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  1. 1. JOB SATISFACTION AND INTENTION TO LEAVE AMONG LECTURERS IN PRIVATEHIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS (PHEIs) IN KUALA LUMPURMUZAHA ASRAIN BIN MUSTAPHAUNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA2009JOB SATISFACTION AND INTENTION TO LEAVE AMONG LECTURERS IN PRIVATEHIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS (PHEIs) IN KUALA LUMPURByMUZAHA ASRAIN BIN MUSTAPHAA project paper submitted to the College of BusinessUniversiti Utara Malaysia (UUM),in partial fulfillments of the requirement for the Degree of Masters of Human ResourceManagement2009PERMISSION TO USEIn presenting this thesis in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master ofHuman Resource Management (MHRM) from Universiti Utara Malaysia, I hereby agree that theUniversity Library may make it freely available for inspection. I also agree that permission forcopying this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purposes may be granted bymy supervisor or in his absence, by the Dean of College of Business to which this thesis issubmitted.It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof, for thepurpose of financial gains shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is alsounderstood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for anyscholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis.Request for permission to copy or to make other use of materials in this thesis, in whole or in part,shall be addressed to:DeanCollege of BusinessUniversiti Utara Malaysia06010 UUM SintokKedahMalaysia
  2. 2. [pic]Kolej Perniagaan(College of Business)Universiti Utara MalaysiaPERAKUAN KERJA TESIS(Certification of Thesis Work)Saya / Kami yang bertandatangan di bawah, memperakukan bahawaI / We, the undersigned, certify thatMUZAHA ASRAIN BIN MUSTAPHAnama penuhfull namecalon untuk ijazahcandidate for the degree of MASTER OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTtelah mengemukakan tesisnya yang bertajuk :has presented his thesis with the following title :JOB SATISFACTION AND INTENTION TO LEAVE AMONG LECTURERS IN PRIVATEHIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS (PHEIs) IN KUALA LUMPURseperti yang tercatat di muka surat tajuk dan kulit tesisas it appears on the title page and front cover of the thesisdan tesis tersebut boleh diterima dari segi bentuk serta kandungan dan meliputi bidang ilmudengan memuaskan.The thesis is acceptable in form and content and that a satisfactory knowledge of the field iscovered.Penyelia Tesis / Thesis Supervisor i) Nama / Name : EN. MOHD GHAZALI BIN DIN Tandatangan / Signature : Tarikh / Date : 01 SEPTEMBER 2009 ABSTRAK Kajian ini mengkaji hubungan aspek kepuasan kerja dengan kecenderungan untuk berhenti
  3. 3. kerja di Institusi Pendidikan Tinggi Swatsa (IPTS) di Kuala Lumpur. Objektif kajian adalah untuk:1) mengkaji tahap kepuasan kerja dan kecenderungan untuk berhenti kerja: 2) mengkaji hubungankepuasan kerja dengan kecenderungan untuk berhenti kerja: dan 3) mengkaji kesan kepuasankerja terhadap kecenderungan pensyarah untuk berhenti kerja. Berdasarkan kepada ulasan-ulasan terdahulu, satu model hubungan telah dicadangkan dandikembangkan untuk mengkaji hubungan antara enam faktor dalam kepuasan kerja dengankecenderungan untuk behenti kerja. Bagi menguji hubungan pembolehubah-pembolehubah di dalam model ini, data daripada 152pensyarah di lima buah IPTS diguna-pakai. Analisis korelasi dan analisis aneka regrasi telahdijalankan bagi menguji hubungan hipotesis-hipotesis kajian. Analisis kolerasi telah menunjukkan satu hubungan yang signifikan dan negatif antarakeenam-enam pembolehubah kepuasan kerja dengan kecenderungan untuk berhenti kerja.Keputusan analisis hubung-kait mencadangkan kecenderungan pensyarah untuk berhenti kerjaadalah negatif dan nyata berkait rapat dengan kepuasan terhadap penyelia, kepuasan terhadapkepelbagaian, kepuasan dengan kawan rapat, kepuasan terhadap polisi-polisi pengurusan sumbermanusia dan kepuasan terhadap pampasan. Keputusan analisis hubungkait menunjukkan jikafaktor kepuasan kelima-lima dimensi berada pada tahap tinggi, maka kecenderungan untukberhenti kerja akan diimbangi. Bagaimanapun, kepuasan terhadap rakan-rakan sekerja tidakmempengaruhi hubung-kait dengan kecenderungan untuk meletak jawatan di kalangan parapensyarah. Keputusan analisis aneka regresi menunjukkan bahawa antara keenam-enam faktor kepuasankerja, kepuasan terhadap kepelbagaian dan kepuasan terhadap penyelia adalah dua pembolehubahutama terhadap kecendurungan untuk berhenti kerja di dalam institusi-institusi akademik dansecara negatifnya mempengaruhi keputusan pensyarah untuk meletak jawatan. Keputusan darianalisis hubung-kait dan analisis aneka regresi seterusnya mencadangkan bahawa pengaruhkepuasan terhadap kepelbagaian dan kesan terhadap penyelia adalah dua kunci pembolehubahbebas dalam mengurangkan kecenderungan pensyarah daripada meletak jawatan di IPTS diMalaysia terutama di lokasi Kuala Lumpur. Berdasarkan hasil kajian, cadangan-cadangan dikemukakan untuk para pengurus dan parapenggubal dasar organisasi yang terlibat dengan IPTS. Selain daripada itu, had-had batasanterhadap kajian ini dan kajian seterusnya di masa akan datang di dalam bidang ini juga turutdibincangkan. ABSTRACTThe study investigated the relationship between the six facets of job satisfaction and the intentionto leave among lecturers in the Private Higher Education Institutions (PHEIs) in Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia. The objectives of the study were 1) to examine the level of perceived job satisfactionand intention to leave, 2) to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and intention tom
  4. 4. leave, 3) to examine the effect of job satisfaction in relation to lecturer’s intention to leave.Based on the literature reviews a model of relationship was proposed and developed to examinethe relationships between the six factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave.To test the relationship of the variables in the model, data from 152 lecturers from five PHEIs inKuala Lumpur, were used. To test the relationship hypotheses of the study, correlation, andmultiple regression analysis were performed.The correlation analysis suggested a significant and negative relationship among five of the sixjob satisfaction variables and the intention to leave The correlation results suggests that lecturersintention to leave is negatively and significantly associated with satisfaction with supervisor,satisfaction with job variety, satisfaction with closure, satisfaction with human recoursemanagement polices and satisfaction with compensation. The result of correlation analysisindicates that if perceived job satisfaction of the five facets of job satisfaction is experienced athigher level, lecturer’s intention to quit will be neutralized. However lecturer’s perceivedsatisfaction with co-workers did not significantly correlated with intention to leave.Multiple regression analysis result indicated that among the six factors of job satisfaction,satisfaction with job variety and satisfaction with supervisor were the two main predictor variablesto lecturer’s intention to leave in the private academic institutes and significantly and negativelyinfluence lecturer’s intention to leave. Results from correlation and multiple regression analysisfurther suggested that satisfaction with job variety and satisfaction with supervisor and satisfactionwith co-workers are three key variables to reduce the lecturer’s intention to leave in the Malaysianprivate sector institutes in higher learning.Based on the findings recommendation and suggestions for private higher education institute’spolicy makers are presented. The limitation of the study and the future research opportunities inthis area are also discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTMy utmost gratitude goes to my learned supervisor, Encik Mohd Ghazali Din for his expertise,kindness, and patience to guide me all the time during preparing this thesis. Moreover, honestlywould say that I wouldnt be performing my Master of Human Resource Management without hiscontinual encouragement supports given to me. To me, he is the one of the talented lecturer thatcould be interpreted very deeps between theoretical and practical-base.My sincere thanks also goes to Wan Ahmad Asrar Wan Yahya, Wan Hisham Nor Wan Harun,Rosli Yusof and Mejar (B) Saladin Kamarudin for support me during my studies at UUM, KualaLumpur Branch. I also thank to Cybernetics International College of Technology (CICT)especially my Managing Director (Encik Mohamad Ebrahim Mohideen), Chief Executive (Prof.Dr. Haji Saidin Teh) and Adjunct Professor (Prof. Madya Abdul Malek Bin A.Tambi) for theirtrust in me and allowing me to further studies in Human Resource Management.
