State Of Education


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  • AfAm, white alone;Hispanic alone; (Totals will not = 100%)
  • Source, e.g. Perspective on What Later #s meanIncreasing High School Graduation Rates will Increase the Nation’s Collective Earnings + WealthThis slide illustrates earnings, but there is an analogous disparity in accumulated wealth. See generally, Alliance for Excellent Education: “Assets are very unevenly distributed in the United States, and the disparities not only reflect historical inequities, including segregated education systems, but also help to perpetuate the inequalities that still exist. And wealth inequality, between whites and minorities as well as between those with high and low incomes, is increasing.” ”Building the capacity to accumulate wealth for groups that have lagged behind is a key strategy for breaking the cycle of poverty and fostering a solid middle class in the United States, but this is a goal that cannot be met without education.” AEE estimates conservatively “There would be, according to these calculations, an additional $74 billion in collective wealth in the United States if every household were headed by an individual with at least a high school diploma.” (internal citations omitted)Also ETS Perfect Storm: “The expected lifetime earnings of males with a bachelor’s degree in 1979 were 51 percent higher than their peers with only a high school diploma. By 2004, however, this difference had widened to 96 percent.The earnings premiums accruing to a particular level of educational attainment (e.g., high school diploma, bachelor’s degree) are substantially larger for individuals at that level who have higher cognitive skills, indicating that both education and skills contribute to individual opportunities. These opportunities include not only higher paying jobs but also the chance for individuals to take advantage of employer-sponsored training to enhance and broaden their skills throughout their working lives. For the students who drop out, options are limited, with many likely to drop out of school and into prison. For example, “Of black males who graduated from high school and went on to attend some college, only 5 percent were incarcerated in 2000. Of white males who graduated from high school and went on to attend some college only 1 percent were incarcerated in 2000.” The report continues: “State prison inmates without a high school diploma and those with a GED were more likely to be repeat offenders than those with a diploma.” The Alliance for Excellent Education, Saving Futures, Saving Dollars: The Impact of Education on Crime Reduction and Earnings (2006). The Alliance for Excellent Education also reports that a five percent increase in the number of male students who graduate and matriculate in college would save more than $8 billion in incarceration and other expenses and lost wages per year. And the cost often self-perpetuates, as students with parents with higher education are more likely to continue to BAs; for students with parents with less than a high school diploma, 43% went on to college, for those with parents with a BA, 88%. Science and Engineering Indicators 2008, Appendix Table 1-22. High school graduates enrolled in college in October after completing high school, by family income, race/ethnicity, and parents’ education: Selected years, 1975–2005.
  • Data for chart from Conference Board, Are They Really Ready to Work
  • Additional background on workplace slide:Important = as rated by employers as most importantApplied Skills **“Critical Thinking/Problem Solving—Exercise sound reasoning and analytical thinking; use knowledge, facts, and data to solve workplace problems; apply math and science concepts to problem solving.Oral Communications—Articulate thoughts, ideas clearly and effectively; have public speaking skills.Written Communications—Write memos, letters and complex technical reports clearly and effectively.Teamwork/Collaboration—Build collaborative relationships with colleagues and customers; be able to work with diverse teams, negotiate and manage conflicts. Diversity—Learn from and work collaboratively with individuals representing diverse cultures, races, ages, gender, religions, lifestyles, and viewpoints.Information Technology Application—Select and use appropriate technology to accomplish a given task, apply computing skills to problem-solving.Leadership—Leverage the strengths of others to achieve common goals; use interpersonal skills to coach and develop others.Creativity/Innovation—Demonstrate originality and inventiveness in work; communicate new ideas to others; integrate knowledge across different disciplines.Lifelong Learning/Self Direction—Be able to continuously acquire new knowledge and skills; monitor one’s own learning needs; be able to learn from one’s mistakes.Professionalism/Work Ethic—Demonstrate personal accountability, effective work habits, e.g., punctuality, working productively with others, and time and workload management.Ethics/Social Responsibility—Demonstrate integrity and ethical behavior; act responsibly with the interests of the larger community in mind.  
  • Report of the National Commission on Adult Literacy, June 2008 Reach Higher, AMERICAOVERCOMING CRISIS IN THE U.S.WORKFORCE, source“More than two-thirds of the workforce is beyond the reach of the schools. Yet our current adult education system—designed for a different time and different challenges—is not equipped to address this urgent national need. Federal adult education, training, and English language programs reach only about 3 million adults a year.”
  • Image source:
  • IMAGE, COMPOUNDED by racial concentrations, and achievement gap often understated when grade retention which aren’t always reflected in data sets.
  • Source, Slide from Education Commission of the States presentation.
  • Reading is critical to everything else, so reading offers a telling example.Image,
  • State Of Education

    1. 1. State of Education Education Law Introductory Class (A) 2010 Professor Redfield
    2. 2. Education is in crisis. Deeply divided, children and adults alike.
