Course Design
Rachel Beane, Karen Kortz, Kathleen Surpless
With material from Heather Macdonald, David McConnell, Barb Tew...
One Course Design Process
course context
Figure modified from D. McConnell
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/coursede...
Focus on one of your courses
Consider course context
• Undergraduate? Graduate?
• Majors course?
• Required? Elective?
• Class size?
• What format?
– L...
Course context: Studio format
• Students alternate between short, hands-on activities
and short lecture or other forms of ...
Course context: Project-based format
• “Learning by doing”
• Course material (content and skills) delivered
through one or...
Course context: Flipped-class format
• Students "listen to lecture" at home and do
"homework" in the classroom
– The instr...
From K. Wirth with data from
Schoenfeld (1987) Mathematical Problem Solving
Elapsed Time
(mins)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
R...
• What kind of problem is this?
• What is the best strategy for solving it?
• How will I know if I solved it?
• How could ...
• How do you like to teach? Why do you teach?
• How do you want to interact with your students?
• What do you find most sa...
Designing a Course
• Consider course context
• Articulate goals for the course
• Overarching goals
• Ancillary goals
• Des...
Goals-based approach
• Emphasizes designing a course in which students
• Learn significant content and skills
• Practice t...
Goals: Student-centered
• Student-centered
– What will they learn?
• Content-centered
– What will I cover?
Photo by S. Fox...
Goals: Student-centered
• Student-centered
– What will they learn?
• Content-centered
– What will I cover?
Example:
I want...
Goals: Student-centered
• Student-centered
– What will they learn?
• Content-centered
– What will I cover?
Example:
I want...
Focus on goals that involve
higher-order thinking skills
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956)
Knowle...
Goals: Focus on higher order thinking
derive, predict, analyze, design, interpret, syn
thesize, formulate, plan, correlate...
Goals: Focus on higher order thinking
derive, predict, analyze, design, interpret,
synthesize, formulate, plan, correlate,...
Overarching Goals
• What do you do?
• What kinds of problems do you
want students to be able to tackle?
• How might studen...
Consider your course…
What are the overarching goals?
For the goals, consider
“When students have
completed my course, I
w...
Review overarching goals
• Does the goal focus on higher order thinking?
(e.g.
derive, predict, analyze, design, interpret...
Ancillary goals
• Skills
• Reading the professional literature
• Working in teams
• Writing and quantitative skills
• Crit...
Course design: activities and assignments
• Consider course context
• Articulate goals
• Design activities and assignments...
Consider whether an activity or assignment…
• has an effective "hook" that engages students?
• places new knowledge, tasks...
Designing Activities
Often many ways to design activities to meet a goal.
If I want students to be able to analyze map dat...
Interactive Activities
• Gallery Walk
• Think-pair-share
• Project
• Lecture Tutorial
• Debate
• Jigsaw
• Concept Map
• …
...
Jigsaw
From Barbara Tewksbury
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/teaching_methods/jigsaws/index.html
Jigsaw Examples
• Plate tectonics. Teams analyze earthquake, volcano,
seafloor age, and topography data maps, then
combine...
Concept Maps
Allow students to learn by
Synthesizing
Integrating
Allow faculty to
Assess student learning
Students connect...
Designing Activities
Often many ways to design activities and assessments to
meet a goal.
Start early; allow yourself time...
1. Individually, read one of the scenarios.
2. As a table, discuss the problems.
To promote characteristics of self-regulated learners
and experts, we should guide students in metacognition.
Metacognitio...
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/metacognition/index.html
Three basic steps to teaching students metacognition:
1. T...
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/metacognition/tactics.html
Plan
MonitorAdapt
• Think Aloud
• Questioning
• Reciproc...
• What is the main point of this reading?
• What did you find surprising? Why?
• What did you find confusing? Why?
Reading...
Research Project Wrapper
• What did you learn about research & about minerals through this
project?
• What did you learn a...
Exam Wrapper
1. Approximately how much time did you spend preparing for this exam?
2. What percentage of your time was doi...
Assessment
• Consider course context
• Articulate goals
• Design activities
• Plan assessment & feedback
• Formative asses...
Formative Assessment: Minute Paper
• Assesses gaps in student comprehension
• Facilitates student reflection which increas...
Examine the map and answer the question that follows. X,Y, and Z
represent continental lithosphere, the blank areas repres...
• Conceptual multiple-choice question
• Focuses on one key concept of lesson
• Rapid formative assessment
• Can be paired ...
Summative Assessment: 2-stage cooperative exam
• Goal: Exam is learning experience
where students work problems &
understa...
Summative Assessment: Rubrics
"Learning increases when learners have a sense of what
they are setting out to learn, a stat...
