AfAm, white alone;Hispanic alone; (Totals will not = 100%)
Source, e.g. http://www.earnmydegree.com/online-education/learning-center/education-value.html Perspective on What Later #s meanIncreasing High School Graduation Rates will Increase the Nation’s Collective Earnings + WealthThis slide illustrates earnings, but there is an analogous disparity in accumulated wealth. See generally, Alliance for Excellent Education: “Assets are very unevenly distributed in the United States, and the disparities not only reflect historical inequities, including segregated education systems, but also help to perpetuate the inequalities that still exist. And wealth inequality, between whites and minorities as well as between those with high and low incomes, is increasing.” ”Building the capacity to accumulate wealth for groups that have lagged behind is a key strategy for breaking the cycle of poverty and fostering a solid middle class in the United States, but this is a goal that cannot be met without education.” AEE estimates conservatively “There would be, according to these calculations, an additional $74 billion in collective wealth in the United States if every household were headed by an individual with at least a high school diploma.” http://www.all4ed.org/files/hiddenbenefits.pdf (internal citations omitted)Also ETS Perfect Storm: “The expected lifetime earnings of males with a bachelor’s degree in 1979 were 51 percent higher than their peers with only a high school diploma. By 2004, however, this difference had widened to 96 percent.The earnings premiums accruing to a particular level of educational attainment (e.g., high school diploma, bachelor’s degree) are substantially larger for individuals at that level who have higher cognitive skills, indicating that both education and skills contribute to individual opportunities. These opportunities include not only higher paying jobs but also the chance for individuals to take advantage of employer-sponsored training to enhance and broaden their skills throughout their working lives. For the students who drop out, options are limited, with many likely to drop out of school and into prison. For example, “Of black males who graduated from high school and went on to attend some college, only 5 percent were incarcerated in 2000. Of white males who graduated from high school and went on to attend some college only 1 percent were incarcerated in 2000.” The report continues: “State prison inmates without a high school diploma and those with a GED were more likely to be repeat offenders than those with a diploma.” The Alliance for Excellent Education, Saving Futures, Saving Dollars: The Impact of Education on Crime Reduction and Earnings (2006). The Alliance for Excellent Education also reports that a five percent increase in the number of male students who graduate and matriculate in college would save more than $8 billion in incarceration and other expenses and lost wages per year. And the cost often self-perpetuates, as students with parents with higher education are more likely to continue to BAs; for students with parents with less than a high school diploma, 43% went on to college, for those with parents with a BA, 88%. Science and Engineering Indicators 2008, Appendix Table 1-22. High school graduates enrolled in college in October after completing high school, by family income, race/ethnicity, and parents’ education: Selected years, 1975–2005.
Data for chart from Conference Board, Are They Really Ready to Work
Additional background on workplace slide:Important = as rated by employers as most importantApplied Skills **“Critical Thinking/Problem Solving—Exercise sound reasoning and analytical thinking; use knowledge, facts, and data to solve workplace problems; apply math and science concepts to problem solving.Oral Communications—Articulate thoughts, ideas clearly and effectively; have public speaking skills.Written Communications—Write memos, letters and complex technical reports clearly and effectively.Teamwork/Collaboration—Build collaborative relationships with colleagues and customers; be able to work with diverse teams, negotiate and manage conflicts. Diversity—Learn from and work collaboratively with individuals representing diverse cultures, races, ages, gender, religions, lifestyles, and viewpoints.Information Technology Application—Select and use appropriate technology to accomplish a given task, apply computing skills to problem-solving.Leadership—Leverage the strengths of others to achieve common goals; use interpersonal skills to coach and develop others.Creativity/Innovation—Demonstrate originality and inventiveness in work; communicate new ideas to others; integrate knowledge across different disciplines.Lifelong Learning/Self Direction—Be able to continuously acquire new knowledge and skills; monitor one’s own learning needs; be able to learn from one’s mistakes.Professionalism/Work Ethic—Demonstrate personal accountability, effective work habits, e.g., punctuality, working productively with others, and time and workload management.Ethics/Social Responsibility—Demonstrate integrity and ethical behavior; act responsibly with the interests of the larger community in mind.
