Other nations were establishing global military presence. US built nine steel-hulled cruisers and construction of modern battleships (Maine)
Ch 18 s1 2
CHAPTER 18 SECTION 1-2
Imperialism• Imperialism is thequest for colonialempires– Great Britain- “Thesun never sets onthe BritishEmpire”
America’s position• Expansionism theneed of a nationsexpanding itsterritorial base (oreconomicinfluence) usually,by means ofmilitaryaggression.Isolationism - to have little to do with thepolitical affairs of other nations
African ImperialismEurope: had colonies forcenturiesAfrica prime target in 19thcenturyRich in natural resources,provided new markets.Only independent nations inAfrica were Liberia andEthiopia
1. Economic Interest1. Economic InterestU. S. Foreign Investments-Need for new marketNeed for raw materials
2. Military/Strategic Interests2. Military/Strategic InterestsAlfred T.Mahan- urgedUS to buildnaval power tocompete withother nationWanted navalbase in Pacificand Caribbean
3.3. Social Darwinist ThinkingSocial Darwinist ThinkingThe Hierarchyof Race- superiority of Anglo-Saxon
4. Religious Interest4. Religious InterestTo Christianize and civilize the world
““Seward’s Folly”: 1867Seward’s Folly”: 1867Propose to PurchseAlaska from Russiafor $7.2 millionWilliam H.Seward- Sec. ofState
* Alaska, however,turned out to berich in fish,gold,copper,timber, oiland coal.TheTrans-Alaska Pipelintransports oil,Alaskas mostimportant export..It runs 800 miles,from the ArcticOcean to the Gulf
US 75% of wealthfrom sugar plantationsPlantations owned byAmericansStrategic location fora base
Deposing theQueenQueen Liliuokalaniwanted to:end propertyqualifications for votingRestore power tonative Hawaiians
America takesoverThe Americans sugargrowers :Organized a revoltOverthrew theQueenSanford Dole becamepresident of Hawaii
• President Cleveland was an anti-imperialist and refused toannex Hawaii.Uncle Samand Pres.Cleveland areplaying chesswith piecesrepresentingthe U.S.senators andQueenLiliuokalani .“His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated”Uncle Sam: "Grover this game has been too deep foryou. Every move youve made has been a blunder, andnow youve lost your Black Queen and the game.”
• Hawaii was annexed in1898 when PresidentMcKinley took officeand became the fiftiethstate in 1959.“Another Shotgun Wedding”A woman (Hawaii) and Uncle Sam aregetting married, kneeling before the minister(Pres. McKinley) who is reading from abook entitled "Annexation Policy". Thebride seems ready to bolt.
Commodore Matthew PerryCommodore Matthew PerryOpens Up Japan: 1853Opens Up Japan: 1853· Fearing the influence ofoutsiders, Japan chose tocompletely isolate itself fromother nations in the 1600’s.
2. FUEL – to purchasefuel (coal)Why did the U.S. want to establish a relationship with Japan?1. TRADE – to sell U.S.goods to JapaneseconsumersReasons:- Perry arrived with four steam-powered warships, impressing theJapanese.
• The Treaty of Kanagawa - U.S. received all of theirdemands from the Japanese.• Perry returned to Japan in 1854 with twice as many ships.Commodore Perry Meeting the ImperialCommissioners at YokohamaDinner Given to the Japanese Commissioners Aboard theU.S.S.F. Powhatan
· Japan realized that they needed to become more modernand industrialized.Effects on JapanIn 1860, Japan sent their first steam powered warship, theKanrin Maru to the United States in order to show the worldthat Japan had mastered Western navigation techniques andship technologies.
Jingoism• exaggerated and aggressivenational pride, more warlike
Spanish Misrule in CubaSpanish Misrule in Cuba
General Valeriano Weyler – Spanish governor of Cuba usedbrutal tactics against the Cubans. He was responsible fordetaining over 500,000 Cubans and killing over 100,000.* Americans sympathizedwith the Cuban desire forfreedom.
· President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to Cuba toprotect American citizens and property.· US citizensowns sugarplantations inCuba
· An explosion destroyed the Maine killing 260 U.S. sailors.
““Yellow Journalism”Yellow Journalism”Joseph PulitzerWilliam Randolph HearstAn exaggeratedheadlines or stories inthe newspapers· Joseph Pulitzer oncestated, “You supply me thephotos, I’ll supply you thewar.”• “Remember theMaine! To hellwith Spain!”
- President McKinley, however, wanted to avoid war withSpain.
· Spain was accused of destroying the Maine, even though ithas never been proven.· On April 25, 1898,Congress declare War onSpain
The Spanish-American War (1898):The Spanish-American War (1898):“That Splendid Little War”“That Splendid Little War”Fighting starts inPhilippines- majorSpanish fleetlocated
U.S. soldiers in a trench near Manila, the Philippines,during the Spanish – American War. (1898)
· Commodore GeorgeDewey defeated theSpanish navy in thePhilippines after only sixhours of battle.Spanish-AmericanWar (1898)The PhilippinesCommodore George Dewey(1837-1917)
Commodore George DeweyCommodore George DeweyDestroy the Spanish fleet in Manila BayDestroy the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay
US – attack in the Caribbean IslandUS – attack in the Caribbean IslandUS-InvadedCuba