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Effects of Wind Direction on VOC Concentrations in Southeast Kansas


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Twenty-four-hour whole-air samples were collected in evacuated stainless steel canisters and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC) at selected sites in southeast Kansas from March 1999 to October 2000. The purpose was to assess the influence on air quality of four industrial facilities that burn hazardous waste located in the communities of Coffeyville, Chanute, Independence and Fredonia. Fifteen of the VOC analytes were found at concentrations above the detection limit and above levels observed in the blanks. Data were analyzed to investigate whether sampling site and date had a significant effect on VOC concentration. Results indicate that site and/or date were significant factors for many of the VOCs. To further investigate the temporal factor, sampling days were divided into four classifications based on wind direction: predominantly north winds, predominantly south winds, calm/variable winds and
other winds. Results from statistical analyses show that wind direction was a significant factor for benzene, toluene, o-xylene, naphthalene, and carbon tetrachloride. Data from upwind and downwind samples were analyzed for the four cities of interest in the study area, to investigate the effect of the four targeted sources on VOC concentrations. Results from Fredonia showed higher concentrations of toluene, ethyl benzene, styrene, methyl chloride, and trichloroethylene in the upwind samples, although none of the results were statistically significant. Chanute also showed higher concentrations of the same compounds and m,p-xylene in the upwind samples; results were significant at the 0.05 level for toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. These results indicate that sources other than those targeted in the sampling network may be contributing to
the VOC levels. Results from Independence showed higher concentrations of ethylebenzene and styrene in the downwind samples; results were statistically significant. These results indicate that the source targeted in the sampling network may be contributing to the VOC levels at those sampling sites.

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Effects of Wind Direction on VOC Concentrations in Southeast Kansas

