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  1. 1. Editor’s Note E Editor-in-Chief Samiullah Sami Learning from an adversary ducation, education education………..anybody con- Managing Editor Shaista Sami nected in some way to promotion of education in Pak- Editor istan has stepped on the same bandwagon with a cargo Javaid Saleem Chattha of promises, promises that are never meant to be ful- Editorial Board Dr Zafar Cheema filled. No wonder the countries which were never so M. Nawaz Saleem Kiani well placed as Pakistan is, surpassed us and have an Nadeem Qadir enviable rate of literacy. In contrast to this, we in Pak- Resident Editor (Islamabad) Saifullah Khan istan have not only a poor but a shameful record. And Artwork/Designing to that comes the standard of our education. Serfraz Qadir Almani Communication Manager Shazia Kausar There were times when students from far and near Marketing Executives flocked our institutions of higher learning but now even Manzoor Ahmed the local employers prefer students who graduate from G.M Bajwa Shahnawaz Kiani abroad. There are ghost institutions of basic education Abrar Ahmed and ghost colleges. Every three or fours years a “bullar” Legal Advisor university is unearthed, a few persons given a token Hashmat Ali Habib Advocate, Supereme Court punishment as an eyewash, a food for thought for our Circulation learned Dr. Ata-ur-Rehman, our education Guru and Ghulam Rasool presently the Chairman, Higher Education Commission Photographers Nadeem Khawar Pakistan. Zulfiqar Ali Kalhoro M Yaqoob Bhatti A large number of US universities are now trying to Sagheer Ahmed Kamboh Sajjad Butt woo their Indian counterparts. Jointly, universities are being set up with US curricula and faculty members Head Office derived partly from the US universities and partly from 394, Hunza Block, Allama Iqbal Town, India. The concept of satellite campuses in antiquated Lahore - Pakistan now. The Indian Academics now see eye to eye with Tel: +92 42 5296754 their US and European counterparts, do we? Fax: +92 42 5296755 Mobile: 0300 9452755 We consider India as our adversary but some times Islamabad Office learning from an adversary’s strategy can pay off. Can’t Saifullah Khan Office # 8, Israr Plaza we learn from them? Can’t we set up jointly run univer- G-10 Markaz, Islamabad sities with curricula and faculty from Pakistan, USA or Tel: 051 2110020 even European continental universities? Will our educa- Mobile: 0333 5278862 tions pundits give some though to this? UK Correspondent Rashid Ahmed Bushra Muzammal 102-Montague Road, Slough Berks SL. 3RN UK Tel: 017 53-535289
  2. 2. 14 M An exclusive chat with Hasibe Sahoglu CONTENTS ‘Pakistanis are very friendly people and good hosts.’ s Hasibe Sahoglu, the ambassador of the Turkish Republic of North- ern Cyprus (TRNC) to Pakistan since September 2006, graduated from Ankara University and received his Masters degree in Interna- tional Relations from the Near East University in TRNC. He then had two years’ training on ‘Conflict Resolution’ on the Fulbright scholarship. He had a strange thrill of good feelings while he talked about as to how he felt the moment he learnt that he had been assigned a magnificent job he had long cherished as a diplomat in a brother-country like Pakistan. I Panel interview 16 Study in new zealand for pakistani students t was a heated roundtable discussion when Education Scenario Interna- tional (ESI) took the opportunity to meet with a panel of visiting Interna- tional Marketing Managers from five New Zealand tertiary institutes at the Serena Hotel in Islamabad. The interview started with a question posed by ESI, and turned into an interesting and knowledgeable debate on internation- al education, punctuated by the visiting managers. The visitors were joined by two Pakistani women education agents that specialize in New Zealand educa- tion, one from Karachi and the other from Islamabad. E Environmental scientist What is this job like? nvironment is a global issue in today’s world and both developed and developing countries have now begun to feel concerned about the greenhouse effect. Environmental scientists find and fix pollution and other environmental problems. They figure out what is in the air, water, and soil to make sure that the environment is safe. They also give advice on how to clean the environment. For example, they might design a safe way to get rid of trash. Some of these workers mix environmental science with other sci- ences, such as chemistry or biology. 19 W Seven simple steps to discovering Who, what, and why you are. hat am I? Who am I? Why am I here? These are questions we some- times ask ourselves. When we answer these questions to our satisfac- tion, we lead happy, fulfilling, and rewarding lives. That being so, wouldn’t it help if they taught us the answers in school? Well, life itself is the most important school we will ever attend, and the teacher is experience. Life will gladly answer our questions if we follow seven simple steps. 25
  3. 3. 27 T Global MBA Rankings 2009 Hopefully, 2009 will be year when business schools change funda- mentally his year marks the publication of the 11th annual Financial Times sur- vey of non-degree executive education programmes. The survey includes three business school rankings: of schools which offer open w w w . e d u c a t i o n s c e n a r i o . c o m enrolment programmes, those offering customised programmes and a com- bined table featuring schools ranked for both. Perhaps the most difficult ques- tion of all for MBA students is where they will work on graduation. “If there’s a global market in automobiles there is no reason why there shouldn’t be a global market in talent as well,” Joe Thomas, dean of the Johnson school at Cornell University, USA, remarked. 35 New Point-based UK Student F Visa- PBS Tier 4 System Just a simple guide for Pakistani students rom 31st March 2009, UK Border and Immigration Agency (UKBIA) has launched Points Based System (PBS, Tier 4) for international stu- dents, who wish to apply and obtain UK Study Visa. Students wish to study in UK and need student visa, would require obtaining 40 points to be able to apply and gain the visa. P Working While Studying New permission to work arrangement for student visa holders eople granted student visas on or after 26 April 2008 will receive per- mission to work with their visa grant. This applies to both the primary student and any family members travelling with them on their student visa. As a result, most student visa holders are no longer need to apply sepa- rately in Australia for permission to work. The new arrangement saves student visa holders time and money. However, work rights for student visa holders haven’t changed. Students are still not allowed to work until they have started W e b s i t e : their course and the hours they can work have not changed. T Global MBA Rankings 2009 Hopefully, 2009 will be year when business schools change fundamentally his year marks the publication of the 11th annual Financial Times survey of non-degree executive education programmes. The survey includes three business school rankings: of schools which offer open enrolment programmes, those offering customised programmes and a combined table featuring schools ranked for both. Perhaps the most dif- ficult question of all for MBA students is where they will work on gradua- tion. “If there’s a global market in automobiles there is no reason why there shouldn’t be a global market in talent as well,” Joe Thomas, dean of the Johnson school at Cornell University, USA, remarked.