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/types.html
Assessment
Context for Today’s Sessions
• Articulate goals when designing courses
• Design & adapt activities and assessments with go...
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  • KKFirst 4 covered this morning in various sessions. Want to briefly introduce concept Maps and Jigsaws now.
  • KK /9746 /31620 In a jigsaw, the class is divided into several teams, with each team preparing separate but related assignments. When all team members are prepared, the class is re-divided into mixed groups, with one member from each team in each group. Each person in the group teaches the rest of the group what he/she knows, and the group then tackles an assignment together that pulls all of the pieces together to form the full picture, hence the name jigsaw
  • KKEmphasize power of peer teaching as a learning toolGive plate tectonic or other example in notebook of jigsaw
  • KK Faculty can use to plan lesson and see how parts connect. Faculty can demonstrate in class to summarize how parts of lecture connected. Students can complete individually or in groups to reflect on what they’ve learned and to help us know what they’ve learned.Angelo and Cross (1993) indicate that concept maps help develop student abilities.The ability to draw reasonable inferences from observations.The ability to synthesize and integrate information and ideas.The ability to learn concepts and theories in the subject area.
  • RB
  • RB
  • RBThink Aloud: This involves the teacher describing their thought process in solving a problem (Joseph, 2010).Questioning: Following new material, student develop questions about the material (Joseph, 2010).Reciprocal Teaching: the learner teaches new material to fellow learners (Joseph, 2010).[edit]
  • KKProvides immediate feedback – formative assessment
  • KKAsk question to audience, then have them Think, pair, share; then briefly discuss response
  • KK
  • KK or RY give example of how he does this?
  • KK
  • Course Design_MON_950_beane

    1. 1. Course Design Rachel Beane, Karen Kortz, Kathleen Surpless With material from Heather Macdonald, David McConnell, Barb Tewksbury, Karl Wirth & Richard Yuretich Chuck Bailey photo
    2. 2. One Course Design Process course context Figure modified from D. McConnell http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/coursedesign/tutorial/index.html • Consider course context • Articulate goals • Design activities • Plan assessment & feedback Goals Assessment & Feedback Activities
    3. 3. Focus on one of your courses
    4. 4. Consider course context • Undergraduate? Graduate? • Majors course? • Required? Elective? • Class size? • What format? – Lecture only – Lecture and lab – Studio – Project-based – Flipped • Who are the students? – What do they want to learn? – What prior knowledge or misconceptions might they have? – How do they learn? Photo by C. Ormand, serc.carleton.edu
    5. 5. Course context: Studio format • Students alternate between short, hands-on activities and short lecture or other forms of instruction • Some Benefits: – Switching activities frequently means less tuning out of lecture or lab-fatigue – Students receive information as they need it and immediately use the information to reinforce learning – Active students means more engagement • Some Challenges: – Scheduling longer periods and/or lab space – Students process information and complete activities at different speeds – Students may resist move away from lecture (and passive learning)
    6. 6. Course context: Project-based format • “Learning by doing” • Course material (content and skills) delivered through one or more projects instead of lectures, labs, and exams • Lecture may still happen, but directly related to project • Projects engage students in investigation – textbook becomes one of many resources • Can create a hybrid model that includes projects but is not 100% Problem Based Learning
    7. 7. Course context: Flipped-class format • Students "listen to lecture" at home and do "homework" in the classroom – The instructor creates mini-lectures and assigns book readings for students to do at home – Class time is used for the active application of that information • Some Benefits – Students learn better through active engagement – Students can get the most feedback and help when they need it, as they are solving problems • Some Challenges – Students may resist moving away from lecture – Students may not prepare adequately for class
    8. 8. From K. Wirth with data from Schoenfeld (1987) Mathematical Problem Solving Elapsed Time (mins) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Read Analyze Explore Plan Implement Verify Experts Elapsed Time (mins) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Read Analyze Explore Plan Implement Verify Novices Course context: Students’ approach
    9. 9. • What kind of problem is this? • What is the best strategy for solving it? • How will I know if I solved it? • How could I do it better next time? • What additional information do I need? • What use is this new information? • How can I use my new understanding to solve different kinds of problems? Elapsed Time (mins) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Read Analyze Explore Plan Implement Verify From K. Wirth with information from Schoenfeld (1987) Experts’ approach
    10. 10. • How do you like to teach? Why do you teach? • How do you want to interact with your students? • What do you find most satisfying when you teach? • How flexible are you? Teaching Styles
    11. 11. Designing a Course • Consider course context • Articulate goals for the course • Overarching goals • Ancillary goals • Design activities • Plan assessment & feedback course context Goals Assessment & Feedback Activities
    12. 12. Goals-based approach • Emphasizes designing a course in which students • Learn significant content and skills • Practice thinking for themselves and solving problems in discipline • Leave prepared to apply knowledge and skills in future • Sets goals that • Are student centered • Involve higher-order thinking skills • Can be assessed (through problem sets, papers, exams…)
    13. 13. Goals: Student-centered • Student-centered – What will they learn? • Content-centered – What will I cover? Photo by S. Fox, serc.carleton.edu
    14. 14. Goals: Student-centered • Student-centered – What will they learn? • Content-centered – What will I cover? Example: I want to teach students about geologic history.
