Chapter Two:  The Argumentative Environment
<ul><li>What is an argument? </li></ul><ul><li>- An argument is a discussion involving two or more separate point of  view...
The Sophists <ul><li>The people of Greece had a desire to learn and absorb new information. Greek philosophers decided to ...
A Response to the Sophists: Plato and Aristotle <ul><li>Plato believed that the heart of philosophy lies within the proces...
Logos, Pathos, Ethos <ul><li>Aristotle’s process of persuasion involves the usage of three fundamentals of proof: logos, p...
Cicero’s Five Canons of Oratory <ul><li>One famous Roman Rhetorician who completed his great work at the early age of 21 s...
Toulmin Model of Argument <ul><li>Stephen Toulmin is one of the modern day leaders of rhetorical history. He described his...
<ul><li>Justin Serranzana </li></ul><ul><li>Speech 104 </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Marteney </li></ul>
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Chapter two f

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Chapter two f

  1. 1. Chapter Two: The Argumentative Environment
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is an argument? </li></ul><ul><li>- An argument is a discussion involving two or more separate point of views. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of arguments: </li></ul><ul><li>- Destructive arguing- which is where a persons only goal in arguing is to make the other lose. By winning, the person feels superior to because of the won argument and his esteem is maintained. On the other hand, the losing an argument can lower self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>- Constructive arguing- this occurs when a person wants to honestly end or resolve a disagreement. The goal of constructive arguing is not to win but to arrive at a better solution or conclusion to the problem. This way is more productive and beneficial because unknown knowledge can result from this and better consequences result in the end. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Sophists <ul><li>The people of Greece had a desire to learn and absorb new information. Greek philosophers decided to take this matter into their own hands by teaching the public different techniques in order to become successful thinkers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sophists began as a group of teachers, speakers, and philosophers who were designated mentors who offered an education designed to promote success and prosper in public life. They turned education into a progress of skills that would be useful for political and social careers. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important base of their teachings were consistent with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skepticism – A doubting state of mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenominalism – a fact experienced or occurrence are the only objects of knowledge or the only form of reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism – the doctrine that all knowledge is derived from sense experience . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relativism – The theory that truth has no independent absolute existence </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Response to the Sophists: Plato and Aristotle <ul><li>Plato believed that the heart of philosophy lies within the process of the Dialectic Approach . This process is known as the question and answer procedure used in order to find the discovery of important truths and facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Dialectic is the process of conversing with questions and answers and, according to Plato, is the way to progressively find the discovery to important truths. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle’s philosophy of argument relates with his Rhetorical Approach. According to Aristotle, four points consist of this process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Truth and justice may be guarded against falsehood and wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Debate may be conducted on subjects in the absence of absolute truth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Both sides of a claim may be presented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Proof to establish the probability of a position may be developed. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Logos, Pathos, Ethos <ul><li>Aristotle’s process of persuasion involves the usage of three fundamentals of proof: logos, pathos and ethos. </li></ul><ul><li>Logos - which means logic, is the use of reason to support any decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathos- refers to emotion, and is the suitable use of emotional and motivational application to support a decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos -commonly refers to the use of source credibility or evidncial proof to support a conclusion. But this source credibility can be developed and understood in two different ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial ethos- which is based on the arguer’s credentials, status, and reputation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived ethos- based on the message that is received from the arguer. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cicero’s Five Canons of Oratory <ul><li>One famous Roman Rhetorician who completed his great work at the early age of 21 states that there are five crucial elements that are listed in his work, De Inventione, and they all contribute to the effective rhetoric approach. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Invention - this involves the attempt on the part of an arguer to find out what he or she should say to any specific audience. Through this, the arguer comes up with and interesting topic to discuss to a particular audience and is often referred to as audience analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Arrangement - this has to do with the way a presentation is ordered and presenter. It must be arranged in ways that make the argument flow and many things aren’t jumbled all over the place. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Expression - carefully chosen words help to establish a connection with the audience and the right words can either agree or disagree with the arguer </li></ul><ul><li>4) Memory - memory deals with the knowledge that the arguer knows. Today we have modern technology useful to us so that memorization is not needed in order to present a speech. Back then howeever they had to memorize and present the imprtant facts in order to give a successful speech </li></ul><ul><li>5) Delivery – delivery is the way the speech is presented and how well the arguer can capture his or her audience. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Toulmin Model of Argument <ul><li>Stephen Toulmin is one of the modern day leaders of rhetorical history. He described his view of rhetorical theory in 6 different parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claim – This can be the introduction or the conclusion of the argument. The arguer is attempting to convince the audience to do or think. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grounds – these are evidence, proof, or arguments that give reasons to support the claim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warrants – this is what links the grounds and the claims and include words like every, any, anytime, wherever, if-then, or statements. “What’s causing the advocate to say the things he/she does?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backing- This is specific data used to support the grounds and warrants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservations/Rebuttal – usually follows the word “unless” and can be used as an example as to why the warrant may not be true and can be seen as exceptions to a rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifiers- Arguments are about probability and possibility and words or expressions like probably, many, some, few, possibly etc. may be used. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Justin Serranzana </li></ul><ul><li>Speech 104 </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Marteney </li></ul>

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