  4. 4. INTERVIEW Education Scenario International (ESI): ESI: Pakistan and Turkey enjoy strong diplo- Would you like to through light on your pro- matic and trade relations. Do you think there fessional background and successful career? is still a lot to do to further cement these existing bonds of relationship between Hasibe Sahoglu: I completed my high school Pakistan and TRNC? education in Lefkofla, Cyprus. I also attended Aberdeen High School, Dakota, in USA for one year. I HS: The relations between the TRNC and Pakistan graduated from the Department of Political Science of are exemplary at the political level, but our economic Ankara University and received my Masters degree in relations are very weak in spite of the fact that there are International Relations from the Near East University in tremendous possibilities to enhance the trade relations TRNC. between our countries. We are working hard to further I had two years’ training on ‘Conflict Resolution’ on grow the trade relations. I should mention here that a Fulbright scholarship. I also worked for a private there are so many Pakistanis who are living in North construction company in Libya for four or five years Cyprus. There are students studying in our universi- and then at the TRNC Milk Industry Association for 12 ties; and there are professors teaching at these univer- years. Then, I joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of sities apart from ordinary workers contributing to the the TRNC as a diplomat in 1994 and served my first TRNC economy. overseas post in Azerbaijan between the years 1999- 2003. After serving as the private secretary with deputy ESI: It may not be a matter of surprise for newspapers which have a large circulation. prime minister and at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs you to believe that Education Scenario In terms of tourism, a package tour which covers for a brief period, I worked as director of protocol for International and Tourism Scenario both Turkey and Northern Cyprus, can be organised by 15 months. International act as a major revenue genera- tourism agencies. I already know that there are so tor for TRNC, and there is a lot of potential in many Pakistanis who visit Turkey. The distance ESI: When did you take over as head of the Pakistan for your universities and tourism. In between Turkey and Northern Cyprus by air is only one Mission to Pakistan and what were your view of the present privileged and wholesome hour. For instance, if a family goes to Turkey for a week feelings? situation, what plans have you got on your they can spend two days of the week in Northern mind to promote these very sectors? Cyprus. This is the first option strikes my head. HS: Since September 2006, I have been serving as Ambassador of the Turkish Republic of Northern HS: In terms of education, I believe that our univer- ESI: How do you find the flow of students Cyprus (TRNC) in Pakistan. When I was told that I was sities should attach more importance to marketing in from Pakistan to your country? Did that appointed to the Mission in Pakistan, I became over- Pakistan. Representatives from our universities attend decreased or increased during the last five joyed because Pakistan is our brother-country and I education exhibitions held in Pakistan every year. years? always had a dream to visit Pakistan some day. So, However, this is not sufficient from the point of view of ultimately, my dream came true. I am very pleased to marketing. Another alternative to increase the number HS: Unfortunately, the number of Pakistani students learn about Pakistanis and their way of life. of Pakistani students is to give advertisements in studying in our universities came down in the last five 2 4 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  5. 5. HS: The training on `Conflict Resolution` was a great experience. Initially, we were trained as trainers and then we organised bi-communal workshops for students, occupational groups, young people etc. I believe that as a result of all those workshops both the peoples, name- ly the Turkish Cypriots and the Greek Cypriots in the island of Cyprus have come to a point that there must be a solution for the long existing problem. ESI: You have been in Pakistan since 2006. How do you find Pakistan as a country and what are your views about its people? HS: As I have mentioned earlier, Pakistan is a coun- try that I have always wanted to visit. It has a very rich culture. Every province has its own culture in terms of clothing, dance, music etc. I find Pakistani people very friendly and good hosts. Whenever we say that we are Turks a friendly and warm smile plays upon their lips. In fact, the amity and respect are mutual feelings that the people of these two countries enjoy. ESI: How and in what way Education Scenario International and its Event Management team can support TRNC to pro- mote its universities? HS: Well, I think that Education Scenario International can support the TRNC universities by publishing information about universities in our coun- try. For instance, our universities can be promoted one by one in this magazine’s subsequent issues. ESI: Would you like to comment on the role of Pakistan’s first and the only magazine on education? HS: I congratulate you for publishing Education years. The main reason for this is that some of the Scenario International. You are doing a great job Asian countries are offering good opportunities as well. because this is a kind of encouragement for young peo- ple who wish to get good international education. You ESI: Why should students choose TRNC as know education is the most important thing in one’s their study destination? life. The more you educate people, the more you become successful in life and useful in your society. I HS: First of all, some of our most important uni- believe education plays an important role in the versities have a high standard of education. progress and development of a nation. Secondly, the annual fees compared to the European and American universities are quite low. ESI: Anything else that we may have missed Thirdly, some of our universities have protocol which you would like to share with our valued agreements with universities in the UK and USA. readers? So, students always stand a chance to have double degrees. HS: Personally, I believe that Northern Cyprus is a And, finally, TRNC is a Muslim country and peo- ESI: You have been awarded Fulbright schol- paradise. I am sure all students will enjoy their staying ple can perform their religious duties and obliga- arship for training on ‘Conflict Resolution’. in this country. Therefore, I would like to invite all tions without any hesitation or fear. How was your experience? Pakistani students to apply for TRNC universities. | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 5