    3. 3. Demographics run counter to educational outcomes. 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% Other Asian 40.0% Hispanic AfAm 30.0% White 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Source: Richard Gambitta Rocky Mountain Diversity Summit 2007
    4. 4. Economics reflect outcomes. High School Graduate Some College Associate's Degree Bachelor's Degree Master's Degree Doctoral Degree 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 4
    5. 5. • Inadequate and disparate literacy and numeracy skills among large segments of our student and adult populations • An ongoing shift in the demographic profile of our population, powered by the highest immigration rates in nearly a century • The continuing evolution of the economy and the nation’s job structure, requiring higher levels of skills from an increasing proportion of workers • = America’s Perfect Storm Irwin Kirsch, ETS, National Press Club, Washington, D.C., February 5, 2007
    6. 6. “Education drives the economy. Almost a decade into the 21st Century, America faces a choice: We can invest in the basic education and skills of our workforce and remain competitive in today’s global economy, or we can continue to overlook glaring evidence of a national crisis and move further down the path to decline.” 9
    7. 7. TOO many students not learning • Many drop out and leave • Many won’t graduate from high school • Many who stay are not learning • Many who stay are not learning what they need to know to be career or college ready • Many do not go on 10
    9. 9. The problem starts early. And endures.
    10. 10. 100% • Low income 3-year-olds 90% = smaller vocabularies 80% • More Black children 70% expelled from preschool 60% • Black/ Hispanic children 50% less likely know their 40% No Yes letters @ kindergarten 30% • Black (especially boys) 20% likely to be retained in 10% grade 0% White Asian Black Hispanic AiAN • By 3rd grade still Recognize letters significant reading differences, and these difference remain Source: EdTrust data; Yale Child Study; American’s Kindergartners: + see notes 13
    11. 11. Inequity endures at every level. Consider the example of READING.
    12. 12. AGE 9 13 17 White 226 266 293 Black 200 244 264 Hisp. 205 242 264 16 Source: NCES Digest Reading 2004
    13. 13. At Advanced At or above Proficient At or above Basic Below Basic 47% 42% 41% 32% 26% 24% 22% Black FRPL eligible Hispanic AIAN AsPI FRPL not White FRPL = Free + eligible Reduced Price Lunch Source: NAEP 12th Grade Reading 2005 17
    14. 14. And what does this mean? Can you read? • Basic (265): demonstrate an • Advanced (346): …describe overall understanding and more abstract themes and ideas make some interpretations of in the overall text. ..analyze the text. .. identify and relate both the meaning and the form aspects of the text to its overall of the text and explicitly meaning, extend the ideas in support their analyses with the text by making simple specific examples from the text. inferences, recognize interpretations… Tested for • Proficient (302): …how an literary, informational, + overall understanding of the functional reading contexts. text, which includes inferential as well as literal information. NAEP = National Assessment of Educational Progress
    15. 15. And what does this mean? As part of the 2005 reading assessment, twelfth-graders were presented with a guide to a city's transit system. The multiple-choice question presented here required students to make a simple inference based on explicit information in the Metro Guide. 19
    16. 16. US History and Writing Below At or above At or above HISTORY At Advanced Basic Basic Prof •By 12th grade White 46% 54% 16% 1% ASPI 45% 55% 20% 3% •Achievement gaps Black 81% 19% 2% # Hisp 75% 25% 4% # remain AIAN 68% 32% 4% # •For those who graduate from high WRITING Below Basic At or above At or above Basic Prof At Advanced school these gaps White 14% 86% 29% 1% follow students into AsPI 14% 86% 30% 1% postsecondary Black 32% 68% 8% # education Hispanic 30% 70% 11% # AIAN 31% 69% 12% # Source: USDOE NCES Digest of Education Statistics, 119, 120, +see notes 20
    17. 17. Civics “evidence of a profound civic achievement gap between poor, minority, and immigrant youth and adults, on the one hand, and middle- class or wealthy, Source: Meira Levinson, The Civic Achievement Gap , ABA LRE New Orleans 2007
    18. 18. Civics NAEP Below Basic At or above At or above Below Basic At Advanced Basic Proficient 27% White 58% White ASPI 27% 73% 33% 6% 31% ASPI Black 31% 69% 33% 7% Black Hispa 59% 41% 8% 1% nic Hisp AIAN 55% 45% 11% 1% 55% 59% AIAN 58% 42% 9% Source: The Nation’s Report Card , ttp:// 22
    19. 19. • Qualified teachers Approaching • Counselors and in high school • Rigorous courses on average disparities / • Engaging materials FEWER • Accessible resources • EXPECTATIONS (of them)
    20. 20. It is hardly surprising, kids drop out. • And drop out. • And drop out. • And drop out. 24
    21. 21. Graduation rates remain deeply troubled. 90 80.2 80 76.2 70 60 57.8 53.4 49.3 50 40 30 20 10 0 AfAm AmAI White Hispanic AsPI Source: Alliance for Excellent Education 25
    22. 22. • Lower grades Approaching • Lower test scores college • Fewer college track on average # gaps between • Fewer in gifted + AP students • Lower HS  graduation • Lower college readiness
    23. 23. • Lower enrollment • Higher rates of Approaching remediation and in college • Higher dropout rates Differences  • Lower literacy skills • Lower college grades • Lower college completion rates. . . . 27
    24. 24. % Meeting Benchmarks English Math Sci All AfAm 37 21 11 5 3 Hisp 49 35 26 13 10 AIAN 52 40 25 16 11 White 77 61 49 33 27 ASPI 75 59 63 38 33 28 Source: ACT College Readiness
    25. 25. Literacy Gap > High School • Achievement gaps between black and white high school students are discouraging but all too common facts of education life. It's well known that black students are less likely than their white peers to graduate from high school, and score lower on tests like the SAT and the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP). Far less attention has been paid to gaps in higher education. A new study of college student literacy suggests that black-white gaps not only persist into college, but may become even larger by the time students finish their degree.“ Source: Kevin Carey, The Black-29
    26. 26. 30
    27. 27. Poverty ALL Race Family ESL
    28. 28. A few concrete examples for change K12. Rigor, Relevance, Relationship
    29. 29. Differences in opportunity illustrate the issues of the new 3Rs. Expectations, Assignments, Course Availability, Teachers, Counselors are all examples.