Report of the National Commission on Adult Literacy, June 2008 Reach Higher, AMERICAOVERCOMING CRISIS IN THE U.S.WORKFORCE, http://www.nationalcommissiononadultliteracy.org/ReachHigherAmerica/ReachHigher.pdfSame source“More than two-thirds of the workforce is beyond the reach of the schools. Yet our current adult education system—designed for a different time and different challenges—is not equipped to address this urgent national need. Federal adult education, training, and English language programs reach only about 3 million adults a year.”
IMAGE, http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1903/Cuadros/Cuadros01.jpgFACTS COMPOUNDED by racial concentrations, and achievement gap often understated when grade retention which aren’t always reflected in data sets.
Source, Slide from Education Commission of the States presentation.
Reading is critical to everything else, so reading offers a telling example.Image, http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.davidmaybury.ie/journal/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/ChildrensBooks.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.davidmaybury.ie/journal/%3Ftag%3Dchildrens-books%26paged%3D2&usg=__UIU-SD4SM2JxWugohiLZwbUBPlk=&h=400&w=400&sz=26&hl=en&start=3&sig2=dihMUzsPY5MV6JK9Nz1XOQ&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=4PPnX2TZD_1tiM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchildren%2527s%2Bbooks%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1&ei=JbdpS-nhEJyC8Qau_IDNBA.
State Of Education
State of Education
Introductory Class (A) 2010
Education is in crisis.
Deeply divided, children and adults alike.
Demographics run counter to educational outcomes.
2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050
Source: Richard Gambitta Rocky Mountain Diversity Summit 2007
Economics reflect outcomes.
High School Graduate
0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000
• Inadequate and disparate literacy and
numeracy skills among large segments
of our student and adult populations
• An ongoing shift in the demographic
profile of our population, powered by
the highest immigration rates in nearly
• The continuing evolution of the
economy and the nation’s job
structure, requiring higher levels of
skills from an increasing proportion of
• = America’s Perfect Storm
Irwin Kirsch, ETS, National Press Club, Washington, D.C., February 5, 2007
“Education drives the economy. Almost a decade into
the 21st Century, America faces a choice: We can invest
in the basic education and skills of our workforce and
remain competitive in today’s global economy, or we can
continue to overlook glaring evidence of a national crisis
and move further down the path to decline.”
TOO many students not learning
• Many drop out and leave
• Many won’t graduate from high school
• Many who stay are not learning
• Many who stay are not learning what they need to
know to be career or college ready
• Many do not go on
AND IN EVERY CASE
THERE IS AN
• Low income 3-year-olds
= smaller vocabularies
• More Black children
70% expelled from preschool
• Black/ Hispanic children
less likely know their
letters @ kindergarten
• Black (especially boys)
likely to be retained in
White Asian Black Hispanic AiAN • By 3rd grade still
differences, and these
Source: EdTrust data; Yale Child Study; American’s Kindergartners: + see notes
Inequity endures at every level.
Consider the example of READING.
AGE 9 13 17
White 226 266 293
Black 200 244 264
Hisp. 205 242 264
Source: NCES Digest Reading 2004
At or above Proficient
At or above Basic
26% 24% 22%
Black FRPL eligible Hispanic AIAN AsPI FRPL not White FRPL = Free +
eligible Reduced Price Lunch
Source: NAEP 12th Grade Reading 2005 17
And what does this mean? Can you
• Basic (265): demonstrate an • Advanced (346): …describe
overall understanding and more abstract themes and ideas
make some interpretations of in the overall text. ..analyze
the text. .. identify and relate both the meaning and the form
aspects of the text to its overall of the text and explicitly
meaning, extend the ideas in support their analyses with
the text by making simple specific examples from the text.
interpretations… Tested for
• Proficient (302): …how an
literary, informational, +
overall understanding of the functional reading contexts.
text, which includes inferential
as well as literal information.
NAEP = National Assessment of Educational Progress
And what does this mean?
As part of the 2005 reading
assessment, twelfth-graders were
presented with a guide to a city's transit
system. The multiple-choice question
presented here required students to
make a simple inference based on
explicit information in the Metro Guide.
