as being a strong fortress that protects wealth.
  46. 46. + Similar to old cathedrals, draws the eye upwards toward the sky
  47. 47. +Reconciled differences between old and new generations (culture wars) Postmodern architecture takes old styles and updates them
  48. 48. + Post modern 1970’s- Rebelling against the minimalism of Modern Architecture of the 60s which rebelled against the conformity of the 50s
  49. 49. + universalism = boring
  50. 50. +6 common themes in postmodern architecture
  51. 51. + Theme #1: Historicism Back to History -- krisis pada arsitektur modern  meningkatkan kesadaran diri, analitis, image baru , dan  orientasi pada alam dari periode postmodern. Para arsitek postmodern kemudian lebih menaruh perhatian pada mereka sendiri dengan suatu sejarah yang mempengaruhi
  52. 52. + Definition of historicism in postmodern architecture  1.     Sikap yang perhatian pada tradisi masa lalu  2.     Praktek artistik dari penggunaan bentuk sejarah   Revisi postmodern dengan tema historikisme bertujuan mencari kesinambungan dengan hasil karya yang lebih awal, dan mempertanyakan apakah suatu perubahan yang radikal itu layak? -- dari gaya historikalnya.
  53. 53. + Sainsbury wing Robert Ventury Connection between the original museum and old and the new galleries
  54. 54. + Sainsbury Wing “arsitektur tidak muncul begitu saja , namun berasal dari suatu sejarah, yang memiliki identitas  dan unsur historis.” –RobertVenturi- Ia juga menggunakan elemen klasik pada SainsburyWing dengan cara ‘ menempel’ maupun rekonstruksi ulang dari bangunan national galeri.
  55. 55. + Theme #2: Meaning
  56. 56. + The lack of modern architecture Rasionalisasi bentuk tanpa memperhatikan bahwa suatu penemuan bentuk desain baru memainkan suatu peranan yang sangat penting dalam dunia desain. Funsi dalam arsitektur modern dilihat sebagai suatu yang rasional dan ilmiah merupakan intisari dari arsitektur modern fungsi sebagai suatu yang external,apa yang ada di dalam (jiwa) memancar keluar,ditentukan oleh fungsi.
  57. 57. + Peter Eisenman menentang fungsi yang menjadi suatu aspek yang berkelanjutan dari teori arsitektur yang terus- menerus digunakan sejak jaman renaissance dan hubungan yang mendasar dengan humanism sehingga arsitektur terus-menerus dalam kungkungan modernsm, bahwa seharusnya teori dapat menyempurnakan apa yang telah ada, dengan demikian arsitektur terus bertumbuh sejalan dengan perbedaan modernism dan humanism yang rumit,tidak sesimple yang dijelaskan pada teori modernism.
  58. 58. + House VI •As annoying as the house was to inhabit, Eisenman was able to constantly remind the users of the architecture around them and how it affects their lives. He succeeded in building a structure that functioned both as a house and a work of art, but changing the priority of both so that function followed the art. He built a home where man was forced to live in a work of art, a sculpture, and according to the clients who enjoyed inhabiting Eisenman’s artwork and poetry, the house was very successful.
  59. 59. + Michael Grave Grave yang bekerja sejak tahun 1976-1977 menggambarkan suatu hubungan antara arsitektur dengan alam dan budaya. Pada tahun 1980 yang merupakan masa kejayaan untuk arsitek banyak muncul‘signature building’ yang dapat mempengaruhi masyarakat. adanya suatu bentukan “imitasi” yang justru menjadi suatu fenomena komersiil “pukulan” bagi dunia arsitektur. Apabila suatu produk arsitektur mengalami peng”imitasi”an maka akan terjadi pengurangan pada komponen aslinya.
  60. 60. + Guggenheim Museum : Frank Gehry How those ideas generate? What are the process? What does the eyes see? What is the connection between form and function?
  61. 61. + Theme #3: Place
  62. 62. + Man, Nature and Architecture  sebagai bagian kecil pada permukaan bumi yang diidentifikasi dengan nama, obyek material dan hal-hal yang lain. (Albert Einstein)  posisi yang berhubungan dengan alam adalah usaha untuk memperkaya pengalaman manusia (Heidegger)  Tugas arsitek adalah menghubungkan alam dengan keadaan dan penggunaan landscape. Keindahan yang berlangsung di dalam penyusunan site mencerminkan hasrat untuk membuat tempat. What is a place?
