A. Bacson-Hoabinh CultureHoabinh Bacson term used since the1920s, namely to show that a point ofmaking stone tools with features typicaltrimmed on one or two-sided surface.The area where the discovery ofcultural heritage-Hoabinh Bacson foundthroughout Southeast Asia, to Myanmar(Burma) in the west and north to thesouthern provinces and the periodbetween 18 000 and 3000 years ago.Characteristic of stone tool-HoabinhBacson culture is flakiness in one or twosides of the stone surface more or lessthe size of a fist, and often all a part ofsharp edges. Anam found in groups ofskulls lined with skulls MelanesoidAustraloid group, for example in GoaLang-Koa and Hoabinh.The results of culture-Hoabinh Bacsoncan be found in Siam, Laos, MalayPeninsula, and Indonesia.
Meanwhile, in Vietnam, found placeswhere the manufacture of stonetools, stone tools kind of culture-HoabinhBacson. Even in the Cave of XOM TRAIfound stone tools that have been honedto sharp edges. In the region ofIndonesia, the stone tools of the culture-Hoabinh Bacson can be found inSumatra, Java, NusaTenggara, Kalimantan, Sulawesi to Papua.Bacson located in mountainousareas, while Hoabinh are in the lowlands.Both are around the Gulf of Tonkin.Civilization is a civilization Mesolithikuminitially, their tool is the famous Pebble(ax Sumatra). Further development ofthe civilization of the AgeNeolithikum, by means of a square ax andhatchet shaped. And supporters of thehuman race Melanesoide Papua. Thespread of rectangular axes, throughThailand, Malay Peninsula, Indonesia andthe western part of the humanAustronesian Malay supporters.
Map of the spread of a hatchetshaped spread throughTaiwan, Filipinos and easternIndonesia with human Melanesoidesupporters. Initially the Bacson-Hoabinh just use the simple tools ofpottery fragments of stone but in theyear 600 BC experienced in the formof rocks that resembles an ax thatserves as a cutting tool. There is anoval shape, square, triangle, and thereis a shaped waist. Also found toolsflakes, ground stone of varioussizes, tools from the bones andremains of human bones buried in thefolded position and sprinkled with reddye. Found in excavations in thelimestone mountains in northernVietnam, which is in the mountainsBacson Hoabinh.
In Tonkin stayed two kinds ofpeople, namely Papua Melanosoid andEuropaeide. In addition there aretypes of Mongoloid and Australoid.1. Papua Melanosoid nation, is thenations most extensive areaof distribution, including RearIndies, Indonesia to the islands in thePacific Ocean. This nation hasa culture that has not been on the grind Mesolitikum (pebbles).2. Mongoloid nation, a nation that has a higher culture, that proto-Neolithic (already sharpened).3. Austronesian people, a mixture of peoples and Europaeide Melanesoid.In the Neolithic peoples arescattered throughout theIndonesian archipelagoBacson-culture that developed inSeenanjung Hoabinh Malays broughtby the Melanesoid, blacks who camefrom South China, but in contrast toAfrica.
The arrival of a group of peoplewho bring cultural MelanesoidHoabinh Bacson-divided into twowaves. The first wave consists ofthose who was short and verydark skin. They held a polishingtechnique. While the two groupsmade up of people who bonedtaller, whiter skin, and wavy hair.They are assessed as a maker newhatchets type of tool that isobtained by cutting an ax containstwo parts sharp and polish it.They also use a lot of shells andbones, and pottery are madefamiliar with taknik basket.Bacson culture then spreadthroughout the peninsula,especially the Malay Peninsula(Goa Saber, Kelantan, and theMount Kintamani, Pahang).