  5. 5. Finally, I would like to thank my family: My late father (Mustapha Bin Salleh), my mother(Norrayah Binti Awang Pil), my wife (Wan Nor Azuliana Wan Yazid) and my sons (Amir Asrain,Bilal Asrain and Habib Asrain) to me all of them at the first place and supporting me spirituallythroughout my life.TABLE OF CONTENTSTITLE PAGE iPERMISSION TO USE iiCERTIFICATION OF THESIS WORK iiiABSTRAK (BAHASA MALAYSIA) ivABSTRACT vACKNOWLEDGEMENT viTABLE OF CONTENTS viiLIST OF TABLES ixLIST OF FIGURES xCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.0 INTRODUCTION 11.1 BACKGROUND 11.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 61.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 101.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 111.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 111.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 121.7 THESIS OUTLINE 13
  6. 6. CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 INTRODUCTION 162.1 JOB SATISFACTION 162.2 INTENT TO LEAVE 17 2.2.1 Job Satisfaction from Measurability Perspective 182.3 INTENT TO LEAVE AND JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR 222.4 SUMMARY 27CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.0 INTRODUCTION 263.1THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT 26 3.1.1 Hypothesis Development 293.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 36 3.2.1 Sampling and Data Collection Procedure 37 3.2.2 Questionnaire Design 383.3 INSTRUMENTATION 39 3.3.1 Job Satisfaction 40 3.3.2 Intention to Leave 40 3.3.3 Demographic Information 413.4 RELIABILITY TESTING 413.5 DATA ANALYSIS 42 3.5.1 Descriptive Analyses 42 3.5.2 Correlation Analysis 42
  8. 8. LIST OF TABLESTable 3.1 summarizes the instruments used for the present study 42Table 3.2 Pearson’s r Indices of Correlation 43Table 4.1 Respondents Background (n = 152) 46Table 4.2 Reliability Coefficients of the Constructs (n = 152) 48Table 4.3 Descriptive Statistics of Variables (n = 152) 50Table 4.4 Descriptive Results of satisfaction with supervisor (n=152) 51Table 4.5 Descriptive results of Satisfaction with Job Variety (n = 152) 52Table 4.6 Descriptive Results of Satisfaction with Closure (n = 152) 53Table 4.7 Descriptive Results of Satisfaction with Compensation (n = 152) 54Table 4.8 Descriptive Results of Satisfaction with Co-Workers (n= 152) 55Table 4.9 Descriptive Results of Satisfaction with HR/Management Policies (n = 152) 56Table 4.10 Descriptive Result of Intention to Leave (n = 152) 57Table 4.11 Correlations Matrix (n = 152) 58Table 4.12 Overall Influences of Job Satisfaction on Intention to Leave 59Table 4.13 Influence of Each Job Satisfaction Variables on Intention to Leave 60Table 4.14 Summary of Hypotheses Testing Results 62LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1.1. Outline of the thesis 13Figure 3.1. Research model 29CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION
  9. 9. 1.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter is devoted to present the overview of the research background, where focus hasbeen made to introduce the topic in detail. In particular, in aims to highlight gap in the existingliterature related to the topic of job satisfaction and intention to leave among lecturers or facultymembers in private higher education institutions in Malaysia. In addition, the scope andsignificance of the present study are addressed. Finally, a thesis outline is presented in adiagrammatic form to show how different chapters of this study are relating the entire process ofresearch.1.1 BACKGROUND There are important changes occurring in Malaysian higher education either public or privateeducation institutions today. As Morris, Yacoob and Wood (2003) point out, these changes includethe implementation of quality standards as well as the growth in mature student entry, theexpansion of courses in the sciences, the removal of the binary divide, the reduction of studentgrants, and the likelihood that students will personally have to pay more and more for theireducation. Some of these changes have arisen from pressures of demand, the cultural shift in theway in which higher education is viewed, financial pressures, structural and managerial diversity,and diversity of university missions or emphases, among other things. These changes wouldcertainly lead to higher educational institutions in Malaysia towards bringing number of changessuch as implementation of high quality education systems and a n expectations of superior qualityservices from faculty member, qualified and trained lecturers in all the disciplines and many otherorganizational changes such as hiring and training polices in the institutes. These changes aredirectly or indirectly relate to lecturer’s job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of university teachersand may influence their intention to leave (National Higher Education Research Institute ofMalaysia, 2004) Recent studies carried out in a number of countries have drawn attention to the degree of jobsatisfaction among teachers and have shown that teachers’ work “intensification” (Hargreaves,1994) mirrors societal trends toward overwork (Naylor, 2001). Imposed and centralized systemaccountability, lack of professional autonomy, relentlessly imposed changes, constant mediacriticism, reduced resources, and moderate pay all relate to low teacher satisfaction in manydeveloped countries around the world (van den Berg, 2002; Dinham & Scott, 1998b, 2000a; Scottet al., 2001; Scott et al., 2003; Vandenberghe & Huberman, 1999). The report presented byNational Higher Education Research Institute of Malaysia (2004), also indicates many problemsin private higher education Institutes in Malaysia (PHIEs), among many of the issues this reportpresented, one of the major issue raised in his report was the increasing turn over rate among theprivate sector institutes due to many satisfaction or dissatisfaction factors such as bettercompensation offered by another institutes, trainings opportunity. The effects of these trends include declining job satisfaction, reduced ability to meet students’needs, significant incidences of psychological disorders leading to increased absenteeism, andhigh level of claims for stress-related disability (Troman & Woods, 2000). Most importantly,though, teacher dissatisfaction appears to be a main factor in teachers leaving the profession inmany countries like Malaysia (National Higher Education Research Institute of Malaysia, 2004;
  10. 10. Vandenberghe & Huberman, 1999; Woods et al., 1997). Since new management approaches such a as creating value and satisfaction to consumersthrough creating learning organization (Senege, 1990), seek constant development by placing thehuman factor in the foreground, and since institutions can only progress based on the views,attitudes, and perceptions of their human resources, the number of studies related to employeesatisfaction has increased very rapidly (Vandenberghe & Huberman, 1999; Jenkins, 1993).Although most of the research in this field has been made related to profit making industrial andservice organization, there has been a growing interest in employee satisfaction in highereducation, especially related to quality management, all over the world since the beginning of1990s. The reason for this growing interest is the reality that higher education institutions arelabor intensive. Their budgets are predominately devoted to personal and their effectiveness islargely dependent on their employees. Therefore, satisfaction of the employees in higher educationinstitutions is very important. Although there is an increasing interest in employee satisfaction inhigher education sector, it is clear that the majority of the dominant theoretical and empirical workin this field is concentrated in the west and shaped mainly by North American and WesternEuropean influence, for example (Kanji & Tambi, 1999;Hargreaves, 1994). Hardly ever has anyresearch been done in other parts of the world, that is, in developing or underdeveloped countrieson this subject. Therefore, more research is needed to understand the satisfaction of the staffparticularly teachers in higher education in developing or less developed country. So, in a way,this studies aims to fill the gap in this field in developing country. Thus, the result of this studywill give a new perspective to the findings of the previous studies on the issue of employeesatisfaction in higher education in Malaysian perspective in a somewhat different culture. According to Koustelos (2001) and Morris et al (2003), one major reason for conductingresearch on job satisfaction is that positive or negative attitudes effects towards largely to themany forms of organizational behavior. The topic of job satisfaction is also important because ofits implications for job related behaviours such as productivity, absenteeism or turnover.Therefore, apart from its humanitarian utility, it appears to make economic sense to considerwhether and how job satisfaction can be improved. Evidence shows a relationship between lowjob satisfaction and intent to leave (Samad, 2006; Zurn, Dal Poz, Stillwell, & Adams, 2004).While existing studies generally focus on one concept or on the relationship between twoconcepts, very few documented studies explore the relationship between the job satisfaction oflecturers/faculty members in private higher education institutions (PHEIs) and intent to leave,particularly in countries suffering from knowledge workers shortages. (Moris et al, 2003). Whilerecognizing the importance of the job satisfaction, it is the objective of this study to investigatehow this phenomenon is related to faculty or school of studies of the university or colleges inhigher education learning in private sector. The aim of this research is therefore to examine the job satisfaction factors, which contributeto faculty member’s intention to leave. Moore (2002) gives an argument to the Herzberg et al.,(1959) expounded the dual factor theory of job satisfaction, which states that there are two groupsof factors, which determine job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction.