  6. 6. It was a heated roundtable discussion when “So why should Pakistani students consider here satisfy this desire. And very importantly, New Education Scenario International (ESI) took the studying in New Zealand?” was the question Zealand has one of the least expensive costs-of-liv- opportunity to meet with a panel of visiting posed by ESI. ing in the Western world.” International Marketing Managers from five New Zealand tertiary institutes at the Serena Hotel in Mr Brett Muir, (representing the University of Ms Robyn McCollum, (Waikato Institute of Islamabad. Waikato) responded that New Zealand is a very Technology) added: New Zealand has 21 Institutes strong market for undergraduate and postgraduate of Technology and 8 Universities. The Institutes of The interview started with a question posed by students. “New Zealand offers unique opportunities Technology are mainly undergraduate, and very ESI, and turned into an interesting and knowledge- for Pakistani students who would normally be think- focused on preparing students for employment. able debate on international education, punctuated ing of studying in the UK, Australia, US or Canada.” Universities are more research focused.” Ms Robyn by the visiting managers. The visitors were joined by “All of the institutions visiting here today are state continued, “In the current global recession, students two Pakistani women education agents that special- run and academically very strong. Students want to are very cost conscious, and particularly concerned ize in New Zealand education, one from Karachi and graduate with qualifications that are very internation- with their employment prospects after graduation. the other from Islamabad. ally respected. All of the New Zealand institutions New Zealand offers an applied education system that 1 6 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  7. 7. is focused on resourcefulness and problem solving in the future workplace.” Ms Carol Allen, (Western Institute of Technology): “New Zealand certificates, diplomas and degrees in subjects including business, engineering, nursing, teaching, agriculture, horticulture, construction, hospitality, biotechnology, medical and health are taught as good as anything in Australia or the UK and with lower tuition fees. If you are looking for (From left to right) Rubeena N I Hoodbhoy, (CEO RMT Enterprises) and Mrs S Rajput, (Director, Islam- abad Auspak International) during interview session. environmental studies or water resources or roading technology engineering...or if you are looking for dairy farm technology, then New Zealand has excel- Parents can be reassured that New Zealand is a safe lent programmes.” country. Male and female Muslim students are wel- comed with none of the unreasonable discrimination ESI: What about the social situation for our you experience in other countries of the world. The students? This is something parents are political situation in Pakistan makes it more difficult particularly concerned about...” for students to get visas, but the New Zealand entry Ms Helen Kemp (Eastern Institute of Technology): requirements are fair and honest. | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 1 7
  8. 8. Parents can be reassured that ‘‘ New Zealand is a safe country. New Zealand offers unique oppor- Male and female Muslim stu- tunities for Pakistani students dents are welcomed with none who would normally be thinking of the unreasonable discrimi- of studying in the UK, Australia, ’’ nation you experience in other US or Canada. countries of the world. The political situation in Pakistan makes it more difficult for stu- dents to get visas, but the New Zealand entry requirements are fair and honest. Interview Panel Universities (1) University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand (2) Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier, New Zealand (3) Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand (4) Western Institute of Technology at Taranaki, New Zealand (5) Wellington Institute of Technology, New Zealand that New Zealand is a very strong option for stu- institution. dents.” We have a much better understanding of the Ms Helen continued, “Students need to know education system here in Pakistan and are able to that the agents know what they are talking about. counsel the student on where they should be ESI: You people have agents in Pakistan. Recently the news has been full of reports about going.” They have their name; they have a reputa- inaccurate information relating to poor quality UK tion built on doing business with schools. ESI interrupted: On the basis of reality, Australian institutions. Why should an We work closely with three four agencies in the basic objective is for you to reap a agent who works for Australia choose to Pakistan: RMT, Auspak, HR Consultants, and maximum benefit... work for New Zealand institutions? Horizon..They have all personally visited our cam- Ms Rubeena Hoodbhoy, RMT Enterprises, puses in New Zealand, and also visited the New Karachi responded, “Of course. Education is like Ms Prabha Ravi (Wellington Institute of Zealand Immigration Office in Bangkok to have a cloth. A student may choose silk, cotton, or syn- Technology): “When we are developing a market clear picture of the visa scenario for local stu- thetic. But not everyone can choose silk, and not such as Pakistan we have to depend on the people dents.“ every student can enter an Ivy League school. The who represent us when we are not present. Ms S Rajput, Director of Auspak International in first choice is that the study should be cost effec- Thankfully we have some really capable agents Islamabad jumped into the discussion. “Whether tive. Students have opportunities from all over the assisting us in Pakistan. They have historically in America, the UK, or New Zealand we agents are world but our decision as agents is that New favoured Australian institutions, but now believe the middle person between the student and the Zealand is the right place to go to.” 1 8 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  9. 9. EMERGING SUBJECT | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 1 9
  10. 10. E EMERGING SUBJECT nvironment is a global issue in Environmental scientists find read books about rocks, the earth, and the today’s world and both developed environment. and developing countries have and fix pollution and other now begun to feel concerned about the environmental problems. They How much does this job pay? greenhouse effect. Environmental scientists figure out what is in the air, find and fix pollution and other environ- water, and soil to make sure The middle half of all environmental sci- mental problems. They figure out what is in that the environment is safe. entists earned between $42,840 and the air, water, and soil to make sure that the They also give advice on how $74,480 in 2006. The lowest-paid 10 per- environment is safe. They also give advice cent earned less than $34,590. The highest- on how to clean the environment. For paid 10 percent earned more than $94,670. to clean the environment. For example, they might design a safe way to example, they might design a get rid of trash. Some of these workers mix safe way to get rid of trash. How many jobs are there? environmental science with other sciences, such as chemistry or biology. Environmen- Environmental scientists held about tal chemists find out if different chemicals 83,000 jobs in 2006. Many worked for gov- hurt the environment. Environmental biolo- ernments. Others worked for science and gists focus on protecting animals and engineering companies, oil and gas compa- plants. Some environmental scientists help nies, and other places. Some had their own make laws about protecting the environ- businesses. ment. They also help companies follow the laws. Environmental scientists work in lab- What about the future? oratories and offices. They also work out- side, taking measurements. They use maths The number of jobs for environmental and computers. Environmental scientists scientists is expected to grow much faster sometimes work long hours. Some travel to than the average for all occupations through far away places in trucks and helicopters. 