    30. 30. Expectations are damning. • “…give them [students] a chance to do work that is hard instead of saying they can’t do it.” • “…warn students about racist attitudes they may encounter and inform students they must work harder than white students to earn similar grades.” • Both high and low-achieving students in the study reported that “many of their teachers did not care, did not encourage them, and had lower expectations for them because of their ethnicity.” 34
    31. 31. Expectations are critical. Programs that assume the opposite, that is that start early with “high end learning” and assume “at potential” rather than “at risk” students have opposite impacts on the achievement gap. Source: A Closer Look, Early Developments, Fall 2007 35
    32. 32. Students will do as assigned (not more). 36 Source: Education Trust, Unnamed school district in California, AY2002-03. See notes.
    33. 33. Comparative assignments are damning. Essay on Anne Frank-- Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which introduced the title, author and general background of the novel. Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall personality is, and what general psychological and intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the book. You might organize your essay by grouping psychological and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4 characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self doubt) and show how she changes in this area.” 37
    34. 34. Also, comparative course availablity. 38
    35. 35. Teachers are the most significant, but … 80 • Missing teachers 70 who look like their students 60 • Missing teachers 50 credentialed in their 40 disciplines Teachers • Missing experienced Students 30 teachers 20 • All most lacking 10 where most needed 0 AMAI As PI Fili Hisp AfAm White Multi n/a 39
    36. 36. Counselors could help, but… •1/229 •1/556 HS •1/753 MS Source: UCLA Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access & University of California All Campus Consortium on Research for Diversity, California 40 Educational Opportunity Report 2007
    37. 37. Results: Percentages of Various Populations Bachelor's ABA US Degrees LSAT Test ABA Admits ABA J.D. Population Conferred** Takers Applicants Fall Matrics Degrees Bar Lawyers Race/Ethnicity 2005 2004-05 Jun 05 - Feb 06 Fall 2006 2006 Fall 2006 2005-06 Passage*** 2000 White 74.7% 72.9% 65.9% 65.5% 71.1% 71.1% 70.8% 83.5% 89.2% Black 12.1% 9.5% 10.0% 10.5% 7.0% 7.1% 6.2% 5.9% 3.9% Hispanic 14.5% 7.0% 8.5% 8.3% 7.2% 7.4% 6.8% 4.5% 3.3% Asian/Pacific Islander 4.4% 6.8% 9.1% 8.1% 8.1% 8.0% 7.9% 4.2% 2.3% American Indian/AK Native 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.5% Source: 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 1 ** Bachelor's degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions *** LSAC National Longitudinal Bar Passage Study participants entering law school Fall 1991 (n = 23,086) 1 - U.S. Census Bureau: 2005 American Community Survey, Estimates 2 - National Center for Education Statistics' Digest of Education Statistics: 2006 3 - Law School Admission Council 4 - American Bar Association Official Guide to ABA-Approved Law Schools 2008 Edition Source: © Law School Admission Council. 41Prepared by Phil Handwerk, Institutional Researcher (March 2008)
    38. 38. .. . to better serve all students, high schools need to become places that combine rigor in the academic program of every student (not just those in an honors or higher track) with relevance to their interests and potential career choices, supported by positive relationships that can inspire students both academically and personally.
    39. 39. Achievement gaps are not facts of nature. They are mostly because of differences in life experience.
    40. 40. Fair Quality Delivery of The NEW 3Rs all along the pipeline. 44
    41. 41. FMI Sarah E. Redfield 207-752-1721 cell 45