  11. 11. According to Moore (2002), Herzberg’s (1966) two-factor theory suggests that only jobcontent-related facets (e.g. achievement, responsibility, the work itself) lead to satisfaction. On theother hand, job context-related factors (e.g. pay, security, working conditions) lead to jobdissatisfaction but not to satisfaction. As pointed out by Moore, the two-factor theory is notentirely clear, and there are, at least, five possible interpretations of the theory. Indeed, severalreviews of the Herzberg related literature have cast serious doubt about the validity of his theory(House &Wigdor, 1967). However it is very important to observe that the many contextual relatedfactors of this theory such as pay, working conditions are found to be the core factor ofdissatisfaction or satisfaction among teachers in education institutes (Scott & Dinham, 2001;Shann , 1998). Recently, Quarstein et al. (1992) posit the situational occurrences theory of job satisfaction,which contends that job satisfaction is determined by two factors, as does Herzberg’s theory.However, as the authors indicate, this is the only similarity between the two theories. The situational occurrences theory argues that job satisfaction is a function of situationaloccurrences and situational characteristics and that any given factor, e.g. pay or recognition, canresult in either job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. It does not distinguish between job content or jobcontext-related. In this study using a situational occurrence theory, a survey questionnairedeveloped by wood et al., (1988) is used to capture the employee’s job satisfaction, which canrelates to their intention to leave. There have been many studies done in different working set up for example evidence for arelationship between employee’s shortage and low job satisfaction, a relationship between low jobsatisfaction and intent to leave and a relationship between low job satisfaction in sales profession(Sagar, 1994) and employee migration in health care profession (Shields and Ward 2001). Whileexisting studies generally focus on one concept or on the relationship between two concepts, veryfew documented studies explore the relationship between faculty’s job satisfactions, intent toleave, particularly in countries suffering from faculty shortages. In Malaysia according to NationalHigher Education Research Institute of Malaysia (2004), reports that private higher educationinstitute (PHIEs) are facing serious turn over problems among faculty members and currently it isat the rate of 4 percent, however it is expected to increase by 7 to 9 percent or even more in thefuture.1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT Globalisation – above all, in terms of the increased mobility of capital, the integration ofmarkets, and rapid technological change has presented individual nations with stark challenges, tocompete or to try to secure a position as a “high-wage, high skill” economy, as opposed to a “lowwage, low skill” one. Crucial to achieving the “high road” is a high level of flexibility through theoptimal utilization of human resources (Storey, 1995), which, in turn, calls for an effectivenational skills development infrastructure. Based on Storey (1995) thoughts on globalization andit overall impact on nation’s economy, it is obvious reality that any industry based nation’seconomy is dependable on highly skilled human resources in Sciences and Technology. For this
  12. 12. purpose education institutions in the country and its faculty play a crucial role in developingskilled human resources. The Malaysian Government’s stated aim of securing the nation’s placeamongst the industrialized countries by the year 2020 has received wide support from all theGovernment’s agencies and the private sector as well. In line with the Government call, theinstitutions of higher learning in Malaysia have developed their strategy and policy to meet thedemand for graduates of high caliber and professionalism that will be vital in the growth towards amodern economy. However the Government has often expressed its concern at the high turnoverof academic staff in higher education institution (National Higher Education Research Institute ofMalaysia, 2004; Morris et al, 2003). National Higher Education Research Institute of Malaysia(2004) presented a research report on the issues and problems in private higher educationinstitutes in Malaysia. According to the report, nearly 4 percent of the faculty members leave theinstitutes in private sector. The report further alarm that this turn over rate among the teachers inPHEIs or IPTS will increase further to nearly 9 percent. The reason for the increase of this turnover rate was reported by mentioning the satisfaction factors surveyed in this study. The findingsof this report further suggested that among many factors training opportunity, high standardsexpectation (high teaching loads), compensation and working conditions were the major factors toquite the institutions in IPTS. There is a lack of studies that investigate whether predictors of intent to leave in Malaysia aredifferent from such factors in other regions or countries. In fact, quite a few studies have beenconducted among Malaysian workforce in knowledge based sector and intent to leave to asseshow job satisfaction as a single independent variable influence intent to leave (Samad, 2006;Pearson & Chong, 1997). However, these studies mainly investigated job satisfaction by lookingprimarily into a single job satisfaction construct; not many have considered different facets of jobsatisfaction (Boles et al., 2003). To accurately measure job satisfaction, a number ofcharacteristics of the job may need to be evaluated if one hopes to obtain a broad measure ofemployee beliefs and attitudes about the job (Churchill et al., 1974). Therefore this study issignificant to the body of knowledge that relates different facets of job satisfaction and intent toleave study in Malaysian private higher education institutes (PHEIs), which is undergoingenormous structural changes and reform (Ministry of Higher Education, 2008). These 2020 reform initiatives have created a very challenging and to some extent turbulentpractice environment for teaching or academic staff in this sector that is bound to impact on theirwork satisfaction and teaching freedom. Measuring work satisfaction of these teaching staffs istherefore important in assessing whether they are making a successful transition to this newenvironment, as well as being an essential part of the process of ensuring high quality educationand learning at tertiary level. Dissatisfied providers not only create unstable organizations andgive poorer quality, less efficient services (George & Jones, 1996), there is also evidence of apositive correlation between services providers’ such as employees’ satisfaction and customersatisfaction (Taber & Alliger, 1995), and compliance (Weisman & Nathanson, 1985). Low worksatisfaction may also have cost implications in the form of high absenteeism and turnover, lowmorale and lower productivity (Mullins, 1999). Work satisfaction is also cited as an importantdeterminant of where and for whom employees intended to practice (Tag & Gilbert, 1995), as wellas their intention to quit their profession, thus making it an important goal for the recruitment and
  13. 13. retention of employees (Shaan, 1998; US Department of Education, 1997). Despite the importance of lecturer’s work satisfaction from a Higher Education Institutions(HEIs) outcomes perspective and its importance, as a management goal and policy indicator, theprevalence and predictors of career satisfaction among private sector Universities/Colleges inMalaysia have not been comprehensively studied as mentioned earlier in this section. In contrast,several studies emanating predominantly from the US have shown how employees satisfaction isrelated to intent to leave (National Higher Education Research Institute of Malaysia, 2004; Haas etal., 2000; McMurray, Linzer & Konrad, 2000), to practice structures (Barr, 1995), and to thevarious management and cost control strategies employed by administrators and founders (Hadley,Mitchell & Sulmasy, 1999). Consistent with the lack of empirical studies findings in Malaysianeducation sector and the HEIs lecturer’s satisfaction, a new study would likely contribute to thepractical as well as theoretical significance of the relationship between job satisfaction and theFaculty’s intention to leave in Malaysian higher education sector. Consistent with overall discussion so far, therefore this study seeks to answer followingquestions in a relatively new research setting and hopes to achieve some specific objectives. Thefollowing section discusses research questions and the objective of the study.1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Consistent with the discussion so far, this study seeks to answer the following questions onteaching professionals’ job satisfaction: 1. What is the level (score) of reported job satisfaction and intention to leave among theparticipating lecturer’s in PHEIs? 1. Is there any significant relationship between the six facets of job satisfaction and lecturer’sintention to leave in PHEIs? 1. Which factors(s) of job satisfaction influence the lecturer’s intention to leave in PHEIs?1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Are lecturers in Private Higher Education Institutions (PHEIs) satisfied with their jobs?According to Locke (1976), job satisfaction generally implies a positive evaluation of work and apositive effect deriving from it, that is, it is a “positive emotional state resulting from the appraisalof one’s job or job experiences” (as cited in Boles et al., 2003, p. 312). Utilizing survey data fromthe PHEIs in Malaysia, this research analyzes the nature and scope of job satisfaction, with theobjective of identifying its relationship to faculty’ intention to leave the current job or Institute.The following objectives of the study are: 1. To examine the level of reported job satisfaction and intention to leave among theparticipating lecturers in PHEIs. 1. To investigate the association or relationship between job satisfaction and lecturer’s intentionto leave in PHEIs. 1. To examine the influence of the six facets of job satisfaction on lecturer’s intention to leave inPHEIs .1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY To my understanding and knowledge, this study is unique in that it looks at the private higher
  14. 14. education sector in a developing economy in Asia Pacific region. However, the scope of this studyis limited to Malaysian private HEIs. Private higher education institutes (PHEIs) in Kuala Lumpurarea is the major focus in this study and questionnaires are distributed to the full time lecturers ofthe randomly selected Colleges/Universities. While the finding of this research may be limited tothe HEIs in private sector, it is reasonable to expect that some form of generalization of thestudy’s findings are possible since HEIs in Malaysia professional complies with the Malaysianstandards and code of conducts of teaching in private sector and hence the findings to some extentmay reflect the teaching profession’s experience all over Malaysia.See I wrote to “some extent” you can explain to Mr Gazali, this is reseach and we can still becarefull making our statement of generalization.1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research study tests and investigates empirical evidence of the relationship betweendifferent facets of job satisfaction and intention to leave, if any. The study further validates therelationship that perceptions of work have significant bearings on how people respond to theirwork environment, and in this case to their intention to leave. From the practical point of view, this study is of significance in the private higher educationinstitutes (PHEIs) as it attempts to provide an insight to the management or policy makers in theHEIs to adopt strategies to facilitate faculty members or lecturers to maintain their relationship notonly with their profession but also with the institute and hence to overcome high turn over andreduce further shortage of qualified faculty members/lecturers in the country either nowadays or inthe future.1.7 THESIS OUTLINEFigure 1.1. Outline of the thesis Figure 1.1 illustrates the structure of this research based on the content of the individualchapters. The arrows in Figure 1.1 indicate how the chapters are linked to each other. In chapterone, the background of the study is discussed to understand the purpose of the study. A briefreview of the literature on job satisfaction will be discussed with the understanding of howperceived job satisfaction is related to intention to leave. The chapter identifies two importantvariables of the study that is job satisfaction as independent variable and the intention to leave ofemployees as dependent variable. In this chapter research statement, questions, objectives, scopeand significance of the study are clearly discussed. In chapter two, literature on job satisfaction is reviewed in relation to the various aspects oforganization characteristics to find that how these factors related to job satisfaction and intentionto leave. A summary of the previous findings is also presented in this chapter. In chapter three, based on literature review, the research model and a theoretical frameworkare developed and research hypotheses are discussed. The conceptualization andoperationalisation of the concept and methodological issues are further elucidated in detail.