2016. That’s because people want the envi- They might dig dirt, chip rocks, or do other ronment to be cleaner, and more businesses physical things. Scientists who look for oil and governments will hire these scientists often work in foreign countries. In addition to help do that. to doing science, many of these workers write reports and help find money for their Are there other jobs like this? projects. Astronomer Atmospheric scientist How do you get ready? Chemist Engineering technician All of these workers need a college Mathematician degree. Most need an advanced degree Petroleum engineer either masters, which takes 1 or 2 more Physicist years after finishing college, or a doctoral Science technician degree, which takes longer. In college, these workers study geography, environ- mental science, chemistry, biology, earth Environmental scientists and science, and physics. They also study math In college, these workers hydrologists and statistics so that they can understand study geography, environmen- measurements and data. People who want tal science, chemistry, biolo- Environmental scientists and hydrologists to make laws about protecting the environ- gy, earth science, and often work in offices, laboratories and field ment also take law classes. In addition to sites. Federal, State and local governments taking classes, scientists have to learn how employ 43 per cent of all environmental physics. They also study math to work with other people. They also need and statistics so that they can scientists and hydrologists. Although a to practice speaking and writing so that they understand measurements and bachelor’s degree in an earth science is ade- will be able to explain their research. Work- data. quate for a few entry-level jobs, employers ers also need computer skills. And they prefer a master’s degree; a PhD. degree need to know about the latest tools and generally is required for research or college technology for studying the earth. Students teaching positions. Job prospects are can start getting ready by taking science, expected to be favourable, particularly for math, and computer classes. They can also hydrologists. 2 0 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  11. 11. EMERGING SUBJECT Nature of work Environmental scientists and hydrologists in research positions with the Environmental scientists and hydrologists Federal Government or in colleges and universities often have to find fund- use their knowledge of the physical makeup ing for their work by writing grant proposals. Consultants face similar pres- and history of the Earth to protect the envi- sures to market their skills and write proposals so that they will have ronment, study the properties of under- steady work. ground and surface waters, locate water and energy resources, predict water-related geo- disciplinary engineering companies, the logic hazards, and provide environmental largest of which may employ thousands of site assessments and advice on indoor air workers, and small niche firms that may quality and hazardous-waste-site remedia- employ only a few workers. When looking tion. Environmental scientists conduct for jobs, environmental scientists and research to identify, abate and eliminate hydrologists should consider the type of hazards that affect people, wildlife, and firm and the scope of the projects it under- their environments. These workers analyze takes. In larger firms, environmental scien- measurements or observations of air, food, tists are more likely to engage in large, water, and soil to determine the way to long-term projects in which they will work clean and preserve the environment. Under- with people in other scientific disciplines. standing the issues involved in protecting In smaller specialty firms, however, they the environment—degradation, conserva- work more often with business profession- tion, recycling, and replenishment—are als and clients in government and the pri- central to the work of environmental scien- vate sector. tists. They often use this understanding to design and monitor waste disposal sites, Environmental scientists who work on preserve water supplies, and reclaim con- policy formation may help identify ways taminated land and water to comply with that human behaviour can be modified in Federal environmental regulations. They the future to avoid such problems as also write risk assessments, describing the ground-water contamination and depletion likely affect of construction and other envi- of the ozone layer. Some environmental sci- ronmental changes; write technical propos- entists work in managerial positions, usual- als; and give presentations to managers and ly after spending some time performing regulators. Hydrologists study the quantity, research or learning about environmental distribution, circulation, and physical prop- laws and regulations. erties of bodies of water. Often they spe- cialize in either underground water or sur- Many environmental scientists do work face water. They examine the form and and have training that is similar to other intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltra- physical or life scientists, but they focus on tion into the soil, its movement through the environmental issues. Many specialise in Earth, and its return to the ocean and atmos- subfields such as environmental ecology phere. Hydrologists use sophisticated tech- and conservation, environmental chemistry, niques and instruments. For example, they Many environmental scientists and environmental biology, or fisheries science. may use remote sensing technology, data hydrologists work at consulting firms, help- Specialties affect the specific activities that assimilation, and numerical modelling to ing businesses and government agencies environmental scientists perform, although monitor the change in regional and global comply with environmental policy, particu- recent understandings of the interconnect- water cycles. Some surface-water hydrolo- larly with regard to ground-water deconta- edness of life processes have blurred some gists use sensitive stream-measuring mination and flood control. They are usual- traditional classifications. For example, devices to assess flow rates and water qual- ly hired to solve problems. Most consulting environmental ecologists study the relation- ity. firms fall into two categories: large multi- ships between organisms and their environ- ments and the effects of factors such as population size, pollutants, rainfall, temper- ature, and altitude, on both. They may col- lect, study, and report data on air, soil, and water using their knowledge of various sci- entific disciplines. Ecological modellers study ecosystems, pollution control, and resource management using mathematical | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 1
  12. 12. EMERGING SUBJECT modelling, systems analysis, thermodynam- A bachelor’s degree in ics, and computer techniques. Environmen- environmental science tal chemists study the toxicity of various offers an interdisciplinary chemicals, that is, how those chemicals approach to the natural affect plants, animals, and people. (Infor- sciences, with an empha- mation on geoscientists who also study the Earth, is located elsewhere in the Hand- sis on biology, chemistry, book.) and geology. Undergraduate environ- Environmental scientists and hydrologists mental science majors in research positions with the federal gov- typically focus on data ernment or in colleges and universities analysis and physical often have to find funding for their work by writing grant proposals. Consultants face geography, which are par- similar pressures to market their skills and ticularly useful in study- write proposals so that they will have ing pollution abatement, steady work. water resources, or ecosystem protection, Most entry-level environmental scientists restoration, and manage- and hydrologists spend the majority of their time in the field, while more experienced ment. workers generally devote more time to office or laboratory work. Many beginning most entry-level applied research positions chemistry, fluid mechanics, and geologic hydrologists and some environmental sci- in private industry, in state and federal logging, which is the gathering of geologic entists, such as environmental ecologists agencies, and at State geological surveys. A data. An understanding of environmental and environmental chemists, often take doctoral degree generally is necessary for regulations and government permit issues field trips that involve physical activity. college teaching and most research posi- also is valuable for those planning to work Environmental scientists and hydrologists tions. in mining and