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History and theory part2


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History and theory part2

  1. 1. + Introduction to Architecture THEORY AND HISTORY
  2. 2. + Condition for Modern [philosophy] Cogito Ergo Sum
  3. 3. Louis XIV
  4. 4. Ecole des Beaux-Arts 1. Ecole des Beaux Arts (1666) is the final period of Before Modern era, as well as the beginning of Modern era. 2. Ecole des Beaux Arts is the first school that elevated architecture into an atonomous discipline 3. Ecole des Beaux Arts is the oldest architectural school who spread the school’s pedagogical system and arch. style to places around the globe
  5. 5. + created 1816 as a merger of : academie de peinture et de sculpture [1648] academie de musique [1699] academie d’architecture [1671]
  6. 6. + The early stage of E des BA Under supervision of The Great Jean-Pierre Colbert, France reached prosperity so did education. At 1840, he established de sociale centrale des architect: organization that make architecture similar to profession, law and medicine. So E de BA elevatred architecture into autonomous discipline. back to main
  7. 7. Claude Nicolas Ledoux
  8. 8. + atelier Ecole de Beaux-Arts
  9. 9. + Learning from precedent
  10. 10. + principles God is in the detail Architecture need sculpture Eclecticism Hierarchy of space symmetric Henry Labrouste
  11. 11. eclectic hierachcy of spaces symmetri details sculpture
  12. 12. + Industrial Revolution
  13. 13. Rational Effective Efficient Standard Mass Production
  14. 14. Viollet Le Duc
  15. 15. Arc de Triomphe (1806-1836) . Napoleon I has the ambition to make his capital the most beautiful city in the world. The architect :Jean-Francois-Therese Chalgrin, Jean-Arnaud Raymond, Louis-Robert Goust, Jean-Nicolas Huyot, Guillaume-Abel Blouet. The design was a Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture.
  16. 16. The Influence Baron van Haussmann interpenetrating paths to the city of Paris back to main
  17. 17. + School of Architecture
  18. 18. + Ecole de Beaux Arts All of these young architects carried into practice the Ecole’s method of both a ‘preesquisse’ to find an appropriate parti, and the esquisse, which expressed the essence of the organization. Along with skills in design theory and rendering, these factors affected architects’ process for many years to come. Drawing techniques such as eliminating background conveyed a specific message, free of unnecessary details. Ledoux’s fantasy architecture consisted of simple geometry and primarily displayed function. The sketch by Henri Labrouste, who was trained at the Ecole, reveals early sketch diagram techniques to find compositional direction.
  19. 19. + Adolf Loos : ornament and crime •Exemplifies the contrasts and contradictions of the years leading toward modernism and the international style. •Respected traditional architecture experimented with sleek volumes. •Actually but better known for his writing. •Beginning the sketch with ruled lines may have reflected his interest to study simple geometries, but he may have also seen the definitive lines as a base for subsequent evaluation practiced in verbal criticism and irony, he may have purposefully put forth a visual hypothesis, expecting it to be altered through critical dialogue.
  20. 20. de Klerk, Michel(1884–1923)Sketch of design for a water tower with service buildings in reinforced concrete, Pencil on tracing paper + The Amsterdam school The architects of the Amsterdam School rejected classicism, concentrating instead on relationships between ‘functionalism and beauty’ (Bock, Johannisse and Stissi, 1997, p. 9). Beginning in the early 1900s, this movement stemmed from the common belief system of architects such as H. P. Berlage, J. M. van der May, Klerk, and Piet Kramer. Fueled by political policy governing city expansion and mandates for workers’ housing, these architects searched for sculptural forms that could be economically efficient and, thus, respond to social needs (Bock, Johannisse and Stissi, 1997; Casciato, 1996). Concerned with materials and construction methods, the architects of the Amsterdam School used sketches and drawings to envision building systems and massing.
  21. 21. Rietveld, Gerrit Thomas(1888–1964)Rough draft variation of zigzag child’s chair, Crayon, ink on paper. Originally a furniture builder, GerritRietveld was partially responsible for the architectural ideals of the De Stijl movement of the early 1920s. His Schröder House epitomized many of the movement’s beliefs, including simplicity of form, verticals and horizontals that intersect and penetrate each other, primary colors, asymmetrical balance, and elements separated by space (Brown, 1958). + De Stijl De Stijl architects also built with masonry and explored massive geometric forms made from concrete. In contrast to the Amsterdam School, however, they eliminated decoration and most color, and assembled rectangular forms (de Wit, 1983). Naturally, their drawings and sketches had a minimal, abstract expression.