  15. 15. Research approach, research strategy, and research design to sampling, measurement and dataanalysis are discussed in detail. The next chapter i.e. chapter four contains the major empiricalpart of the study that covers data collection, data recording, data presentation and data analysis.This chapter is devoted to the analysis, discussion and interpretation of the empirical findings thatresult in answering the research problem and test the hypothesis, and presentation of thehypotheses results to answer research questions. Finally chapter five provides a summary of the most important empirical and theoreticalfindings. Evaluation, revision and interpretation of the empirical findings are also discussed in thissection. Implications for practitioners and policy makers and for future research are provided onthe basis of the findings as well as the limitations of the present research.CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter aims to provide evidence of the selected literature review on intention to leaveand job satisfaction among employees to help in the development of a theoretical framework forthis research. In this chapter, a relevant literature reviews is conducted in a systematic manner tounfold the disciplines of job satisfaction and empirical studies of job satisfaction in a workingenvironment related to leaving intentions.Dependent variable discussed first followed by six factes of job satisfaction as IV2.1 INTENT TO LEAVE According to researchers such as Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) and Igbaria and Greenhaus(1992), intentions are, the most immediate determinants of actual behavior. They are also ofpractical value from a research perspective, as once people have actually implemented thebehavior to quit, there is little likelihood of gaining access to them to understand their priorsituation. The validity of studying intentions in the workplace can also be drawn from Sagar’s(1994) longitudinal study of salespeople, in which intention to quit was found to differentiateeffectively between leavers and non-leavers. However, while it is reasonable to argue thatintentions are an accurate indicator of subsequent behavior, little is known what determines suchintentions. Numerous researchers have attempted to answer the question of what determines people’sintention to quit by investigating possible antecedents of employees’ intentions to quit (Kalliath &Beck, 2001; Kramer, McGraw, & Schuler, 1997). While actual quitting behavior is the primaryfocus of interest to employers and researchers, intention to quit is argued to be a strong substituteindicator for such behavior. In his study, Moore (2002) found that lack of job satisfaction areamong the factors that contribute to people’s intention to quit their jobs; however, it is importantboth from the Higher Education Institute’s manager’s and the individual’s perspective tounderstand which factors job satisfaction are related to intention to quit in teaching profession. A recent survey based report in Malaysian context has been done by the National HigherEducation Research (2004), found that in private higher education institutes, the rate of actualleave in institutes in Malaysia is nearly 4 percent. However the study further investigates the
  16. 16. factors influencing the intention to leave in Malaysian private higher education sector (IPTS). Thisstudy found that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors such pay, working conditions, teachingworkloads, training opportunities for faculty members were the key motivator or de-motivatorfactor for either stay in the institutes or leave the institutes. Therefore, it is clear that teacher’sintention to leave is related to job satisfaction (Robbins, 2005).2.2 JOB SATISFACTION Recent studies carried out in a number of countries have drawn attention to then degree of jobsatisfaction among teachers or lecturers in both school and university/college levels and haveshown that teachers’ work “growth” (Morris et al 2003; Hargreaves, 1994) mirrors societal trendstoward overwork (Naylor, 2001). Imposed and centralized system accountability, lack ofprofessional autonomy, relentlessly imposed changes, constant media criticism, reduced resources,and moderate pay all relate to low teacher satisfaction in many developed countries around theworld (Van den Berg, 2002; Dinham & Scott, 1998b, 2000a; Scott et al., 2001; Scott et al., 2003;Vandenberghe & Huberman, 1999). Trends include job satisfaction, reduced ability to meet students’ needs, significant incidencesof psychological disorders leading to increased absenteeism, and high level of claims for stress-related disability The effects of these trends include declining job satisfaction, reduced ability to meet students’needs, significant incidences of psychological disorders leading to increased absenteeism, andhigh level of claims for stress-related disability (Troman & Woods, 2000). Most importantly,though, teacher dissatisfaction appears to be a main factor in teachers leaving the profession inmany countries (Huberman, 1993; Woods et al., 1997). Thus, research into teacher satisfaction isbecoming more and more important given not only that a growing number of teachers leave theprofession but also that dissatisfaction is associated with decreased productivity (Tshannen-Moranet al., 1998). In terms of definitions, there is no generally agreed upon definition of teacher job satisfactionor of what constitutes teacher satisfaction although there might be some international trends suchas, the notion that teachers are most satisfied by matters intrinsic to the role of teaching: studentachievement, helping students, positive relationships with students and others, self growth and soon (van den Berg, 2002; Dinham & Scott, 2002). In generally, though, it is argued that contextseems to be the most powerful predictor of overall satisfaction (Dinham & Scott, 1999, 2000a, b).As Cherniss (1995, p. 166), points out: “People can make their lives better or worse but what theythink, how they feel and what they do are strongly shaped by the social contexts in which theylive”.2.2.1 Job Satisfaction from Measurability Perspective Boles et al., (2003) defined job satisfaction as the result of the worker’s appraisal of the degreeto which the work environment fulfills the individual’s need. This definition clearly indicates thatthe worker’s evaluation of work task, work environment, freedom in work, opportunities providedand the benefits are provides are few of the most important needs a worker may perceive towardjob satisfaction.
  17. 17. Many studies investigating job satisfaction have looked primarily into a single job satisfactionconstruct. Not many have considered different facets of job satisfaction (Boles et al., 2003). Toaccurately measure “job satisfaction”, a number of characteristics of the job may need to beevaluated if one hopes to obtain a broad measure of employee beliefs and attitudes about the job(Churchill et al., 1974). These characteristics or facets may not be of equal importance to everyindividual. For example, an employee may indicate that he is very satisfied with his supervisor,salary and company policies, but is dissatisfied with other aspects of work, such as the actual workitself. Organizational research indicates that employees develop attitudes toward such job facets aswork variety, pay, promotion, co-workers, company policies, and supervisors (Johnson & Johnson,2000; Taber & Alliger, 1995). One of the most comprehensive and widely used measures for job satisfaction is presented byWood, Chonko, and Hunt (1986) and Purani & Sahadev (2007). In this study job satisfaction ischaracterized as a multidimensional and it has six major facets namely i) satisfaction withsupervisor, ii) satisfaction with variety, iii) satisfaction with closure, iv) satisfaction withcompensation, v) satisfaction with co-workers, and vi) satisfaction with management and HumanResource (HR) policies. In this section definitions of six facets of job satisfaction is presented, however a separatesection in chapter three section 3.1.1 is discussed these factors with intention to leaveSatisfaction with Supervisor According to Wood et al., (1986), this facet of the job satisfaction determines the level of jobsatisfaction on the basis of employees’ perception on how much are they satisfied with theinformation or guidelines provided to them by their supervisors to carry out their job.Satisfaction with Variety Satisfaction with variety is another dimension of job satisfaction, whereby employees perceivethe level of satisfaction by having variety of tasks such as challenging but not routine. This alsohelps them to perceive that there are a lot of opportunities available for them to grow in theorganization. Furthermore this dimension also measures the employee perception of jobsatisfaction through the level of perceived freedom in job.Satisfaction with Closure Satisfaction with closure is the dimension of perceives job satisfaction, which determines howan employee perceives his/her job as a source of opportunity that provides him/her enoughopportunity to complete the work from start to finish it.Satisfaction with Compensation Compensation is one of the most extrinsic indicators of job satisfaction. This dimensiondetermines the level of job satisfaction of employees by knowing how much they are satisfiedwith the pay or compensation or any other security their jobs have provided to them. Churchill etal., (1974) consider compensation as one among the dimensions of job satisfaction among salespeople. Satisfaction with the compensation plan would therefore inevitably influence an
  18. 18. employee’s inclination to leave. However, the extent to which an employee who is satisfied withthe compensation package will stay back would also depend on his/her overall assessment ofvarious factors like the compensation package in other organization in relation to the work loadand the possibility of getting better compensation packages.Satisfaction with Co-workers Satisfaction with co-workers is the dimension of perceived job satisfaction, which determineshow an employee perceives his/her job accomplishment by the support or the presence of his/herco-worker’s attitude and behavior such as selfishness, friendly or supportive (Purani & Sahadev,2007).Satisfaction with Management and HR Policies A major dimension of job satisfaction that emerged from Purani and Sahadev’s research(2007) provided a factor of job satisfaction, which relate to the overall satisfaction with the humanresources policies and strategies of the organization. This is often verbalized in terms of suchstatements like “This company always acts for the well being of its personnel” or “I am satisfiedwith the overall working conditions”. This is a reflection of the trust in the organization’sinclination in favor of its employees. Purani and Sahadev (2007) and US Department of Educationstudy’s (1997) argued that while issues like supervisory behavior and compensation form part ofthe micro issues regarding an employee’s engagement with the organization, the overall policiesand strategies regarding the personnel is associated with a macro perspective with regard to theperson’s evaluation of the organization. For instance, even if a particular supervisor is fair andempathetic, if the overall policies of the organization with regard to personnel are not up to thesatisfaction level of the employee need, he/she may be inclined to quit. In this study these dimensions or facets of the job satisfaction are under investigation asindependent variables because they represent a comprehensive measure of job satisfaction atworkplace. Furthermore, these facets are related closely to the working conditions lecturers’experience.2.3 INTENT TO LEAVE AND JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR Malaysia is currently facing a serious and critical shortage of qualified and well-trained facultymembers/lecturers in order to meet the rapidly growing education requirements (National HigherEducation Research Institute of Malaysia, 2004; Lee & Mitchell, 1994). Buckley, Schneider andShang (2004) categorizes factors behind the intention to leave and intention to migration i.e.attrition. These categories are teacher factors, institution factors and community factors. Salaries,benefits and course preparation are in teacher factors. Institution factors include workingconditions, availability of resources and responsibility while community factors related togovernment policy about institution, budget, authority and regulations. Job satisfaction of facultymembers can be interconnected with rewards for excellence, nature of the job, opportunities forpromotion and growth (Lumsden, 1998). If above factors do not fulfill according to facultymembers perception, either this perception maintain professionalism or nor, then it open thewindow of intention to leave and even intention to migration elsewhere.