oil and gas extraction. in the field may work in warm or cold cli- Students interested in hydrology should mates, in all kinds of weather. In their Some environmental scientists have a take courses in the physical sciences, geo- research, they may dig or chip with a ham- degree in environmental science. Many, physics, chemistry, engineering science, mer, scoop with a net, come in contact with however, earn degrees in life science, soil science, mathematics, aquatic biology, water, and carry equipment. Travel often is chemistry, geology, geophysics, atmospher- atmospheric science, geology, oceanogra- required to meet with prospective clients or ic science, or physics and then apply their phy, hydrogeology, and the management or investors. education to the environment. They often conservation of water resources. In some need research or work experience related to cases, a bachelor’s degree in a hydrologic Researchers and consultants might face environmental science. A bachelor’s degree science is sufficient for positions consulting stress when looking for funding. Occasion- in environmental science offers an interdis- about water quality or wastewater treat- ally, those who write technical reports to ciplinary approach to the natural sciences, ment. business clients and regulators may be with an emphasis on biology, chemistry, For environmental scientists and hydrol- under pressure to meet deadlines and thus and geology. Undergraduate environmental ogists who consult, courses in business, have to work long hours. science majors typically focus on data finance, marketing, or economics may be analysis and physical geography, which are useful. In addition, combining environ- Training, other qualifications and particularly useful in studying pollution mental science training with other disci- advancement abatement, water resources, or ecosystem plines such as engineering or business, protection, restoration, and management. qualifies these scientists for the widest Most environmental scientists and range of jobs. Computer skills are essential hydrologists need a master’s degree. A PhD Understanding the geochemistry of inor- for prospective environmental scientists and is usually necessary for jobs in college ganic compounds is becoming increasingly hydrologists. Students who have some expe- teaching or research. A bachelor’s degree in important in developing remediation goals. rience with computer modelling, data analy- an earth science is adequate for a few entry- Students interested in working in the envi- sis and integration, digital mapping, remote level positions, but environmental scientists ronmental or regulatory fields, either in sensing, and Geographic Information Sys- increasingly need a master’s degree in envi- environmental consulting firms or for fed- tems (GIS) will be the most prepared to enter ronmental science, hydrology, or a related eral or state governments, should take the job market. Familiarity with the Global natural science. A master’s degree also is courses in hydrology, hazardous-waste Positioning System (GPS)—a locator system the minimum educational requirement for management, environmental legislation, that uses satellites—is vital. 2 2 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  13. 13. EMERGING SUBJECT Certification and advancement Job outlook Environmental scientists and hydrolo- Employment of environmental scientists gists often begin their careers in field and hydrologists is expected to grow much exploration or, occasionally, as research faster than the average for all occupations. assistants or technicians in laboratories or Job prospects are expected to be offices. They are given more difficult favourable, particularly for hydrologists. assignments as they gain experience. Even- Employment of environmental scientists is tually, they may be promoted to project expected to increase by 25 percent between leader, programming manager, or some 2006 and 2016, much faster than the aver- other management and research position. age for all occupations. Over the same peri- (Information on engineering and natural od, employment of hydrologists should sciences managers is located elsewhere in increase by 24 percent, also much faster the Handbook.) than the average. Job growth for environ- The American Institute of Hydrology mental scientists and hydrologists should offers certification programmes in profes- be strongest in private-sector consulting sional hydrology. Certification may be ben- firms. Growth in employment of environ- eficial for those seeking advancement. mental scientists and hydrologists will be spurred largely by the increasing demands Employment placed on the environment and water resources by population growth. Environmental scientists and hydrolo- gists held about 92,000 jobs in 2006. Jobs Further demand should result from the for hydrologists accounted for only 9 per- need to comply with complex environmen- cent of the total. Many more individuals tal laws and regulations, particularly those Employment of environmental sci- held environmental science faculty posi- regarding ground-water decontamination, tions in colleges and universities, but they clean air, and flood control. Much job are classified as postsecondary teachers. growth will result from a continued need to entists and hydrologists is expected to grow much faster than the aver- (See the statement on teachers postsec- monitor the quality of the environment, to age for all occupations. Job ondary elsewhere in the Handbook.) interpret the impact of human actions on prospects are expected to be favor- terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and to able, particularly for hydrologists. About 35 per cent of environmental sci- develop strategies for restoring ecosys- Employment change. Employment entists were employed in State and local tems. In addition, environmental scientists governments; 21 percent in management, will be needed to help planners develop scientific, and technical consulting servic- and construct buildings, transportation cor- of environmental scientists is expected to increase by 25 percent es; 15 percent in architectural, engineering ridors, and utilities that protect water between 2006 and 2016, much and related services; and 8 percent in the resources and reflect efficient and benefi- faster than the average for all occu- Federal Government. About 2 percent were cial land use. pations. self-employed. Demand for hydrologists should also be Among hydrologists, 26 per cent were strong as the population increases and employed in architectural, engineering, and moves to more environmentally sensitive Environmental scientists and hydrologists related services, and 18 per cent worked for locations. As people increasingly migrate must have good interpersonal skills, management, scientific, and technical con- toward coastal regions, for example, because they usually work as part of a team sulting services. In 2006, the Federal hydrologists will be needed to assess build- with other scientists, engineers, and techni- Government employed about 28 percent of ing sites for potential geologic hazards and cians. Strong oral and written communica- hydrologists, mostly within the US Depart- to mitigate the effects of natural hazards tion skills also are essential because writ- ment of the Interior for the US Geological such as floods, landslides, and hurricanes. ing technical reports and research propos- Survey (USGS) and within the US Depart- Hydrologists also will be needed to study als and communicating results to company ment of Defence. Another 21 percent hazardous-waste sites and determine the managers, regulators, and the public are worked for State agencies, such as State effect of pollutants on soil and ground important aspects of the work. Because geological surveys and State departments water so that engineers can design remedi- international work is becoming increasing- of conservation. About 2 percent of hydrol- ation systems. Increased government regu- ly pervasive, knowledge of a second lan- ogists were self-employed, most as con- lations, such as those regarding the man- guage can be an advantage. Those involved sultants to industry or government. agement of storm water, and issues related in fieldwork must have physical stamina. to water conservation, deteriorating coastal | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 3