B. Dong Son cultureManufacture of bronze in the area of NorthVietnam began around 2500 BC andattributed to cultural stages Dong Dau andGo Mun. But keep in mind that bronzeobjects that had existed before the year500 BC consists of a funnel and the tip ofthe spear ax, sickle bercorong, stemmedspearheads, arrowheads and other smallobjects. The discovery of objects of DongSon culture is very important becausemetal objects found in the region ofIndonesia in general character of Dong Son.Culture of Dong Son bronze style iswidespread in Southeast Asia and theislands of Indonesia. Dong Son culture isvery big influence on the development ofbronze in Indonesia. In fact no less than 56nekara have been found in several parts ofIndonesia and most nekara found inSumatra, Java, and the southern Moluccas.Based on the findings, the expertsconcluded that it is unlikely that nekaranekara-made
Manufacture of bronze in the area of NorthVietnam began around 2500 BC andattributed to cultural stages Dong Dau andGo Mun. But keep in mind that bronzeobjects that had existed before the year500 BC consists of a funnel and the tip ofthe spear ax, sickle bercorong, stemmedspearheads, arrowheads and other smallobjects. The discovery of objects of DongSon culture is very important becausemetal objects found in the region ofIndonesia in general character of Dong Son.Culture of Dong Son bronze style iswidespread in Southeast Asia and theislands of Indonesia. Dong Son culture isvery big influence on the development ofbronze in Indonesia. In fact no less than 56nekara have been found in several parts ofIndonesia and most nekara found inSumatra, Java, and the southern Moluccas.Based on the findings, the expertsconcluded that it is unlikely that nekaranekara-made
the community in areas where itsdiscovery. Therefore, in terms ofstyle and content of the leads arequite high so-nekara nekara thosefound in Indonesia is estimated to bemade in China. Interesting observationfrom Berner nekara Kempers showsthat all those found to the east of Balihas four statues of frogs in the fieldpukulnya. Dong Son, the one containedin the Indochina region (Vietnam), theancestral home bronze culture thatdeveloped in Southeast Asia, so thatthe bronze culture in Southeast Asiacalled the Dong Son culture, thisculture is the nation advocates DeutroMalay (Melayu Muda) are spread inIndonesia, in about 500 BC. In additionto the material culture, they also knowother cultures, such asfarming, making the boatbercadik, astronomy and the trustthat is animism and dynamism. DongSon culture developed rapidly aroundthe 5th century BC and to-2.
Dong Son archaeological objects isvaried, indicating the existence ofvarious influences and streams. Maincharacteristic of objects the DongSon culture is always adorned withgeometric shapes, braids, shading,and spiral. The main work of Dong Sonis nekara, which when viewed fromthe form to show the strong influenceof Chinese culture. Dong Son culturein Indonesia is realized through avariety of bronze culture results,nekara, and iron tools. In Indonesianekara found in Selayar, SouthSulawesi. In Bali found that thelargest nekara Pejeng area. Nekaraequipment offering ceremony isconducted prehistoric societies,which are included in the decorationof nekara system and cultural life atthat time. Moko (a type of nekara asmaller form) is found on the islandof Alor. This suggests that theculture of Indonesia is one part ofthe bronze culture in Southeast Asia.
Important Nekara found in Indonesia isnekara Makalaman of Sumbawa IslandSangeang close with a decorative picturesof people in uniform like clothing dianastiHan (Chinese) / Kushan (North India) /Satavahana (Central India). For Indonesiadiscovery of Dong Son culture is veryimportant. This is because metal objectsfound in the region of Indonesia ingeneral character of Dong Son culture isnot influenced by the metal from Chinaand India. It is seen from the commonpattern of decoration materials digunkan.Example: Type Nekara Heger nekara Ihave in common with the best and oldestin Vietnam, where nekara has horizontalrows of pictorial decoration composed ofhuman, animal and geometric patterns.From the discovery of Dong Son cultureis known how to make candles usingprinting techniques. This period there hasbeen exchange and trade betweencommunities with the tools of bronzevessels.
