Chapter nine


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Chapter nine

  1. 1. Chapter Nine: Claims Justin Serranzana Speech 104 Professor Marteney
  2. 2. Claims <ul><li>A claim is a statement worded against the status quo that is the focus of the argument. It is any single statement of controversy advanced for the purpose of any argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Claims are a statement and not a question. </li></ul><ul><li>A claim is against the status quo. </li></ul><ul><li>The claim is the focus of an argument. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Claims <ul><li>A claim must be properly phrased and understood by all participants involved in the argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Claims are phrased as statements and not questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Claims should be phrased so that both sides have an equal opportunity to advocate, support and defend their positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Properly phrased claims should be as specific as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Claims must be phrased against the status quo in order to create the potential for controversy. </li></ul><ul><li>Claims should be phrased so that the burdens 9obligations and responsibilities) are clear to both sides involved in the debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Sides debate the same claim. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective claims promote a pro/con argumentative environment. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Claims <ul><li>There are three important types of claims that are dealt with when it comes to an argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Claim of fact- something is, was, or will be. </li></ul><ul><li>Claim of value- something is good or bad, desirable or undesirable </li></ul><ul><li>Claim of policy- something “should” ought to be done. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Argumentative Burdens <ul><li>An argument is similar to a game in which there are certain responsibilities that each side must follow. These burdens, burden of proof, burden of presumption, and burden to make a prima facie case are all part of a successful argument and debate. </li></ul><ul><li>The burden of proof comes first and deals with the side promoting the claim. Compelling reasons must be presented as to why the status quo is inadequate and should be replaced by the claim being advocated. </li></ul><ul><li>The opposing side takes part in the burden of presumption and is the defense of the status quo. It is the presumption that the status quo is desirable and should remain in force. </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides take part in the burden of rebuttal . This is when both sides respond to the argument and if one side stays silent, it is assumed that there is an agreement since there aren't any counterarguments to respond back to. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Debate Environments <ul><li>Debates can happen anywhere and everywhere. People can have debates at school, at home or even at church. There are many specific debate environments that correspond to a certain type of argument. Each debate pertains to a particular area of a specific claim. </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarly debate – seeks to discover what, how, and/or why it is </li></ul><ul><li>Religious debate – centers around which religion is “the best” </li></ul><ul><li>Political debate – “shoulds” about unemployment, taxes, budget, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Business debate – what could be done for the overall well-being of company. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal debate – “is” someone is or is not guilty of a charged offense. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational debate – schools, students face another student. </li></ul><ul><li>Social debate – arguing over things that do not need to be resolved immediately. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Justin Serranzana </li></ul><ul><li>Speech 104 </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Marteney </li></ul>