  22. 22. + Le Corbusier Considering the briefness of the sketch, it is clear that Le Corbusier depended upon additional written messages to later recall his design intention. The sketchbooks were for him a discussion about design and also represented memory devices. Plate #322, Sketchbook 18, Volume 2, sketch of Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronchamp, February1951, Ink on sketchbook paper
  23. 23. Five Points of Architecture: Pilotis Free Façade Open Floor Plan Un-disturbed Views Roof Garden
  24. 24. +
  25. 25. + Modern Architecture International Style
  26. 26. + Bauhaus Gropius was transforming the former art school Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar. Based on the theory of the ‘artist as exalted craftsman,’ the Bauhaus attempted to unify the building and a whole, integrating its various elements (Conrads,1970). Gropius advocated bringing together sculpture, painting, and crafts into the design of the built environment. The masters of the Bauhaus were concerned with teaching craftsmanship in a workshop setting; besides craft, science, and theory, the school also provided instruction in drawing, painting, life drawing, composition, technical and perspective drawing, and ornament and industrial design (Conrads, 1970). These studios taught the techniques of sketching from memory and imagination (Conrads, 1970). They also employed axonometric drawings. These two-dimensional projections showed three sides of the object or building equally, and were comprised of parallel lines which could be constructed with straight edges. They suggested the preciseness of the machine and reveled in the abstraction (Naylor,1968)
  27. 27. + Walter Gropius Obviously concerned about the material thickness of walls, he also differentiated the floor surfaces by shading certain areas and crosshatching others. These visual indicators help to emphasize that the house was to be built using local materials, fieldstone, and wood. The careful control of proportion and the consideration for spatial relationships indicate that Gropius used this sketch for concentrated and deliberate thinking.
  28. 28. + Gropius’ reputation for efficiency would support a theory that he was concerned with the economical delivery of food and the distances of travel through the space.
  29. 29. +
  30. 30. + Mies van de Rohe At the Bauhaus, Mies encouraged his students to develop their projects with vast numbers of sketches before committing to final drawings (Cohen, 1996). Mies’ sketches show mostly plans accompanied by interior perspectives and elaborate construction details that show connections (Drexler, 1986). An unusual technique Mies employed was that of collage. They may be considered sketches since they present a basic outline, pertain to conceptual thinking and provide little pictorial orientation. Pieces of cut paper were pasted in juxtaposition so as to make a semblance of a parti. He used bright yellow paper drawn over with a grid, resembling fenestration or an abstract pattern. In the center has been placed a very dark rectangle surrounded with light gray, tan, and white pieces. This collaged sketch is really about precise and imprecise. This collage from 1909, early in his career as an architect, reveals Mies’ penchant for the De Stijl-like juxtaposition of horizontals and verticals
  31. 31. + ‘less is more’ The forms reflect Mies’ bold and simple rectangles which act as planes slicing through space. In contrast, the composition of pieces is simultaneously imprecise.
  32. 32. Karl Marx
  33. 33. Three Mucisians, 1912
  34. 34. Walter Gropius, “March of the DEAD”
  35. 35. Schroder House: Gerrit Rietveld
  36. 36. + VITRUVIAN MAN Leonardo Da Vinci
  37. 37. Congres Internationaux dí Architecture Moderne + (Deklarasi CIAM, 1928) 1. Gagasanarsitektur modern fenomenaarsitektur&sistemekonomiumum. 2. Gagasanefisiensiekonomitidaklahberartiproduksi menghasilkankeuntungankomersialmaksimum, menuntutupayakerja minimum. 3. Metodaproduksi yang paling timbuldarirasionalisasidanstandardisasi, berakibatlangsungpadametodakerjadalamarsitektur danindustrigedung (realisasi). tapiproduksi Kebutuhanakanefisiensiekonomi adalahhasildarikeadaanekonomiumumygtermiskin. 4. menyertakan 5. hub. yang yang max. efisienadalah modern yang yang (konsepsi) Rasionalisasidanstandardisasibereaksidalamcaraberlapis:  tuntutankonseparsitekturygmenyederhanakanmetodakerjadisitusdandipabrik.  bagiperusahaanbangunan, haliniberartimengurangiangkatankerjaterampil, menambahburuh yang kurangterampildibawaharahanteknisi yang sangatterampil.  harapanakankonsumer yang memesanrumahdimanaiatinggal; suatupenyesuaiankembalipadakondisikehidupansosial yang baru.
  38. 38. From artistic point of view, the new method of building has to be accepted. Standardization of the building elements will result in new housing units and sections of cities having a uniform character. There is no danger in monotony, for if the basic requirement is fulfilled that only the building units are standardized, the structures built thereof will vary. Their “beauty” will be assured by properly used material and clear, simple construction. It will largely depend on the creative ability of the architect to what extent the arrangement of the “giant building blocks” will form well-designed space in these structures. … There is enough scope for individual and national characteristics to express themselves and yet everything bears the mark of our time. Walter Gropius. From the language of modern architecture: Bruno Zevi
  39. 39. … creative freedom was the climate which permeated everything and was imparted to all masters and students. Intimate contact with the present, service to mankind and society, in a word, humanism is what gave bauhaus its vital impetus.
  40. 40. 1933 to be continued