  14. 14. EMERGING SUBJECT environments, and rising sea levels also 2007 for graduates with bachelor’s degrees in Job prospects will stimulate employment growth for an environmental science averaged $38,336 a these workers. In addition to job openings due to year. In 2007, the Federal Government’s Many environmental scientists and growth, there will be additional demand for average salary for hydrologists was $82,217. hydrologists work in consulting. Consult- new environmental scientists and hydrolo- ing firms have hired these scientists to help gists to replace those who retire, advance Related occupations businesses and government address issues to management positions, or change related to underground tanks, land disposal careers. Job prospects for hydrologists Environmental scientists and hydrologists areas, and other hazardous-waste-manage- should be favourable, particularly for those perform investigations for the purpose of ment facilities. Currently, environmental with field experience. Demand for hydrol- abating or eliminating pollutants or hazards consulting is evolving from investigations ogists who understand both the scientific that affect the environment or plants, ani- to creating remediation and engineering and engineering aspects of waste remedia- mals, and humans. solutions. At the same time, the regulatory tion should be strong. Few colleges and Many other occupations deal with preserv- climate is moving from a rigid structure to universities offer programmes in hydrolo- ing or researching the natural environment, a more flexible risk-based approach. gy, so the number of qualified workers may including conservation scientists and be limited. foresters, atmospheric scientists, and some These factors, coupled with new Federal biological scientists, science technicians, Federal executive branch $82,490 and State initiatives that integrate environ- and engineering technicians. Environmental Management services $57,280 mental activities into the business process Engineering services $56,080 scientists and hydrologists have extensive itself, will result in a greater focus on waste Local government $52,100 training in physical sciences, and many minimization, resource recovery, pollution State government $50,590 apply their knowledge of chemistry, physics, prevention, and the consideration of envi- biology, and mathematics to the study of the ronmental effects during product develop- Job prospects for environmental scien- Earth, work closely related to that of geosci- ment. This shift in focus to preventive tists also will be good, but less favourable entists. management will provide many new oppor- than for hydrologists because of the larger Using problem-solving skills, physicists; tunities for environmental scientists and number of workers seeking to enter the chemists; engineers; mathematicians; survey- hydrologists in consulting roles. field. ors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and Funding for Federal and State geological surveying technicians; computer systems surveys depend largely on the political cli- analysts; and computer scientists and data- Currently, environmental con- mate and the current budget. Thus, job base administrators may also perform similar security for environmental scientists and work related to the environment. hydrologists may vary. During periods of Sources of additional information: Infor- sulting is evolving from investi- gations to creating remediation economic recession, layoffs of environ- mation on training and career opportunities and engineering solutions. At the mental scientists and hydrologists may for environmental scientists is available same time, the regulatory cli- occur in consulting firms; layoffs are much from: American Geological Institute, 4220 mate is moving from a rigid less likely in government. King St., Alexandria, VA 22302. Internet: structure to a more flexible risk- Earnings For information on careers in hydrology, contact: American Institute of Hydrology, based approach. These factors, coupled with new Federal and Median annual earnings of environmental 300 Village Green Circle, Suite #201, Smyr- State initiatives that integrate scientists were $56,100 in May 2006. The na, GA 30080. Internet: http://www.aihy- environmental activities into the middle 50 percent earned between $42,840 Information on obtaining a position business process itself, will and $74,480. The lowest 10 percent earned as a hydrologist or an environmental pro- result in a greater focus on waste less than $34,590, and the highest 10 percent tection specialist with the Federal Govern- earned more than $94,670. ment is available from the Office of Per- Median annual earnings of hydrologists sonnel Management through USAJOBS, minimization, resource recovery, pollution prevention, and the were $66,260 in 2006, with the middle 50 the Federal Government’s official employ- consideration of environmental percent earning between $51,370 and ment information system. effects during product develop- $82,140, the lowest 10 percent earning less This resource for locating and applying ment. than $42,080, and the highest 10 percent for job opportunities can be accessed earning more than $98,320. Median annual through the Internet at earnings in the industries employing the or through an largest number of environmental scientists in interactive voice response telephone sys- 2006 were as follows: According to the tem at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461- National Association of Colleges and 8404. These numbers are not toll free, and Employers, beginning salary offers in July charges may result. 2 4 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  15. 15. PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT W hat am I? Who am I? Why am I uncooperative, he could have been studying surprise, he suddenly became one. here? These are questions we some- how to get along with others. Rather than As he trotted to the garrison, Michihiro times ask ourselves. When we whining about having too much to do, he could cursed the blazing sun, for the long robes he answer these questions to our satisfaction, we have been studying how to get organized and was wearing caused him to be drenched in lead happy, fulfilling, and rewarding lives. manage his time. Rather than demanding sweat. “I wish I was as powerful as the sun.” he That being so, wouldn’t it help if they taught respect from his company, he could have been said. No sooner said than done. Thrilled by his us the answers in school? Well, life itself is the studying how to earn it. Rather than bellyach- new power, he started to scorch the earth. But most important school we will ever attend, and ing about tedious tasks, he could have been a menacing storm cloud appeared and blocked the teacher is experience. Life will gladly developing self-discipline. And rather than the sun. “That cloud is more powerful than I,” answer our questions if we follow seven sim- grumbling about lack of advancement, he he thought, “I wish I were a cloud.” Soon he ple steps. could have been busily creating his own oppor- was. But he felt himself being pushed away by tunities. the wind. “The wind is more powerful than I. I Step 1. Accept and appreciate your wish I were the wind.” he said. Michihiro present situatuin Step 1 is important because it is only when laughed as he blew the tiles off house tops and we are satisfied with where we are that we will fell