    15. 15. Goals: Student-centered • Student-centered – What will they learn? • Content-centered – What will I cover? Example: I want to teach students about geologic history.
    16. 16. Focus on goals that involve higher-order thinking skills Bloom’s Taxonomy Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
    17. 17. Goals: Focus on higher order thinking derive, predict, analyze, design, interpret, syn thesize, formulate, plan, correlate, evaluate, c reate, critique, adapt Example: I want to teach students about geologic history. Please rework the above goal such that it is a student-centered goal that focuses on higher order thinking.
    18. 18. Goals: Focus on higher order thinking derive, predict, analyze, design, interpret, synthesize, formulate, plan, correlate, evaluate, create, critique, adapt Example: I want to teach students about geologic history. Reworked: Students will synthesize the geologic history of the Virginia coastal plain. course context Goals Assessment & Feedback Activities
    19. 19. Overarching Goals • What do you do? • What kinds of problems do you want students to be able to tackle? • How might students apply what they have learned? • How will they be different at the end of the course? What do you want students to be able to do as a result of having taken your course? Photo by C. Field
    20. 20. Consider your course… What are the overarching goals? For the goals, consider “When students have completed my course, I want them to be able to…”
    21. 21. Review overarching goals • Does the goal focus on higher order thinking? (e.g. derive, predict, analyze, design, interpret, synthesize, formulate, plan, correlate, evaluate, create, critique, adapt) • Is the goal student-focused? • Could you design an activity/assignment that would allow you to determine whether students have met the goal or not? (does the goal have "measurable outcomes”?)
    22. 22. Ancillary goals • Skills • Reading the professional literature • Working in teams • Writing and quantitative skills • Critically assessing information from the web • Laboratory technique • Self-teaching, peer teaching, oral presentation • ……. Practicing oral presentations, www.bowdoin.edu, academic spotlight
    23. 23. Course design: activities and assignments • Consider course context • Articulate goals • Design activities and assignments Students learn when they are actively engaged in practice, application, and problem solving (NRC, 1999 How People Learn) • Plan assessment & feedback course context Goals Assessment & Feedback Activities
    24. 24. Consider whether an activity or assignment… • has an effective "hook" that engages students? • places new knowledge, tasks, and experiences into the context of what students already know? • requires students to synthesize, discuss, extend, or reflect on what they have learned? • meets the stated goals? • has a way to assess whether students have met the goals? 5 E’s approach: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate Bybee, 1989 Designing Activities
    25. 25. Designing Activities Often many ways to design activities to meet a goal. If I want students to be able to analyze map data, I might: • Prepare a Gallery Walk of maps around the classroom • Ask a series of directed questions about a map (in lecture or as homework) • Have students prepare clay models of topo maps and share them with the class • Ask students to complete an interpretative cross-section during lab • Have students prepare a map of their hometown using GIS and identify possible hazards Provide repeated opportunities to practice, with feedback.
    26. 26. Interactive Activities • Gallery Walk • Think-pair-share • Project • Lecture Tutorial • Debate • Jigsaw • Concept Map • … http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/earlycareer/teaching/toolkit.html Gallery Walk introducing REE in 30 person, non-majors course. Photo by Kevin Travers, Bowdoin College.
    27. 27. Jigsaw From Barbara Tewksbury http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/teaching_methods/jigsaws/index.html
    28. 28. Jigsaw Examples • Plate tectonics. Teams analyze earthquake, volcano, seafloor age, and topography data maps, then combine to draw plate boundaries and interpret processes. • Google Earth. Each team analyzes different locations that show similar features (e.g., barrier islands, folds, valley glaciers, volcanic cones, etc.), then combine to discuss similarities and differences of the feature. http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/library/jigsaws/examples.html
    29. 29. Concept Maps Allow students to learn by Synthesizing Integrating Allow faculty to Assess student learning Students connect topics By seeing how are 2 D diagrams with Concepts Named Links and and http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/conceptmaps.html
    30. 30. Designing Activities Often many ways to design activities and assessments to meet a goal. Start early; allow yourself time to think of ideas. For a start… What are several activities that you might design to meet one of the overarching goals you wrote for your course? course context Goals Assessment & Feedback Activities
    31. 31. 1. Individually, read one of the scenarios. 2. As a table, discuss the problems.
