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Defining and non defining relative clauses

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Defining and non defining relative clauses

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I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
                          SUBJECT



           She is the girl. She works in the library


                           She is the girl that/who works in the library

           Corlu is an island. It has many beautiful beaches.


                     Corlu is an island that/which has many beautiful beaches
    Pronouns used:
    Who (people)
    Which (things)
That (people and things)
I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
                 OBJECT


 They sent a new teacher. I really liked her.




           They sent a new teacher that/who/0 I really liked.
 The house is blue. I saw it.





                 The house that/which/0 I saw is blue


                                                      Pronouns used:
                                                      Who (people)
                                                      Which (things)
                                                  That (people and things)
I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
                 PREPOSITIONS

This is the new president. We all voted for him.
            This is the new president for whom we all voted
               This is the new president we all voted for

Used pronouns with prepositions :
        Whom (person)
         Which (things)
I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
              TIME AND PLACE


August   is the month. Most people go on holiday then.


                 August is the month when most people go on holiday.
Holland   is the country. The best cheese is produced there.


                Holland is the country where the best cheese is produced

   Pronouns used:
    When (time)
   Where (place)
I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
                POSSESSIVE



This is my friend. Her bag was stolen two days ago.

             This is my friend whose bag was stolen.
II.- NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

                    CHARACTERISTICS
The non-defining relative clauses go between commas ,           ,
They give extra information.
That is never used in the non-defining relative clauses.

                          EXAMPLES
       Mary, who is my best friend, lives in Melbourne.
    Kerala, which is an independent state, is well-developed.
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Defining and non defining relative clauses

  • 1. I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES SUBJECT She is the girl. She works in the library She is the girl that/who works in the library Corlu is an island. It has many beautiful beaches. Corlu is an island that/which has many beautiful beaches Pronouns used: Who (people) Which (things) That (people and things)
  • 2. I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES OBJECT They sent a new teacher. I really liked her.  They sent a new teacher that/who/0 I really liked. The house is blue. I saw it.  The house that/which/0 I saw is blue Pronouns used: Who (people) Which (things) That (people and things)
  • 3. I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES PREPOSITIONS This is the new president. We all voted for him. This is the new president for whom we all voted This is the new president we all voted for Used pronouns with prepositions : Whom (person) Which (things)
  • 4. I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES TIME AND PLACE August is the month. Most people go on holiday then. August is the month when most people go on holiday. Holland is the country. The best cheese is produced there. Holland is the country where the best cheese is produced Pronouns used: When (time) Where (place)
  • 5. I.- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES POSSESSIVE This is my friend. Her bag was stolen two days ago. This is my friend whose bag was stolen.
  • 6. II.- NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES CHARACTERISTICS The non-defining relative clauses go between commas , , They give extra information. That is never used in the non-defining relative clauses. EXAMPLES Mary, who is my best friend, lives in Melbourne. Kerala, which is an independent state, is well-developed.
  • 7. Add commas where necessary. Change the relative pronoun to that if possible. A.- The students who did not come to class A.- The students who/that did not come to class… yesterday explained their absence to the B.- The geologist who/that lectured at Browning teacher. Hall… B.- The geologist who lectured at Browning Hall C.- Dr Fields, who lectured at Browning Hall last last night predicted another earthquake. night, predicted another earthquake. C.- Dr Fields who lectured at Browning Hall last D.- Only people who/that speak Russian should night predicted another earthquake. apply… D.- Only people who speak Russian should apply E.- Matthew, who speaks Russian, applied for this for this job. job. E.- Matthew who speaks Russian applied for this F.- The rice which/that we had for dinner last job. night… F.- The rice which we had for dinner last night was G.- Rice, which is grown in many countries, is a very good. staple food throughout much of the world. G.- Rice which is grown in many countries is a H.- I have fond memories of my hometown, which staple food throughout much of the world. is situated in a valley. H.- I have fond memories of my hometown which is J.- I live in a town which/that is situated in a valley. situated in a valley. J.- I live in a town which is situated in a valley.
  • 8. Join the following sentences. Be careful they might be defining or non-defining. 1.- I spoke to a gentleman. He was very polite. 2.- I’m writing about the film. It was made in 1958. 3.- She’s the girl. They were talking about her. 4.- That’s the restaurant. We go there every Saturday. 5.- This is the island. We spent our holiday on it. 6.- These are the Jones. We went to the theatre with them. 7.- I’m the one. My flat was broken into. 8.- Edurne Pasabán is from Guipúzcoa. She has climbed seven of the highest peaks in the world. 9.- Beer is 4,000 years old. It is a very popular drink in Spain.
  • 9. ANSWERS 1.- I spoke to a gentleman. He was very polite. I spoke to a gentleman who/that was very polite. 2.- I’m writing about the film. It was made in 1958. I'm writing about a film which/that was made in 1958. 3.- She’s the girl. They were talking about her. She’s the girl they were talking about/ She’s the girl about whom they were talking. 4.- That’s the restaurant. We go there every Saturday. That’s the restaurant where we go every Saturday/ That’s the restaurant to which we go every Saturday. 5.- This is the island. We spent our holiday on it. This is the island we spent our holiday on/ This is the island on which we spent our holiday. 6.- These are the Jones. We went to the theatre with them. These are the Jones with whom we went to the theatre./ These are the Jones we went to the theatre with. 7.- I’m the one. My flat was broken into. I’m the one whose flat was broken into. 8.- Edurne Pasabán is from Guipúzcoa. She has climbed seven of the highest peaks in the world. Edurne Pasabán, who has climbed seven of the highest peaks in the world, is from Guipúzcoa 9.- Beer is 4,000 years old. It is a very popular drink in Spain. Beer, which is a very popular drink in Spain, is 4,000 years old.