trees. But there was something he could not be ready to move beyond it. To bring this point budge. It was a mountain made of solid stone. Sure, life is a school, but how can you learn home, I will share a zen story and a poem. First “That mountain is more powerful than I.” he anything if you don’t attend classes and fail to the zen story: thought, “I wish I were the mountain.” study? Let’s use Tom as an example. Perhaps A long time ago, a Japanese stone cutter Michihiro stood tall and erect, for he was you know someone like him. He is unhappy named Michihiro was unhappy with his lot in now a mighty mountain. But then he heard a and always changing jobs. He always has an life. He was envious of his neighbor, a wealthy clinking sound from down below. And with excuse for quitting. “I can’t stand the petty merchant. “I wish I could be as rich as he.” he each clink, he felt a little weaker. “Is there office politics. The boss is too demanding. The said to himself. After making the wish, he was something more powerful than I?” he thought. people I have to work with refuse to cooperate. magically transformed into a wealthy mer- Looking down, he saw a stone cutter chipping I don’t get chant. away slabs of stone. Perhaps, like Michihiro, the recognition I deserve. This job is too bor- One day a nobleman and his accompanying we can learn that we don’t have to look else- ing. There is no opportunity for advancement.” warriors walked by on horseback. All the vil- where for power, contentment, and success, but Tom wants to graduate from the school of lagers had to prostrate before the procession. we can find it right where we are. Here is a life, but he isn’t willing to do the homework. “How powerful that nobleman is!” thought poem by H.C. Jensen that teaches the same les- Rather than complaining about people being Michihiro. “I wish I were a nobleman.” To his son. | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 5
  16. 16. PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT Why God put me here Now that you have some helpful ideas, how will you bring them about? What steps do you I don’t know how to say it But somehow it need to take? What resources are necessary? seems to me, That maybe we are stationed When will you start and when will you com- where God wants us to be. That little place I’m plete your plan? filling is The reason for my birth And just to do the work I do, God sent me down to earth. Step 5. Start taking action If God had wanted otherwise I reckon He’d have made, Me just a little different Of a worse The most difficult part of a new plan is start- or better grade. And since God knows and ing. Don’t allow yourself to get stalled. Simply understands All things of land and sea, I fancy choose the simplest step you can take and do it. that He placed me here Just where He wanted No matter how small your baby steps may be, me. Sometimes I get to thinking As my labors each one moves you closer to your goal. Also, I review, That I should like a higher plane With you will find that as you repeatedly take baby greater things to do. But I come to the conclu- steps, you will pick up momentum and baby sion when the envying is stilled, That the post steps will gradually grow into giant steps, until, add to life, to e are here to to which God sent me Is the one he wanted at last, you sprint to the finish line. The only W ue filled. So I plod along and struggle In the hope thing separating us from where we are to where it in our uniq contribute to a here to make when day is through, That I’m really necessary we can be is action. So, act now. way. We are e the ere to chang To the things God wants to do. And there isn’t any service I can give which I should scorn, difference; h er king it a bett world by ma Step 6. Follow through For it may be just the reason God allowed that o here to cel- e. We are als I be born. A good plan isn’t enough. We have to follow plac it through to completion if we wish to succeed. are in and In fact, the original meaning of SUCCEED is ebrate life, sh . spread its joy Step 2. Listen to your inner voice to MAKE THE NEXT MOVE, or follow Attending school isn’t helpful if you refuse to through. Here’s what a very successful woman listen to the teacher. After all, the first stage of has to say about follow through, “Those who learning is listening. All of us get bright ideas are blessed with the most talent don’t necessar- and good intentions, but most of the time they ily outperform everyone else. It’s the people are set aside, and later forgotten, making them with follow-through who excel.” Mary Kay worthless. We need to listen to these urgings Ash (1918 ~ 2001). And Sir Walter Scott (1771 because it is life’s way of showing us what can ~ 1832) cut my seven step plan to just two: be. Accepting and appreciating what we have “Think things through - then follow through.” should not be mistaken for passivity. Just because we are happy with our present situa- Step 7. Discover who, what and why tion doesn’t mean it cannot improve. Life is you are by the actions you take synonymous with change and evolution. It is always stretching, reaching out, trying to Who, what, or why we are here has nothing become more today than it was yesterday. We to do with our occupation, which is just one of can either join in the call of life and march for- many ways we express ourselves. It is not what he is gone.” or will they say, “Good riddance!” ward, or we can sit by the wayside as mere job we have that counts, but what kind of father Can you see how we discover who and what spectators. or mother, son or daughter, wife or husband, we are by listening to the promptings of our friend, relative, neighbor, employer, worker, inner voice and following through? As we Step 3. Write down your bright ideas coworker, or citizen that I am. In a word, it is awaken to our power, we discover why we are and good intentions as they occur not what I DO but what I AM that defines me. here as well. We are here to add to life, to con- Reworded, it is not my position, but my dispo- tribute to it in our unique way. We are here to There is magic in the written word. By jot- sition that counts. Am I generous or selfish, make a difference; here to change the world by ting down our ideas we transform intangible caring or cold, helpful or troublesome, encour- making it a better place. We are also here to thoughts into something concrete. Once we aging or demeaning, cheerful or grumpy, arro- celebrate life, share in and spread its joy. The write them down, we can refer to them again gant or modest, resentful or forgiving, truthful two great personal moments in our lives are the and again, clarifying and building on them. or dishonest, demanding or understanding, moment we were born and the moment we dis- patient or hot-headed, courteous or rude, gentle covered why (we were born). Step 4. Change your ideas into an or cruel, moody or even-tempered, aggressive Chuck Gallozzi Toronto, Canada action plan or friendly, thoughtful or thoughtless? In other Email: words, when I die, will others say, “I’m sorry 2 6 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  17. 17. RANKINGS | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 7
