The Bystander Effect Victoria E. Keilhauer W. Secondary Psychologist
The BYSTANDER EFFECT When there is an emergency, the more bystanders there are, the less likely it is that any of them will actually help.
The Case of Kitty Genovese <ul><li>Catherine Susan Genovese was a New York City woman who was stabbed to death near her home in New York on March 13, 1964. </li></ul><ul><li>It prompted investigation into the social psychological phenomenon that has become known as the bystander effect (seldom: "Genovese syndrome")  and especially diffusion of responsibility. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bystanders go through a five-step process, during each of which they can decide to do nothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the event (or in a hurry and not notice). </li></ul><ul><li>Realize the emergency (or assume that as others are not acting, it is not an emergency). </li></ul><ul><li>Assume responsibility (or assume that others will do this). </li></ul><ul><li>Know what to do (or not) </li></ul><ul><li>Act (or worry about danger, legislation, embarrassment, etc.) </li></ul>
Research <ul><li>Latané and Darley sat a series of college students in a cubicle amongst a number of other cubicles in which there were tapes of other students playing (the student thought they were real people). One of the voices cries for help and makes sounds of severe choking. When the student thought they were the only person there, 85% rushed to help. When they thought there was one other person, this dropped to 65%. And when they thought there were four other people, this dropped again to 31%. </li></ul>
Difference between TEASING and TAUNTING Teasing is when two sides take equal parts in kidding around, and usually, when one side insults the other, there is a tendency to apologize and the friendship continues. Both sides tend to find the teasing funy. Taunting, is when one side picks on someone, making them feel humiliated and unable to defend themselves. Do not tend to apologize because the intention is to cause harm, and the victim does not find this funny.
Therefore….. <ul><li>If you want someone to do something, ask them specifically (by name) or make sure they cannot assume that somebody else will do it. You can also set an example and ask for collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>When you witness an incident, ACT to help, instead of assuming someone else did… its better to have too much help than none at all. </li></ul>
Why Bystanders may do nothing <ul><li>Diffusion of responsability </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of becoming a target </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of empathy with the bullied </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequately finding the bullying funny </li></ul><ul><li>Embarassed to do the right thing </li></ul><ul><li>Getting used to the situations, perceiving some things as “normal” when they are not </li></ul>
How YOU can help <ul><li>When witnessing an incident, try to politely stop it from continuing, being smart about your attitude and behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Use the incident box or tell an adult directly about the problem. </li></ul>
Your help means a lot to many <ul><li>You prevent incidents from repeating themselves </li></ul><ul><li>You can even prevent tragedies from taking place (hurting families and communities). </li></ul>