Producer meaning -- Ask the author what was meant… not always possible. Interpreter of text. Producer are government, organizations, parties. Unobtrusive technique Observations may distort the data…. Usually do not need IRB approval unless content analyzing focus group data.
Frequency of occurrences of given characteristics – measuring the amount of somethingFastest growing technique over the past few decades…really began in the 1980s… but believe that it began around 1948. First one was in 1893Quant content analysis Assignment of rules to objects or eventsReplicability is the most important form of relaibility
Antecedent conditions to communicatThere is an assumption that communication can have profound effects on the masses…
View Kimssheet A set of information used to identify a sample population for statistical treatment. List of online sites, use search engines to identify sites. Sample enough issues to achieve an acceptable estimate of unknown population parametersConstructed week, defend time frameLarge enough sample sizes available to make generalizationsVerified by another investigator… at least two codersAgain… what was the first definition? Message. Message characteristics. It usually is a person in communication research – article, press release, website, comment, music lyrics, commercial;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;Poorly executed coding scheme, poor coder training, coder fatigue, rogue coder
Constructs to assess human interaction… empirical translation of theoretical meaningful categories
Can there be more than one frame in a story or do you instruct the author to select only one frame? How would you rewrite this variable for the coding sheet for data analysis purposes? Human interest 1 0
There are two types of validity necessary for a valid coding scheme You are saying the you expect a relationship between what and what… and do your measures reflect that logic… and does your construction of measures tap into the labels. Remember that you are the interpreter…. And you interpreter the messenger accuratelyVariables should relate to the interactions iwthin the coding scheme… if the relationships hold…. Then there is evidence for construct validity
The concept of intersubjectivity is an important component of theory constructionTo check if under different conditions you will get the same results.
Coding large volumes is very labor intensive, time consuming, tiresome, Communication is about beliefs, views, attitudes, values…. And coder tries to discover what those are…. http://bama.ua.edu/~wevans/content/csoftware/software_menu.htmlhttp://www.content-analysis.de/software/quantitative-analysis
Not surprisingly, we find that older people are absent from magazine ads targeting young people and, if present, are negatively portrayed. Also, images of older people are overwhelmingly positive in magazines targeting older audiences.Have the class come to a general consensus on what ages constitute child, young adult, etc. Students tend to perceive young adult as late teens to mid-20s and older adult as late 20s to 40s.
Content Analysis - Theoretical Issues - Intro to Quantitative
Systematic, objective, quantitative analysis of messagecharacteristics (Neuendorf, 2002)Systematic and replicable examination of symbols ofcommunication, which have been assigned numericvalues according to valid measurement rules, and theanalysis of relationships involving those values usingstatistical methods, in order to describe thecommunication, draw inferences about its meaning, orinfer from the communication to its context, both ofproduction and consumption (Riffe, Lacy, & Fico, 1998).
To identify communication trendsTo describe characteristics of messagesTo make inferences of the producers of contentTo make inferences about content audiencesTo determine attitudes, interests and values
1) Formulate hypotheses and research questions2) Select a sample and sampling framea) Unit of analysis?3) Identify time frame4) Define content categories5) Training codersa. Pilot coding6) Analyze and interpret data
Verbal (e.g., types of jokes told by comedians)Nonverbal (e.g., incidence of facial expressions during conversations)Mediated (e.g., portrayal of global warming in magazines)
Reduction of complex set of attributes while notdistorting the phenomena
Code sheetVariable labelsIndicators (Assigned numbers)Coding protocolInstructions to the coders on how to delineateindicatorsFrames____1=Human interest _____ 2=Conflict____3= Moral _____ 4=Economic _____5 = Other
Face validityConstructs tap into the assumptions of theinvestigator’s theoryCriterion validityPredicted relationships
Consensus that the measures are what they areintending to measure regardless of who doesthe analysis or when it is done under similarconditionsIntercoder reliability?Replicability?
ComputerCost effectiveReliableSoftwareQuantitative or qualitative?How complex an analysis can it perform?Can it run on languages other than English?Is the code base (or dictionary) proprietary?Is there an established user base?Does it only run on Windows?HandMore valid
Aging portrayals in mag ads – develop a codesheet and coding protocolContent analyze (People, Good Housekeeping,Woman’s Day)Examine the ads according to the productadvertised (health, beauty, financial, etc.),product, sex, age group, valence, and any otherrelated variablesCreate a code sheet and protocol
Measures & Concepts: Find an article that usesat least two of the variables explored in yourfinal project. Critique the conceptualization andoperationalization of the measures.Content analysis critique in a study related toyour topicDue 3/14