  18. 18. T RANKI NAL P E R S ON G S D E V E L O P M E N T his year marks the publication of the 11th annual Financial Times survey of non-degree executive education programmes. The survey includes three business school rankings: of schools which offer open enrolment pro- grammes, those offering customised pro- grammes and a combined table featuring schools ranked for both. Perhaps the most difficult question of all for MBA students is where they will work on graduation. “If there’s a global market in automobiles there is no reason why there shouldn’t be a global market in talent as well,” Joe Thomas, dean of the Johnson school at Cornell University, USA, remarked. “We will have to rethink the basis of finance. We will need to understand how to adjust globalisation to a more regulated world. We need to give our students more insights into what the new role of business in society will be and how business has to take the rest of society more into account in its strategies.” Professor De Meyer said. Open programmes are open to employees from any company or organisation. Those included here last for at least three days. The data collected is used to assess the first 11 criteria on the table. Customised programmes are tailor-made These make up 80 per cent of the school’s final score. The other five cri- for organisations that want to offer specific training to employees. This year 60 schools teria in the customised ranking are compiled using the statistical data participated in the open stream and 78 in supplied by the business schools. More than 5,600 senior and general the customised stream. To be eligible, a participants replied to the survey in 2009 school must have had income of at least $2 million from the programme type during the previous year. weightings. In descending order these are: customised ranking are compiled using the For the customised ranking, business statistical data supplied by the business schools are asked for details of a number of • Strategic: Designed to determine and influ- schools. The open enrolment ranking is also top clients, who are invited to complete an ence the strategy of the company; calculated using data gathered from two • General: Delivered to management on opera- online survey (primary survey). They can types of surveys: an online questionnaire tional aspects of the company; also give feedback about a second school completed by programme participants and a • Functional: Relating to a specific function – they have used in the past 12 months (sec- survey of data supplied by participating for example, marketing. ondary survey). This ranking is compiled schools. using data from two sets of surveys; one is Different weightings are also assigned to Online questionnaires are distributed in completed by the clients and the other by questionnaires according to the seniority of English, French, Spanish and Italian to two the business schools. the person responsible for specifying the groups of participants: those who took part Surveys are distributed in English, programme, the size of the company, and in senior management programmes, and French, German, Italian, Spanish, Por- the number of business schools the client those who participated in general-level tuguese and Mandarin. Clients are asked to has used for customised programmes. management programmes. rate aspects of the programme on a 1 to 10- In total, 838 business school clients com- More than 5,600 senior and general par- point scale: 1 is “poor” and 10 is “excel- pleted the survey. The data collected is used ticipants replied to the survey in 2009. After lent”. Furthermore, the Financial Times to assess the first 11 criteria on the table. the online questionnaire closes, data gath- defines three categories of customised pro- These make up 80 per cent of the school’s ered from the senior and general level par- grammes, which are assigned different final score. The other five criteria in the ticipants are collated. Calculations for the 2 8 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  19. 19. RANKINGS two data sets are completed separately and edge the perception that their MBA gradu- the results are then combined using a 50/50 ates are seen as part of the problem. “It’s a weighting. These results are used to com- bit superficial but it is there,” says Michael pile the first 10 criteria of the open ranking Osbaldeston, director of Cranfield School and account for 80 per cent of the school’s of Management in the UK. “Yes, business final score. The data from the business schools will be blamed for some of the school are used to calculate the other six excesses that we have recently observed criteria. For both rankings, calculations for and for some of the mistakes made by busi- the first section of the table include data ness leaders,” says Arnoud de Meyer, direc- (collected from participants or clients) from tor of the Judge Business School at the previous years, where applicable. The Cambridge University, England. “We prob- weightings are 55:45 if a school has partic- ably deserve some of that blame.” ipated for two years. If they have taken part Luis Palencia, associate dean for the for three years, the weighting is: 40:33:27. MBA at Iese Business School in Spain agrees. “I believe by omission we are To create the final rankings, results from responsible.” One of the undoubted ironies the various calculations are converted into is the effect the financial crisis has had on Z-scores. These take into account the differ- ences between each business school and the distribution of scores between the highest and lowest scorers. The schools’ Z-scores for each of the cri- teria are then weighted. The weightings for the first section of the table are determined by the level of importance that respondents attach to each criterion. The weightings applied in the second section (statistical The weightings for the first section of the table are determined by the data collected from the schools) are decided level of importance that respondents attach to each criterion. The by the Financial Times. The sum of the weighted Z-scores deter- weightings applied in the second section (statistical data collected mines a school’s overall position. The rank- from the schools) are decided by Financial Times ing is calculated on the basis of the average Z-score for schools that appear in both rankings. The replacement of the MBA graduate by the younger lawyer in some way reflects one of their recent concerns: the perception of business among those in their 20s – potential MBA applicants. US business schools have been reporting for the past the business school funding model. of their income from short non-degree pro- five years that these students “generation In November last year, Harvard Universi- grammes there are clear signs that corpora- Y” are increasingly focused on manage- ty President Drew Gilpin Faust issued a tions will no longer support this expense. ment rather than business. statement that sent a chill through every Figures circulating in the industry suggest They are eschewing the 80-hour working university in the US. “We need to be pre- business has already declined by between week of the investment banker or manage- pared to absorb unprecedented endowment 15 and 20 per cent, particularly in open ment consultant for more time with their losses and plan for a period of greater finan- enrolment programmes. families and more socially rewarding jobs cial constraint,” she wrote. The problems for US schools do not stop in not-for-profit companies or government. The devaluation of endowments is one of there. The credit crunch has affected both Business school professors are worried the three financial pitfalls for business schools, scholarships and student loans, says Larry suspicions that surrounded big business fol- particularly those in the US. Schools also Mueller, director of financial aid at the Dar- lowing the Enron and Worldcom bankrupt- face a reduction in the annual fund – the den School of Business at the University of cy listings in 2001 and 2002 have been money students and alumni give to help in Virginia. exacerbated by the credit crunch and finan- the day-to-day running of the school. These A sharp drop in endowment income cial crises of the past year. gifts often count for between 10 and 15 per means a sharp drop in money for scholar- Though most business schools plead cent of the operating budget. ships. Mr Mueller says the school is contin- innocence over the crisis, they acknowl- And for schools that earn large amounts uing to put money behind its scholarship | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 9