  19. 19. Turnover intention included intention to leave and intention to migration the intention of anemployee for looking forward the available alternative jobs in other place or other job or in othercountry. It can be measured by examining the interest of an employee in current job, currentavailability of alternative jobs and availability of alternative jobs in near future (Pasewark &Strawser, 1996). Khatri et al., (2001) take job satisfaction with three perspectives i.e. satisfactionwith salary/pay, supervision and type of work. Moreover, this study also shows that negativerelationship between proposed three perspectives of job satisfaction with employee turnoverintentions. Similarly, the recent study by National Higher Education Research Institute ofMalaysia (2004), also confirmed that in Malaysian private sector institutes, teachers intent to leaveis negatively related to better offer in other IPTS or IPTA, working conditions, trainingopportunities and teaching work load. The report also documented that due to these factors theturn over rate at present is 4 percent which is going to be increased in the future by 7 to 9 percent.Another recent study by Morris et al (2003) in Malaysian context also reveals that compensationis a key factor for motivation of teachers in higher education institutes in Malaysia. The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions is also investigate by Kohand Goh in 1995 and classified job satisfaction in eight major classes. These are workingconditions, colleague’s behaviour, salary, management, organization’s reputation, nature of work,amount of work and career growth. DeVaney and Chen (2003) also introduced demographicfactors like age, gender, race and education in the field of faculty member’s attitude. However,these factors are not strongly correlated with job satisfaction. It has been noticed that employeesof educational institutions prefer working environment, which allow them to use their all-mentalskills (Robbins, 1991). Young and less experienced faculty members leave their profession withinfirst five years at an alarming rate of 40% (US Department of Education, 1993). This situationcreates anxiety in old faculty members, which later also change their intention to leave theirprofession because they are not at the position to leave their profession. A considerable step taken by Mobley (1977) when he introduced a concept that turnover(intention to leave & intention to migration) was a complete process. The decision of leave ormigration from the academic institution is the final action which comes forward after a series ofsteps that leads to the intention to leave or intention to migration. Each individual analyze his self-expectation chart before making a decision of leaving or migration. George & Jones (1996) sortout self-expectation chart in three categories value attainment (how an individual evaluate relativestandards and its values), life satisfaction (the extent to which an individual satisfy with his life)and positive feelings of an individual with his experiences. Mobley (1977) proposed that turnoverrelated to main four dimensions from where we understand the proposed turnover process givenby Mobley. These four dimensions are job satisfaction-dissatisfaction, utility of alternative internalwork, utility of external work and values of off-work activities. Zembylas and Papanastasiou (2004), describe job satisfaction is a behavioral cycle. Therelationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions is a complicated process. In normalroutine, a person is likely to leave his organization when he is dissatisfied. The measurement ofdissatisfaction depends upon available conditions and varies from country to country evenorganization to organization.
  20. 20. Organizational commitment indicates the employee’s attitude of belongingness towardshis/her organization (Robbins, 2005), and therefore, it always remains the major concern inresearch bodies to describe the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions of anemployee. Naylor (2001) study explores the negative relationship between commitment andturnover intentions. Numerous scholars like (Khatri, 2001), Davies (1994) and Tett & Meyer(1993), gave organizational commitment as an important predictor of turnover intentions. Thewikipedia general definition of organizational commitment is ‘the psychological attachment andassociation to the organization’. Organizational commitment with reference to an employee can bedivided in three dimensions. According to Moore (2002), first one is the emotional commitment ofan employee to organization. Second one is the continuance commitment of an individual and lastone is normative commitment, which deals the individual behavior with the feelings ofresponsibilities to the organization. When issue of intention to leave is discussed among teaching professions in education sectorin developing country, then an issue of teacher’s intent to leave the country is also a correspondingissue. A miniature literature review is available on the intention of migration of academicprofessionals. The surge of academic professionals from all over the world has been exaggeratedby the globalization of higher education. Mostly academic professional’s migration takes placefrom developing countries to developed countries. The factors behind these intentions identify byOng, Chang and Evans (1992). A big percentage of academic professionals move from poor torich countries and the chief motive of this migration is to increase their income (Ong, Chang &Evans, 1992). Salary discrepancy is the basic reason of academic professional’s migration but thisis not the only reason because some migrations have also been seen for growth and careerdevelopment. However, there is no accepted standard to measure the employee turnover intentions rate thatwhy people choose to leave the job (Lee & Mitcher, 1994). Employee turnover function consistsof different psychological states (Mobley, 1977; Tett & Meyer, 1993) and availability ofalternative jobs (Norton & Kelly, 1997), which finally turnaround the scenario of job satisfactionto intention to leave and intention to migration. The relationship between intention to leave andintention to migration with tenure is very complicated. But it may be the most important factor ofturnover of the employee (Mobley, 1977). It may be advantageous for an individual but it is a considerable loss especially for theeconomy of fastest developing countries like Malaysia. Another aspect of shortage of qualifiedfaculty members is the scholarship scheme for professionals given by the Malaysia Governmentespecially Ministry of Education. It is a good initiative for making standards of high education inuniversities but the harsh and true side of this picture is that the most of them do not even able tocomplete the course/program and come back with the completion of the program.2.4 SUMMARY The second chapter of the study has reviewed the relevant literature of job satisfaction to buildan in-depth understanding for the theoretical implication of the concept of job satisfaction, which
  21. 21. is considered as one of the greatest concerns of the modern business to sustain their workforce.This chapter has also reviewed the literature of job satisfaction from various researches setting toreview and understand the ongoing research in the field of job satisfaction with relation toemployee’s attitude to intent to leave, especially among university lecturers. This chapter also helps to develop the understanding of the subject area and the issues relevantto job satisfaction and its relationship to employee’s intention to leave framework for the nextchapter (chapter 3).CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.0 INTRODUCTION The main purpose of this research is to examine the perceived level of job satisfaction and itsrelationship to intention to leave among faculty members/lecturers. This chapter contains thefollowing sections relating to methodology: (i) theoretical framework and hypothesesdevelopment, (ii) research design, (iii) instrumentation, (iv) reliability testing (v) analysis of data,and vi) chapter summary.3.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT After careful consideration of the research questions and objectives of this study, and reviewof relevant literature in chapter two, the theoretical framework and research model is developed,and hypotheses are formulated to identify and test the relationship between the various variablesidentified (see Figure 3.1). Based on the literature review presented earlier, certain investigativerelationships among the study variables are accomplished.Figure 3.1. Research model The six factors constituted as variable job satisfaction, which is an independent variable, andwhich is associated to one dependent variable intention to leave for lecturers.3.1.1 Hypothesis Development Many research studies in working environment confirmed that employee’s intention to leavehas been negatively associated or related to job satisfaction (Brown, & Peterson, 1994; Jenkins,1993). Various studies on academic staff’s job satisfaction provided insight that why teachers areinclined to leave the job (Zembylas & Papanastasiou, 2003; Norton & Kelly, 1997). As indicated earlier, there are six main facets of job satisfaction proposed to have an influenceon intention to leave. These facets are i) satisfaction with supervisor, ii) satisfaction with variety,iii) satisfaction with closure, iv) satisfaction with compensation, v) satisfaction with co-workersand vi) satisfaction with management and HR policies. The following will explain how each facetof job satisfaction is related to intention to leave to develop the hypotheses for this study.Satisfaction with Supervisor Pearson and Chong (1997) also examined the impact of job contents or the job variety and jobinformation provided by supervisors to perform the employee’s job on organization commitmentand job satisfaction among Malaysian Information Technology (IT) Managers in large private