Dong Son culture to the West toIndonesia through the MalayPeninsula. Carriers of this culture isAustronesian peoples. Opinion on theDong Son culture, through theIndonesian archipelago is divided intotwo stages:- Age Neolithikum, lastedapproximately from 2000 BC, a timeof slate, culture era of rectangular axes- Bronze Age, around since 500 BC, aculture ax shoes, nekara, and candrasa.The spread of the Dong Son culture inIndonesia led to the division ofculture into two, namely: Old MalayCulture (Proto Malay) in the DayakOutback. Young Malay culture(Deutero Malay) in the Bali Aga, andLombok
C. Sa Huynh cultureSa Huynh culture is known until nowmostly comes from the discovery ofthe tomb is the burial jars andcustoms that may be brought by theCham people first Indonesianarchipelago. Sa Huynh findingscontained in the coastal region fromcentral Vietnam to the south to thevalley of the Mekong River delta.Culture in the form of jars found intomb of Sa Huynh include thepottery-pottery have been found thathave decorative lines and areas arefilled with banks of shells theme. SaHuynh culture were found covering avariety of tools that stemmed funnellike a shovel, and ax tembilang. Butthere is no bercorong like sickle,knife-stemmed, woven coil, spiral-shaped rings and bracelets.
Sa-Huynh culture is the developerKalanay pottery tradition in Indonesia(750 BC -200 AD). Saltynh is a smallplace on the coast of Vietnam, whileKalanay located diPhilipina. Pottery inIndonesia has been known since thetime of planting or Neolithikum.Pottery as a preparation of the grave, akind of bowl (large bawl) is placed justabove the body in prehistoric burialsites Plawangan. Among the sitescontaining prehistoric pottery, there isa neolithic sites and include most ofthe site entrance perundagian(paleometalic). Sa Huynh culturaldevelopment in Indonesia throughchannels such as:- Through the land: Thailand and Malaysia continue to Indonesia Islands- By sea: to cross the sea and on to Indonesia Islands
Bronze objects found in the Sa Huynhof some jewelry, like bracelets, bells,and small vessels. It was also foundthat the gold beads and silver wire anda rare glass beads of agate stonestripes and a variety of Carnelian beads(round, cigar-shaped). Found the toolsof bronze as a small vessel, other thanthat there are rings and jewelry.According to research Solheim, thetradition of pottery in Indonesia underthe influence of the tradition ofpottery in Southeast Asia, thetradition of pottery-Kalanay Sa Huynhand Bau-Malay tradition. Sa Huynh-Kalanay tradition mainly developed inthe Sa-Huynh (Vietnam) and Kalanay(Philippines), while Bau-Malay traditionmainly developed in East Malaysia, thePhilippines, South China, NorthVietnam, Taiwan, and Indonesia.
Sa Huynh civilization in Vietnam fromthe beach end of the Age of Metal. SaHuynh is a coastal village located in theSouth of Da Nang, Thua Thein betweenDong Nai River and Delta in Quang NamProvince. In 1909, about 200 gravesfound in jars at Sa Huynh. Carbon testsshow that the Sa Huynh culture are onthe same day with the Dong Sonculture, which is about the first centuryBC. Indonesias tradition of pottery-making developed in the Age ofMesolithikum. At this time the traditionof pottery-making developed into acomplex, namely, the complex of WestJava, with spreading in Anyer(Bantam), Leuwiliang (Bogor), KramatJati Jakarta), and Rengasdengklok(Krawang); Complex of South Sulawesi(Kalumpang) and Complex Bali (Gilimanuk).
Proponents of Sa Huynh culture alsohas a high skill in the field with theculture of craft jewelry andcarvings made of glass stones.Archeologists also see that the ironhas also been used by the occupationof Sa Huynh when neighboring DongSon culture still using bronze. Atthat time, the people buried in theburial. In addition to containing thecorpse, the grave also containedtools made of metal and jewelrymade from Agat and jasper. On onegrave, the excavation team found3,000 small objects made of variousmaterials, such as: glass, gold, andAgat which is the largest collectionin the same kind in Southeast Asia.The discovery of the rice cookerindicates that its inhabitants areable to farm the fields.