Climate of Change
Cynthia M. Fadem
Russian River Valley, CA, USA
• Understand the mechanics of the El Niño
• Diagram an El Niño event.
• Recall examples of how ocean surface
oscillations impact ecosystems and people.
Trade winds and strong equatorial currents flow toward the west. This
process, along with an intense Peruvian current, causes the upwelling of
cold bottom-water along the west coast of South America.
• Shifts in tropical Pacific SST and
precipitation affect wind patterns
over much of the globe.
• ENSO can have both positive and
negative impacts in different parts
of the world — often resulting in
consequences (ranging from an
increased flood risk in some
regions of the US to warm, dry
conditions in others).
-National Oceanic & Atmospheric
• At the onset, tradewinds
maintain warm equatorial
currents toward the east.
• As El Niño begins, the tradewinds
weaken, and the equatorial
• This creates Kelvin waves, surges
of warm water moving eastward.
• When a Kelvin wave reaches the
Americas, it divides and travels
north and south along the west
Condition (El Niño)
“For years, scientists have tracked the
intensity of the El Niño Southern
Oscillation by measuring the strength of
the sea surface temperature anomaly. El
Niños occur when warmer ocean water
wells up toward the eastern equatorial
Pacific. But the strength of the
temperature anomaly may not be the only
important factor in predicting El Niño-
related weather events. Our researchers
found that the location of sea-surface
warming appears to be just as critical. For
instance, El Niños that develop near the
central equatorial Pacific appear to cause
drought during the Indian Monsoon,
whereas warm waters near the eastern
equatorial Pacific may have no impact on
- Cooperative Institute for Research in
Environmental Sciences (CIRES), 2012
When the trade winds shift and
push warm water from the
western pacific to the eastern
Pacific, the jet streams change,
changing the weather patterns
La Niña is characterized by unusually cold
ocean temperatures in the central equatorial
Pacific. The colder than normal water is
depicted in this image in blue. During a La Niña
stronger than normal trade winds bring cold
water up to the surface of the ocean.