  22. 22. sector. They found that job information provided by supervisors is stronger predictor toemployee’s job satisfaction and therefore argued that intrinsic factors such as job informationprovided by supervisors and the contents or the variety of job (perceived career development andopportunities by performing a particular job) also influence employee’s job satisfaction. Kohli (1989) argued that the behavior and attitude of the supervisor was one of the maincomponents of job satisfaction. In a recent study of Purani and Sahadev (2007), several salespersons stated very explicitly their positive (negative) feelings about the supervisor as animportant dimension of their satisfaction with the job. An employee can be assumed to be verysensitive about the quality of supervision. At low levels of satisfaction with the supervision, alecturer can be expected to be much more inclined to leave. According to Vrooms theory ofmotivation (1964) employees believe that effort will lead to performance and performance willlead to rewards. Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward themore likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward theless likely the employee will be motivated and may feel to leave the organization for bettercompensation and reward. Similarly, according to Adams’s Theory (1965), if employees perceive inequity, they wouldfeel less motivated and may intend to leave. Hence the following hypothesis is offered.H1: Satisfaction with supervisor will be negatively related to intention to leave among lecturers.Satisfaction with Variety This dimension is associated with the perceived satisfaction with the extent to which theemployee is able to apply him/herself skills and gets opportunities to grow while performing ajob/task. The opportunities dimension through task variety used by Churchill et al., (1974) comesclose to this construct. But this construct is also related to the extent to which the employee feelsthat his skills are adequately utilized and are given opportunities to grow. While this aspect of jobsatisfaction is bound to critically affect the intention to leave, the effect of lecturer’s experience tointend to quit cannot be ruled out (Behrman & Perreault, 1984). Thus, at high levels of satisfaction with job variety, freedom, and career opportunity availablethrough the tasks performed, a lecturer would be stronger in their resolve to stay in theorganization (Dinham & Scott, 2000; Evans, 1998, 2001; Purani & Sahadev, 2007). At lowerlevels of satisfaction with this attribute, an employee would be the first to leave if they may have agood idea about better opportunities available through the job variety. Thus the followinghypothesis is offered.H2: Satisfaction with variety will be negatively related to intention to leave among lecturers.Satisfaction with Closure Wood et al., (1986) explained satisfaction with closure, as one of the dimensions of perceivesjob satisfaction, which determines how an employee perceives his/her job as a source ofopportunity that provides him/her enough opportunity to complete the work from start to finish.Reasons for academic staff’s dissatisfaction have been well documented in the literature. Amongthe many reasons lack of flexibility in scheduling and freedom at work to perform task effectively
  23. 23. is also one of the major reason for academic dissatisfaction (Cherniss,1995). Dinham, and Scott, (1997) found that information available to perform employees job, forexample scheduling, proper documentation, resources such as overhead projectors, case studies,multimedia and other information/guidelines and so on is important to ensure that they haveenough opportunity to complete effectively their tasks from beginning to the end is negativelyassociated with employee’s intention to leave. Therefore the following hypothesis is offered:H3: Satisfaction with closure will be negatively related to intention to leave among lecturers.Satisfaction with Compensation Lower compensation is one of the factors of job dissatisfaction can cause employees to leaveand to find the better job that could provide higher compensation (Scott, 2000a, b, 2002; Scott etal., 2001; Churchill et al., 1974). Satisfaction with the compensation plan would thereforeinevitably influence a lecturer’s inclination to leave (Scott et al., 2001; US Department ofEducation, 1997). However, the extent to which an employee who is satisfied with the compensation packagewill stay back would also depend on her/his overall assessment of various factors like thecompensation package in other organization in relation to the work load, the possibility of gettingbetter compensation packages and etc. Hence, a lecturer’s perceived level of higher levels ofsatisfaction with compensation package will influence his/her strength of reluctance to quit will bemuch more lesser than that of his/her counterpart, who are dissatisfied with the currentcompensation package in the academic institute (US Department of Education, 1997). Hence thefollowing hypothesis is offered.H4: Satisfaction with compensation will be negatively related to intention to leave amonglecturers.Satisfaction with Co-workers Similarly satisfaction with co-workers is another dimension of perceived job satisfaction,which determines how an employee perceives his/her job accomplishment by the support or thepresence of his/her co-worker’s attitude and behavior such as selfishness, friendly or supportive.Purani and Sahadev (2007) found a negative correlation between employee’s satisfaction with co-workers and intention to leave. Lee and Mitchell (1994) indicate that though approaches to thestudy of turnover differ, most include the possibility that turnover is motivated by the disaffectionof the individual with some aspect of the work environment including the job, co-workers, ororganization. A number of studies conducted in a variety of settings support a relationship betweenorganizational trust and intention to leave (Cunningham & MacGregor, 2000). It seems that whentrust exists within an organization, then motivational and decision-making processes result in feltsupport, attachment and a willingness to stay (Tan & Tan, 2000). Earlier studies have generallyused managers, supervisors or the organization itself as their trust referent. To date there has beena marked lack of attention given to the exploration of co-worker trust and intent to leave. Co-worker trust may be associated with lowered intention to leave for similar reasons as
  24. 24. organizational trust motivates people to stay. The increased collaboration, connection, andeffective communication stemming from trust in co-workers would most likely lead to positivesocial networks, feelings of support, greater attachment and socio-emotional satisfaction. Theseoutcomes could conceivably be manifested in lowered intention. Hence the following hypothesisis offered.H5: Satisfaction with co-workers will be negatively related to intention to leave among lecturers.Satisfaction with Management and HR Policies Norton and Kelly (1997) argued that poor management and policies may also lead to jobburnout and stress and ultimately lecturer’s intent to leave. A recent study by Purani and Sahadev(2007) found a major dimension of job satisfaction that emerged from their depth interviews withsales persons, was the overall satisfaction with the Human Resources policies and strategies of theorganization. They argued that it is often verbalized in terms of such statements like “This company alwaysacts for the well being of its personnel” or the “I am satisfied with the overall workingconditions”. This is a reflection of the trust in the organization’s inclination in favor of itsemployees (Purani & Sahadev, 2007). Purani and Sahadev (2007) further explained that the informed employees tend to scrutinizethe strategy of their present organization in terms of its present strategies, policies and programs.Elements of the domain that emerged included “The extent to which the management is fair in itspolicies towards personnel”, “A clear path for the employee’s advancement”, “Confidence in theleadership”, “The provision for training”, etc. While issues like supervisory behavior andcompensation form part of the micro issues regarding an employee’s engagement with theorganization, the overall policies and strategies regarding the personnel is associated with a macroperspective with regard to a sales person’s evaluation of the organization. Hence the followinghypothesis is offered.H6: Satisfaction with HR and management policies will be negatively related to intention to leaveamong lecturers. In addition to the preceding hypotheses, this study also seeks to examine which facets of jobsatisfaction will have the most influence on intent to leave. Because evidence on this isunavailable, it is hypothesized that each facet will contribute equally to variance in intent to leave.Therefore the following hypothesis is offered.H7: Six factors of job satisfaction are negatively influencing the lecturer’s intention to leave. Next, a discussion on how the research was actually carried out is presented.3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN To achieve the research objective, a cross-sectional survey of lecturers in selected colleges anduniversities operating in Kuala Lumpur was carried out. The data collection phase started insecond week of July and completed on 28th July 2009.