  63. 63. + James Stirling Electa Book Shop
  64. 64. + Puri Ahimsa Ketut Artana
  65. 65. + Themes #4: Urban Theory
  66. 66. +
  67. 67. + •Read and Understanding •City Image (Kevin Lynch) •Tipologi sebagai alat analitik dan sebagai dasar rasional untuk proses desain pada transformasi. (Aldo Rossi)
  68. 68. + Themes#5: Politics and Ethics
  69. 69. + Etika lingkungan William MCDonough, berpendapat bahwa perkembangan arsitektur juga mengakui hak- hak generasi yang akan datang yang  tidak merusak lingkungan. Jadi semestinya diusahakan bahan daur ulang dan bahan yang ramah lingkungan. 
  70. 70. Arsitektur  ternyata juga dikaitkan dalam hal politik & etika, sehingga para arsitek diharuskan untuk : •bisa memberikan penggambaran yang nyata mengenai keadaan sosial dalam karyanya. •bisa mendukung status Quo dan keadaan yang ada. •bisa mempengaruhi masyarakat untuk ikut dalam hal-hal tertentu •bisa mengubah status dan tradisi masyarakat Keterkaitan dengan masalah politik menimbulkan munculnya teori dari Adorno (1962) bahwa politik yang bisa ditentang dalam seni mencapai otonominya.  Arsitektur adalah seni atau jasa; hal ini menjadi masalah dalam arsitektur sementara Etika adalah pengamatan masalah moral manusia dalam budayanya dan etika didalam arsitektur dipakai untuk  mengikat peraturan.
  71. 71. + Theme#6: Body fenomenologi, poststrukturalis, dan feminis.
  72. 72. + Badan digambarkan sebagai tubuh (fisik) manusia sedangkan subjek menunjukkan individu; dan setiap individu berbeda pengenalannya.Badan dalam arsitektur klasik menurut Vidler , badan digambarkan sebagai skala dan dapat menyatakan alam pada umumnya dalam perencanaan bangunan BADAN, SUBJEK DAN OBJEK
  73. 73. + Jean-Paul Sartre mengklaim dalam Being & Nothingless bahwa badan menggerakkan pengetahuan itu sendiri dari proyek didunia.   Eisenman menjelaskan bahwa kaitan manusia dan modernisme adalah manusia merupakan fungsi yang bersambungan antara satu sama lain di antara system bahasa yang kompleks.
  74. 74. + Renovasi postmodern Hilangnya gagasan kemanusiaan tentang anthroposentrisme dikemukakan oleh Graves sehingga manusia tidak dapat merasa terpusat dalam suatu ruang.            Sedang Perez Gomez berpendapat bahwa arsitektur modern perlu menunjuk citra badan yang berbeda dari arsitektur klasik.            Vidler membahas badan adalah studi yang aneh yang berfokus pada penjelmaan anthropomorfis dalam arsitektur, menyebabkan bangunan dalam rasa sakit.
  75. 75. + The Piazza d’Italia by Charles Moore, 1978
  76. 76. Bank of America Centre in Houston
  77. 77. + Michael Grave colorful iconic
  78. 78.  Portland Building in Portland , Oregon
  79. 79. +The City of Arts and the Sciences in Valencia, Spain. By Santiago Caltrava, 2002
  80. 80. + The Milwaukee Art Museum by Santiago Calatrava,2003
  81. 81. +Auditorio de tenerife by Santiago Calatrava, 2003
  82. 82. + NeueStaatsgalerie in Stuttgard, Germany,1843
  83. 83. +NeueStaatsgalerie in Stuttgard, Germany by James Sterling converted in 1987
  84. 84. + Petronas Towers in Kaula Lumpur, 1998
  85. 85. + Taipei 101, in Taiwan, by C Y Lee and partner in 2004
  86. 86. + BurjKhalifa in Dubai, 2010
  87. 87. + 30 St Mary Axe, by Sir Norman Foster ,2003
  88. 88. +The Expo MRT Station, part of the Mass Rapid Transit system in Singapore,2002
  89. 89. + The Guggenheim, Abu Dhabi, planned to be completed between 2011-2012
  90. 90. + In contrast to modern functionalism What do you think?
  91. 91. + Homework due Mid semester 'metabolism - the city of the future - dreams and visions of reconstruction in postwar and present-day japan’. 'individuals should be protected by capsules in which they can reject information they do not need and in which they are sheltered from information they do not want,thereby allowing an individual to recover his subjectivity and independence' - kisho kurokawa What are the design concept of Nakagin Capsule Tower? Why those concept failed?
  92. 92. +

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