  1. 1. Effects of Wind Direction on VOC Concentrations in Southeast Kansas Sergio A. Guerra, Dennis D. Lane, Glen A. Marotz, Ray E. Carter, Carrie M. Hohl, Richard W. Baldauf Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas
  2. 2. Introduction  Southeast Kansas supports the highest concentration of hazardous waste burners in the country    U.S. EPA sponsored the Southeast Kansas Health Study to investigate air quality and potential health effects from ambient air in the area   3 cement kilns 1 commercial hazardous waste incinerator (report available at This study was a joint effort between the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at KU and the KU Medical Center
  3. 3. Scope    The environmental sampling element of the project included the collection of 24-hr VOC samples at selected sites in Southeast Kansas Effects of spatial and temporal factors on these concentrations were investigated Wind direction effects are of particular interest
  4. 4. Air Quality Monitoring     Duration of Monitoring - March, 1999 through October, 2000 Sampling Sites in the cities of Chanute, Coffeyville, Fredonia, and Independence Additional Sites in Sedan, Tyro, Labette County Sampling Site Design, Sampling and Analysis Protocols According to EPA Guidelines
  5. 5. Sampling Area in Southeast Kansas
  6. 6. Sampling Area in Southeast Kansas Coffeyville Chanute Fredonia Independence Background CC Ag.. House North Ash Grove East Kennel East of River Labette Co.Big Hill Lake KDHE Site South Ash Grove Lincoln School Eisenhower School Labette Co.Junction160/169 Longfellow School Elderly care South Farm Radio Tower Sedan- Power Pole Admin. Building KDHE office South Mound Washington School Tyro- Water Tower Airport
  7. 7. Source-specific sites  Wichita windrose (1984-1992)
  8. 8. Fredonia Site Sampling Methods LaF-2 PM10 MiniVol* LaF-3** PM10 MiniVol LaF-5 PM2.5 MiniVol PM10 MiniVol **Site was discontinued after March, 2000.
  9. 9. Data Collection- Canister with flow controller and programmable open/close valve
  10. 10. Sample analysis by GC/MS  VOCs analyzed included:        Benzene Toluene Xylene isomers Trichloroethene Tetracholoethene Chloroform 1,1,1trichloroethene
  11. 11. Data Analysis   Descriptive statistics were calculated for the VOC concentrations Data was analyzed for   Possible effects of sampling site Possible effects of sampling date
  12. 12. Data Analysis  The temporal factor was further investigated to determine the effect of wind direction on VOC concentrations  Data was divided in four wind direction categories (from NCDC);      South North Calm/variable Other The effect of the targeted sources was also analyzed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test for the cities of Chanute, Independence and Fredonia
  13. 13. Ambient Air VOC Concentrations Producing Increased Cancer Risks Increased Cancer Risks VOC Concentration (µg/m3) producing risk levels 1 in 10,000 1 in 100,000 1 in 1,000,000 benzene 13 1.3 0.13 Bromoform* 90 9 0.9 carbon tetrachloride 7 0.7 0.07 Chloroform 4 0.4 0.04 1,2-dibromoethanea 0.5 0.05 0.005 1,2-dichloroethanea 4 0.4 0.04 1,1-dichloroethylenea 2 0.2 0.02 Hexachlorobutadienea 5 0.5 0.05 methylene chloride 200 20 2 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethanea 10 1 0.1 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethanea 2 0.2 0.02 170 17 1.7 1,1,2-trichloroethanea 6 0.6 0.06 Trichloroethylene 60 6 0.6 Tetrachloroethylene * - not detected during this study
  14. 14. Ambient Air VOC Concentrations Producing Other Health Effects Other Health Effects VOC Minimum concentration producing health effects (µg/m3) benzene 60 carbon tetrachloride 40 chlorobenzene 20 chloroethanea 10,000 chloroform 300 chloromethanea 90 dichlorobenzene isomersa 800 1,1-dichloroethanea 500 ethylbenzene 1000 methylene chloride 3000 naphthalene 3 styrene 1000 tetrachloroethylene 300 toluene 400 1,1,1-trichloroethane 1000 trichloroethylene 500 xylene isomers 400
  15. 15. Results
  16. 16. Distribution of VOC Concentrations, 24-hour samples VOC Number of Samples with Concentration in Each Range 0.1-1.0g/L 1.1-10.0g/L 10.1-100.0g/L >100g/L Health Effectsa Benzene 54 6 0 0 58 Toluene 40 113 36 6 5 Ethylbenzene 16 56 20 10 2 m,p-xylene 32 42 4 0 0 o-xylene 36 32 0 0 0 Styrene 9 16 17 2 0 Naphthalene 76 46 1 0 14 Chlorobenzene 5 4 0 0 0 methylene chloride 3 26 8 2 31 Chloroform 12 6 0 0 18 carbon tetrachloride 28 2 0 0 30 1,1,1-TCA 7 1 1 0 0 Trichloroethylene 2 12 19 12 44 Tetrachloroethylene 3 16 2 0 14 Isooctane 1 19 7 0 na
  17. 17. VOC observations     Although there are 58 samples with benzene concentrations exceeding the 1-in-1,000,000 level of increased cancer risk, only 5 of those exceeded the 1-in-100,000 level; none exceeded the 1-in10,000 level. Other non-halogenated aromatic compounds were detected in a large number of samples, especially toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene. However, only in the case of naphthalene were there more than ten samples with concentrations which could produce health effects. There were 31 samples with methylene chloride concentrations exceeding the 1-in-1,000,000 level of increased cancer risk. Only eight of those exceeded the 1-in-100,000 level, and only one exceeded the 1-in-10,000 level. There were 18 samples with chloroform concentrations exceeding the 1-in-1,000,000 level of increased cancer risk, thirteen of which exceeded the 1-in-100,000 level, and two of which exceeded the 1in-10,000 level.
  18. 18. VOC observations    There were 30 samples with carbon tetrachloride concentrations exceeding the 1-in-1,000,000 level of increased cancer risk, fourteen of which exceeded the 1in-100,000 level; none exceeded the 1-in-10,000 level of increased risk. There were 44 samples with trichloroethylene concentrations exceeding the 1-in-1,000,000 level of increased cancer risk. Of those, 38 exceeded the 1-in100,000 level and 21 exceeded the 1-in-10,000 level. There were fourteen samples with tetrachloroethylene concentrations exceeding the 1-in-1,000,000 level of increased cancer risk, only one of which the 1-in100,000 level.
  19. 19. Effects of sampling site    Sampling site was a statistically significant factor for 8 of the 15 VOCs. Site factor was further analyzed using upwind/downwind sample pairs. In Chanute and Fredonia, higher concentrations of six VOCs were found in upwind samples.    Differences were not statistically significant in Fredonia, but were in Chanute for toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Results indicate contributions from other sources. In Independence, significantly higher concentrations of ethylbenzene, styrene, methylene chloride, and trichloroethylene were found in downwind samples.  Results indicate contribution from targeted source.
  20. 20. Effects of sampling date   Sampling date was a significant factor for 12 of the 15 VOCs Wind direction accounted for much of the variation among sampling dates.   Northerly winds frequently produced higher concentrations of benzene and xylene, and occasionally produced higher concentrations of carbon tetrachloride. Southerly winds frequently produced higher concentrations of toluene, but lower concentrations of naphthalene.
  21. 21. Conclusions    Fifteen VOCs were detected above detection limit. Several VOCs were found at concentrations above published risk levels, although infrequently. Trichloroethylene concentrations were of most concern      44 values exceeded the 1 in 1,000,000 risk level 21 of those exceeded the 1 in 10,000 risk level Statistical analysis showed that sampling site had a significant effect on the concentrations of many compounds. Larger than expected highest values were also found at the Coffeyville-KDHE and Chanute-S. Ash Grove sites. Sampling date was found to be significant for many of the compounds.   Wind direction was shown to be a significant factor but not consistently. For example, southerly winds typically produced higher than expected conc. of toluene but lower than expected conc. of naphthalene.
  22. 22. Conclusions     For four of the compounds, concentrations at sites downwind from the targeted source in Independence were significantly higher than concentrations at upwind sites. However, in Chanute and Fredonia concentrations were significantly higher at upwind sites. During the present study several VOCs were found above concentrations that could potentially affect human health, though these levels were infrequent. It could not be shown conclusively that targeted sources contributed significantly to these concentrations.