    32. 32. To promote characteristics of self-regulated learners and experts, we should guide students in metacognition. Metacognition is broadly defined as thinking about thinking. For students, this can be “learning to learn.” Elapsed Time (mins) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Read Analyze Explore Plan Implement Verify Elapsed Time (mins) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Read Analyze Explore Plan Implement Verify
    33. 33. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/metacognition/index.html Three basic steps to teaching students metacognition: 1. Teach students that their ability to learn can be changed 2. Teach planning and goal-setting 3. Give students opportunities to monitor their learning and adapt as necessary Teaching students metacognitive approaches Summarized from Lovett, 2008, Educause Learning Initiative Conference
    34. 34. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/metacognition/tactics.html Plan MonitorAdapt • Think Aloud • Questioning • Reciprocal Teaching • Reading Reflections • Wrappers • … Designing activities to support metacognition
    35. 35. • What is the main point of this reading? • What did you find surprising? Why? • What did you find confusing? Why? Reading Reflections Example from K. Wirth http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGT Workshops/metacognition/activ ities/27560.html • Why is the research significant? • What is the main argument of the paper? • What is the evidence? • How are the data presented and why? • Are the assumptions reasonable? • Are the interpretations consistent with what we know? • Could alternative hypotheses be derived from the data? Example questions developed by Rose, Sablock, Jones, Mogk, Wenk, Davis at 2008 workshop, The Role of Metacognition in Teaching Geoscience http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/metacognition/group_tactics/28890.html
    36. 36. Research Project Wrapper • What did you learn about research & about minerals through this project? • What did you learn about your own research habits and preferences? • When were you excited and/or frustrated during the project? • If you did a similar project in the future, would you approach the project the same or differently? Example from R. Beane upper-level “Research in Mineral Science” course I really like that you have us write these reflections for all of the projects throughout the semester and similarly with the lectures. It makes me appreciate and understand everything that I did and learned. Student comment at the end of her reflection.
    37. 37. Exam Wrapper 1. Approximately how much time did you spend preparing for this exam? 2. What percentage of your time was doing the following: a. Reading textbook sections for the first time b. Rereading textbook sections c. Practicing problems d. Reviewing notes e. Reviewing class materials f. Other (specify) 3. After reviewing your graded exam, estimate the percentage of points lost due to the following: a. Lack of understanding the concept b. Not knowing how to approach the question/problem c. Carelessness d. Other 4. Based on your responses above, how do you plan to prepare differently for the next exam? Modified from S. Ambrose et al., 2011, How Learning Works
    38. 38. Assessment • Consider course context • Articulate goals • Design activities • Plan assessment & feedback • Formative assessment • Summative assessment course context Goals Assessment & Feedback Activities
    39. 39. Formative Assessment: Minute Paper • Assesses gaps in student comprehension • Facilitates student reflection which increases retention Minute-Paper/ Muddiest Point/ Daily Check-In 1. What was the most important thing you learned in today’s class? 2. What question do you have about today’s class? 3. What would you like to learn more about?
    40. 40. Examine the map and answer the question that follows. X,Y, and Z represent continental lithosphere, the blank areas represent oceanic lithosphere. How many plates are present? a. 3 b. 4 c. 5 d. 6 http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/teaching_methods/conceptests/examples/numbers.html
    41. 41. • Conceptual multiple-choice question • Focuses on one key concept of lesson • Rapid formative assessment • Can be paired with peer-instruction http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/teaching_methods/conceptests/index.html Formative Assessment: ConcepTest
    42. 42. Summative Assessment: 2-stage cooperative exam • Goal: Exam is learning experience where students work problems & understand the process of their reasoning • Method: Students take exam first individually, then again collaboratively • Grading: Weighted average of individual and collaborative components http://nagt.org/files/nagt/jge/abstracts/Yuretich_v49n2p111.pdf http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/earlycareer2011/cooperative_exams.html Photo by Mark Leckie.
    43. 43. Summative Assessment: Rubrics "Learning increases when learners have a sense of what they are setting out to learn, a statement of explicit standards they must meet and a way of seeing what they have learned." Loaker, Cromwell and O'Brien (1986) Rubrics improve consistency & efficiency when grading. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/rubrics.html Criteria Exemplary Good Acceptable Unacceptable Organization Figures Interpretations …
    44. 44. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/types.html Assessment
    45. 45. Context for Today’s Sessions • Articulate goals when designing courses • Design & adapt activities and assessments with goals in mind • Design activities to foster self-regulation & help students “learn to learn” • Expand your “toolbox” of teaching & assessment strategies

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