  25. 25. 3.2.1 Population, Sampling and Data Collection Procedure The population of this study comprises lecturers of the private colleges and universities, whichoffered so many varieties degree level programs and those programs are registered with Ministryof Higher Education (MOHE). There were sixty (60) private higher education institutes inMalaysia in 2002, out of this, twenty two (22) private higher education institutes (PHEIs) areoperating in Kuala Lumpur (National Higher Education Research Institute of Malaysia, 2004).The overall strength of the teaching staffs in all PHEIs by 2002 was nearly 15,000 (NationalHigher Education Research Institute of Malaysia, 2004). However the actual numbers of thefaculty members in the institutes in Kaula Lumpur is not available in the research report presentedby National Higher Education Research Institute of Malaysia. However, an estimated figure canbe calculated by using average method to reach a cut point as total population of the facultymembers in Kaula Lumpur based institutes is 2500. Therefore by adopting a random samplingmethod provided by (Sekaran, 2002, p. 295), 335 faculty members should be the desirable samplefor this study. Therefore 500 questionnaires were self-administrated to 22 PHEIs in KualaLumpur. Each institute was sent out 25-survey questionnaire. Data collection process lastedaround four weeks, from the first week of July 2009 to the end of July 2009. A total of 152questionnaire found completed, were returned resulting in an overall 30 percent response rate.3.2.2 Questionnaire Design As mentioned earlier, data were collected via questionnaires. The survey questionnaire isdeveloped in English. To allow more ease to respondents an introductory letter was attached withthe questionnaire (see Appendix A). The letter introduced the researcher and the purpose ofresearch and also ensures the anonymity of the respondent’s personal information will be treatedas completely private and confidential. The survey questionnaire is composed of three sections (see Appendix A). Section one is tocollect and capture the perceived level of job satisfaction, where as section two is used formeasuring the intention to leave. Section three is used to collect the demographic information oflecturers. The languages of the original questionnaire are changed, so that it could be adopted for theeducation sector. For example, the original statement of “Organization’s management has a clearpath for employee’s advancement.” was changed to “College/University management has a clearpath for lecturer’s advancement.” See Appendix B for the survey questionnaire. The following section discusses the operationalization of variables used in this study.3.3 INSTRUMENTATION This study involves two important variables. The independent variables pertain to jobsatisfaction while the dependent variable intention to leave. Each of how the variable wasmeasured in this study is discussed as follows.3.3.1 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is defined as the worker’s appraisal of the degree to which the work
  26. 26. environment fulfills the individual’s need (Locke, 1976). To measure job satisfaction, the originalinstrument developed by Wood et al., (1986) and Purani and Sahadev (2007) was used. Six facetsof job satisfaction were asked. They are satisfaction with supervisor (4 items), satisfaction withvariety (5 items), satisfaction with closure (2 items), satisfaction with compensation (5 items),satisfaction with co-workers (4 items) and satisfaction with the management and HR policies (4items). The measures of the job satisfaction are the original work of Wood et al., (1986) and alsoadopted from the work of Purani & Sahadev (2007). These items were rated on a five–pointLikert type scales ranging from ‘1’ “strongly disagree” to ‘5’ “strongly disagree.” The items ofrespective factors of job satisfaction are computed as average summated score for the dataanalysis purpose.3.3.2 Intention to Leave Intention to leave is defined as an employee’s plan of intention to quit the present job and lookforward to find another job in the near future (Purani & Sahadev, 2007; Weisberg, 1994). Tomeasure the intention to leave of lecturer a three item construct adopted by the work of Jenkis(1993) and Kransz et al. (1995) is used. These items were rated on a five–point Likert type scalesranging from ‘1’ “strongly disagree” to ‘5’ “strongly disagree.” Respondents were to indicate theirlevel of agreement or disagreement on items such as, “In the last few months, I have seriouslythought about looking for a new job,”, “Presently, I am actively searching for other job” and “Iintend to leave the organization in the near future.” The items of respective factors of intention toleave are computed as average summated score for the data analysis purpose.3.3.3 Demographic Information In addition to the above questions, respondents were also asked to provide their personalinformation such as age, gender, education profile, ethnicity, marital status, and income and lengthof working experience. These items were generally measured on a categorical scale. Table 3.1 summarizes the instruments used for the present study.Table 3.1 Instruments of Variables|Variables |Items ||Job satisfaction | ||- Satisfaction with supervisor |I am satisfied with the information I receive from my superiorabout my job || |performance. || |I receive enough information from m supervisor about my jobperformance. || |I receive enough feedback from my supervisor on how well I am doing.|| |There is enough opportunity in my job to find out how I am doing.||- Satisfaction with variety |I am satisfied with the variety of activities my job offers.|
  27. 27. | |I am satisfied with the freedom I have to do what I want on my job.|| |I am satisfied with the opportunity my job provides me to interact withothers || |There is enough variety in my job. || |I have enough freedom to do what I want in my faculty related job.|| |My job has enough opportunity for independent thought and action.||- Satisfaction with closure |I am satisfied with the opportunity my job gives me tocomplete tasks from || |beginning to end. || |My job has enough opportunity to complete the work I start.||- Satisfaction with compensation |Overall I am satisfied with the college/University’scompensation package. || |I am satisfied with the medical benefits. || |I received with the security my job provides me. || |I am satisfied with the retirement benefits. || |I am satisfied with the holiday (vacation) eligibilities. ||- Satisfaction with co-workers |My fellow workers are not selfish.|| |My fellow workers are pleasant. || |The people I work with are very friendly. || |The people I work with help each other out when someone falls behindor gets in a || |tight spot. ||- Satisfaction with management and HR |College/university’s management has a clear path forlecturer’s advancement. ||policies |Decisions are made keeping in mind the good of the lecturers.|| |Management is extremely fair in personal policies. || |Physical working conditions are supportive in attaining quality ofteaching and || |research. ||Intent to leave |In the last few months, I have seriously thought about looking for anew job. || |Presently, I am actively searching for other job. || |I intend to leave the college/university in the near future. ||Respondent’s background |What is your sex? || |What is your ethnic origin || |What is your marital status? || |How old are you? || |What is the highest level of your education? |
  28. 28. | |How long have you been working in the teaching (lecturing position)?Approximately || |________ years? || |What is your job title? |This is the justification of using reliability test I hope you can understand this sentence so, whyyour suervisor cannot?3.4 RELIABILITY TESTING Reliability of measure is an indication of the stability and consistency with which theinstrument measures the concept and helps to assess the “goodness” of a measure (Sekaran, 2005).Furthermore, the reliability of measure will indicate the extent to which it is without bias (errorfree) and hence ensures consistent measurement across time and across the various items in theinstrument. To measure the reliability of the instruments used, Cronbach’s alpha is employed.According to Sekaran (2005), if the Cronbach’s alpha is less than 0.6, this means that theinstrument used has a low reliability (and thus opens for some errors). If the alpha value is within0.7, the instrument is acceptable for further analysis.3.5 DATA ANALYSIS After collection of the data from field survey, the statistical package for the social sciences(SPSS) 13.0 for Windows is employed to help with the data analysis. Data analysis in the studyincludes descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The followingsection describes these analyses in detail for the study.3.5.1 Descriptive Analyses Descriptive analyses include frequencies, mean, and standard deviations, which are computedfor all variables to obtain a general profile of the distribution of responses. In particular,frequencies, mean, and standard deviations are calculated to identify the characteristics of thesample for the study. By calculating mean and standard deviation of each facet of job satisfactionand intention to leave, objective 1 (one) of this study would be achieved.3.5.2 Correlation Analysis For this study, Pearson correlation analysis is used to inspect whether job satisfaction andintention to leave have significant relationship to each other. The scale suggested by Hair et al.,(2003) is used to describe the intensity of relationships between the dependent and theindependent variables of the study as shown in Table 4.2. This analysis is used to test therelationship between facets of job satisfaction and intent to leave. By testing hypotheses onethrough six, using correlation analysis would help to achieve the objective number 2 (two) of thisstudy.Table 3.2Pearson’s r Indices of Correlation|Pearson’s r |Indication ||Between ± 0.80 to ± 1.00 |High correlation|