US History and Writing
Below At or above At or above
HISTORY At Advanced
Basic Basic Prof
•By 12th grade
White 46% 54% 16% 1%
ASPI 45% 55% 20% 3% •Achievement gaps
Black 81% 19% 2% #
Hisp 75% 25% 4% #
AIAN 68% 32% 4% #
•For those who
graduate from high
At or above At or above
At Advanced school these gaps
White 14% 86% 29% 1%
follow students into
AsPI 14% 86% 30% 1% postsecondary
Black 32% 68% 8% #
30% 70% 11% #
AIAN 31% 69% 12% #
Source: USDOE NCES Digest of Education Statistics, 119, 120, +see notes
“evidence of a
immigrant youth and
adults, on the one
hand, and middle-
class or wealthy,
Source: Meira Levinson, The Civic Achievement Gap , ABA LRE New Orleans 2007
At or above At or above
Below Basic At Advanced
27% 73% 33% 6% 31%
31% 69% 33% 7%
59% 41% 8% 1%
55% 45% 11% 1% 55% 59%
58% 42% 9%
Source: The Nation’s Report Card , ttp://nationsreportcard.gov/civics_2006/c
• Qualified teachers
Approaching • Counselors
and in high
school • Rigorous courses
disparities / • Engaging materials
FEWER • Accessible resources
• EXPECTATIONS (of
It is hardly
kids drop out.
• And drop out.
• And drop out.
• And drop out.
• Lower grades
Approaching • Lower test scores
college • Fewer college track
on average #
gaps between • Fewer in gifted + AP
students • Lower HS
• Lower college
• Lower enrollment
• Higher rates of
and in college • Higher dropout rates
Differences • Lower literacy skills
• Lower college grades
• Lower college
completion rates. . . .
% Meeting Benchmarks
English Math Sci All
AfAm 37 21 11 5 3
Hisp 49 35 26 13 10
AIAN 52 40 25 16 11
White 77 61 49 33 27
ASPI 75 59 63 38 33
Source: ACT College Readiness
Literacy Gap > High School
• Achievement gaps between black and white high
school students are discouraging but all too common
facts of education life. It's well known that black
students are less likely than their white peers to
graduate from high school, and score lower on tests
like the SAT and the National Assessment of
Education Progress (NAEP). Far less attention has
been paid to gaps in higher education. A new study of
college student literacy suggests that black-white gaps
not only persist into college, but may become even
larger by the time students finish their degree.“
Source: Kevin Carey, The Black-29
A few concrete examples for change K12.
Rigor, Relevance, Relationship
Differences in opportunity illustrate the
issues of the new 3Rs.
Expectations, Assignments, Course Availability,
Teachers, Counselors are all examples.
Expectations are damning.
• “…give them [students] a chance to
do work that is hard instead of
saying they can’t do it.”
• “…warn students about racist
attitudes they may encounter and
inform students they must work
harder than white students to earn
• Both high and low-achieving
students in the study reported that
“many of their teachers did not
care, did not encourage them, and
had lower expectations for them
because of their ethnicity.”
Expectations are critical.
Programs that assume the
opposite, that is that start
early with “high end
learning” and assume “at
potential” rather than “at
risk” students have
opposite impacts on the
Source: A Closer Look, Early Developments, Fall 2007
Students will do as assigned (not more).
Source: Education Trust, Unnamed school district in California, AY2002-03. See notes.
Comparative assignments are damning.
Essay on Anne Frank-- Your essay will consist of an opening
paragraph which introduced the title, author and general
background of the novel. Your thesis will state specifically
what Anne's overall personality is, and what general
psychological and intellectual changes she exhibits over the
course of the book. You might organize your essay by
grouping psychological and intellectual changes OR you
might choose 3 or 4 characteristics (like
friendliness, patience, optimism, self doubt) and show how she
changes in this area.” 37
Teachers are the most significant, but
• Missing teachers
who look like their
• Missing teachers
credentialed in their
• Missing experienced
• All most lacking
where most needed
AMAI As PI Fili Hisp AfAm White Multi n/a
Counselors could help, but…
Source: UCLA Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access & University of
California All Campus Consortium on Research for Diversity, California
Educational Opportunity Report 2007
.. . to better serve all students, high schools need to become
places that combine rigor in the academic program of every
student (not just those in an honors or higher track) with
relevance to their interests and potential career choices,
supported by positive relationships that can inspire
students both academically and personally.
Achievement gaps are not facts of nature. They
are mostly because of differences in life
Fair Quality Delivery of
The NEW 3Rs all along the pipeline.
FMI Sarah E. Redfield
207-752-1721 cell 45