  29. 29. |Between ± 0.60 to ± 0.79 |Moderately high correlation||Between ± 0.40 to ± 0.59 |Moderate correlation||Between ± 0.20 to ± 0.39 |Low correlation||Between ± 0.01 to ± 0.19 |Negligible correlation| Correlation coefficient is computed to investigate the strength of association among thevariables. This analysis is used to test the hypothesis one through six. The level of significance isset at .05 or less.3.5.3 Multiple Regression Analysis Regression analysis is used to describe the relationship between the dependent variable(intention to leave) and the six factors of independent variables (job satisfaction). The multipleregression models estimate the relationship between the multiple predictor variables and thedependent variable. Since all the constructs/variables are measured in metric scale, therefore,regression analysis is appropriate, where six factors of job satisfaction are regressed on singledependent variable intention to leave to investigate the relationship and effects between the two ormore variables. This analysis is used to test the hypothesis seven of this study to achieve theobjective three (3) of this study.3.6 SUMMARY This chapter has described the development of the research model for this study. The researchmethodology and the research design have been explained following, the hypothesis generation.Different statistical tests, such as, descriptive (mean and standard deviations), Pearson correlation,and multiple regression analysis are used to examine the relationship hypothesized.CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH FINDINGS4.0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the discussion on how the survey was carried out was discussed. Here, theresults of the survey based on the data collected will be presented. Toward this end, this chapterpresents some background information of the respondents first before it goes on to present somedescriptive results of the variables involved. Then, the chapter presented the results of thehypotheses testing.4.1 BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS Table 4.1 presents the respondents’ background. The profile of the participatingrespondents’ demographic characteristics is presented in Table 4.1. Out of 152 respondents, 78(51.3%) were female and 74 (48.7%) were male teaching staffs. This finding indicates that femaleand male academic staffs in the private higher of educational sectors have been provided equalemployment opportunity. The distribution of ages of the participating academic staffs rangedbetween 24 to 43 years. The majority of the academic/teaching staff’s age distribution of about 84
  30. 30. (55.3%) were 24 years to 28 years old. While 39 (25.7%) of the academic staffs aged between 29years to 33 years. While 25 (16.4%) academic staffs aged between 34 years to 38 years of age. Asmall number 4 (2.6%) of the respondent’s indicates their age between 39 to 43 years. The overallage distribution of the academic staff indicates that in private higher education institutes, mostlylecturers are young, this finding further suggests that young male and females are keen to join theacademic position in Malaysia. As far as the academic qualification of the participating teachers is concerned, out of 152,79 (52.0%) hold the degree, while 68 (44.7%) have their Master degree. There are few facultymembers 3.3 percent, also had only a Diploma qualification, The findings of the ethnic origin ofacademic staffs indicates that in the private Higher Education Institutes, the majority 113 (74.3%)of teaching/academic staff are Malays and this confirms the fact that Malays people likelihoodmore interesting working in teaching sector compare to the other races. The majority of the respondents 78 (51.3%) were single, while 68 (44.7%) were married. Therest are reported as divorced. Out of 152 respondents, 65 (42.8%) of them have been working inthe institute between few months and 2 years, while 19.7% between 3 and 4 years, and 17.8%between 5 and 6 years. Only a small number of them have been working more than 9 years(7.2%). As far as the respondent’s job title is concerned, it is revealed that majority 86 (56.6%)was lecturer, while 52 (34.2%) were junior lecturer. However quite few were working as seniorlectures (9.2%)Table 4.1 Respondents Background (n = 152)| |Frequency |Percentage ||Gender | | ||Male |74 |48.7 ||Female |78 |51.3 || | | ||Marital status | | ||Single |78 |51.3 ||Married |68 |44.7 ||Divorced |6 |3.9 || | | ||Ethnic Origin | | || Malay |113 |74.3 || Chinese |27 |17.8 || Indian |6 |3.9 || Others |6 |3.9 || | | ||Working experience (in years) | | || 0 Year to < 3 Years |65 |42.8 || 3 Years to < 5 Years |30 |19.7 || 5 Years to < 7 Years |27 |17.8 || 7 Years to < 9 Years |19 |12.5 |
  31. 31. | More Than 9 Years |11 |7.2 || | | ||Level of education | | ||Diploma |5 |3.3 ||Bachelor |79 |52.0 ||Master |68 |44.7 || | | ||Job Title | | ||Junior Lecturer |52 |34.2 ||Lecturer |86 |56.6 ||Senior Lecturer |14 |9.2 || | | ||Age | | || 24 Years to < 29 Years Old |84 |55.3 || 29 Years to < 34 Years Old |39 |25.7 || 34 Years to < 39 Years Old |25 |16.4 || 39 Years to < 44 Years Old |4 |2.6 || | | |4.2 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS Reliability of measure is an indication of the stability and consistency with which theinstrument measures the concept and helps to assess the “goodness” of a measure (Sekaran, 2005).To measure the reliability of the instruments used, Cronbach’s alpha is employed. According toSekaran (2005), if the Cronbach’s alpha is less than .6, this means that the instrument used has alow reliability (and thus opens for some errors). If the alpha value is within .7, the instrument hasacceptable. The internal consistency reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) for the scales used in thisstudy are all well above the level of 0.7, acceptable for the analysis purpose (Sekaran, 2005). InTable 4.2, alpha scores of all variables with completed response of 152 lecturers are given.Why not three items what is the problem plz do ask your supervisor even one item can also usedas valid variable for measuring the concept if we use factor analysis and if factor yield one item inone factor (Hair et al, 2003)Table 4.2 Reliability Coefficients of the Constructs (n = 152)|Constructs |No. of Items |Cronbach’s Alpha ||Satisfaction with supervisor |4 |.730 ||Satisfaction with job variety |6 |.716 ||Satisfaction with closure |2 |.617 ||Satisfaction with compensation |5 |.852 ||Satisfaction with co-workers |4 |.763 ||Satisfaction with HR/management policies |4 |.909||Intention to leave |3 |.826 |
  32. 32. In the present study reliability analyses were run on seven main measures, i.e. satisfaction withsupervisor, satisfaction with job variety, satisfaction with co-workers, satisfaction with closure,satisfaction with HR polices and intention to leave. Table 4.2 highlights the reliability coefficientsof the measures. As can be seen from table, the measures are all reliable given the high value ofCronbach’s alphas, which allow for further data analysis.I have used the valid instrument/questionnaire and the questionnaire items are already valid andreliable even for satisfaction with closure having 2 items in it is also valid (wood et al, 1986).Who told that all dimensions must have 5 items/questions can you ask him to speak with me onthis matter. 4.3 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF MAIN VARIABLES Table 4.3 highlights descriptive statistics of the main variables of the present study, i.e.satisfaction with supervisor, satisfaction with job variety, satisfaction with closure, satisfactionwith compensation, satisfaction with co-workers, satisfaction with HR/Management policies andintention to leave. As can be seen from the table, the respondents generally perceived that they were moderatelysatisfied with their supervisor (mean = 3.58, SD = .56), job variety (mean = 3.97, SD = .47), thelevel of closure (mean = 3.90, SD = .58), compensation (mean = 3.01, SD = .80), their co-workers(mean = 3.92, SD = .58), and the HEIs’s management/HR policies (mean = 3.39, SD = .75). With respect to intention to leave, the lecturers in the study generally are not inclined towardsleaving the academic institution for higher education (mean = 2.75, SD = 1.14).Table 4.3 Descriptive Statistics of Variables (n = 152)|Items1 |Mean |Standard Deviation (SD) ||Satisfaction with supervisor |3.58 |.56 ||Satisfaction with job variety |3.97 |.47 ||Satisfaction with closure |3.90 |.58 ||Satisfaction with compensation |3.01 |.80 ||Satisfaction with co-workers |3.92 |.58 ||Satisfaction with HR/MGT policies |3.39 |.75 ||Overall satisfaction |3.63 |0.62 ||Intention to leave |2.75 |1.14 |Note. 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = disagree nor agree, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree. This is a presentation style , so one must be logical when comment that this is not good, whynot? I think this is good way to present data while using scale . Further you can tell that lower SDvalue (between 1 and 3) indicates that the respondents are consistent in responding questions, thisalso shows that your questionnaire is valid and reliable) In the following section, each variable are examined in greater details as to what means inrelation to the mean value found earlier.Satisfaction with Supervisor As indicated earlier, four items were used to measure lecturer’s perceived satisfaction with
  33. 33. supervisor and that on average the respondents are satisfied with their supervisors in the institute.Table 4.4 highlights the descriptive statistics for each item. Out of the four items, getting feedbackfrom the supervisors on how well the performance is being offered (mean = 3.69, SD = .730)followed by receiving enough information from supervisors shows the second highest mean valueof 3.66 (SD = .652), followed by, satisfied with the information about job performance (mean =3.49, SD =. 763), and enough opportunity for lecturer’s to find how they are doing their jobs(mean 3.48, SD = .861). In general, the respondents appear to have moderate satisfaction withtheir supervisor with respect to the feedback they receive about their academic job performance.Table 4.4 Descriptive Results of satisfaction with supervisor (n=152)|Items |Mean |SD ||I am satisfied with the information I receive from my superior about my job |3.69|.730 ||performance | | ||I receive enough information from my supervisor about my job performance. |3.66|.652 ||I receive enough feedback from my supervisor on how well I am doing. |3.49|.763 ||There is enough opportunity in my job to find out how I am doing. |3.48 |.861||Total Mean (Supervisor) |3.58 |.56 |Satisfaction with Job Variety As indicated earlier, six items were used to measure lecturer’s perceived satisfaction with jobvariety and that on average the respondents are reasonably highly satisfied with job variety in theirrespective institutes. Table 4.5 highlights the descriptive statistics for each item. Out of the sixitems, the opportunity to interact with people shows the highest level of satisfaction (mean = 4.34,SD =. 624), followed by freedom to do work (mean = 4.16, SD = .624). Satisfaction with theavailability of the independence thought and action (mean = 3.99, SD = .488). Satisfaction withthe freedom in academic/faculty related tasks (mean = 3.88, SD = .754); job variety and theactivities, mean = 3.87, SD = .778). However, lecturers perceived the lowest level of satisfactionin the variety of activities (mean = 3.61, SD =.807)Yes to achieve the objective one of this study we need to calculate mean valaue , ask yoursupervisor to read objective one , two and three plz.Table 4.5 Descriptive results of Satisfaction with Job Variety (n = 152)|Items |Mean |SD ||I am satisfied with the variety of activities my job offers. |3.61 |.807||I am satisfied with the freedom I have to do what I want on my job. |4.16 |.624||I am satisfied with the opportunity my job provides me to interact with others. |4.34|.853 ||There is enough variety in my job. |3.87 |.778 ||I have enough freedom to what I want in my faculty related job. |3.88 |.754