• Turmeric is known as the “golden spice” as well
as the “spice of life.”’
• “Indian saffron.
• Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae)
• Family Zingiberaceae, consists of about 110
• Native of Tropical south Asia (India)
Major Exporters of Turmeric
• India - largest exporter (approximately
90%) of Turmeric
• Thailand and other Southeast Asian
• Various Pacific islands
• Central and Latin American countries
Major Importers of Turmeric
• Sri Lanka
• United States
• United Kingdom
• Middle Eastern countries
• North African countries
Major Trading Centers in India
• Nizamabad (Andhra Pradesh)
• Dugirala (Andhra Pradesh)
• Sangli (Maharashtra)
• Coimbatore (Tamilnadu)
• Salem (Tamilnadu)
• Erode (Tamilnadu)
• Dharmapuri (Tamilnadu)
SOCIOCULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH
SMEARED ON DOO
VARIETIES OF INDIAN TURMERICVARIETIES OF INDIAN TURMERIC
• Kerala-Allepey Finger
• Tamil Nadu-Erode, Salem,Madras
• Maharashtrian varieties-Lokahandi and Rajpuri, Sangli
• Andhra Pradesh varieties-Duggriala, Tekurpeta, Katuri,
Pasupa, Amoar, Nizamabad, Chayapasupa,Cuddapah)
• Orissa-Roma, Suroma, Ranga and Rasmi
• North Eastern Varieties-GL Puram, Dehradun local,
• Alleppey turmeric comes from Kerala, especially from
the region of Thodupuzha and Muvattupuzha taluks
• It is characterized by deep yellow to orange TO yellow
in color and has high curcumin, up to 6.5%.
• U.S. has a special preference to Alleppey Finger
Turmeric, where it is used as food colorant preferred for
• Alleppy variety is easier to grind than its Madras
• Madras turmeric, exported from Madras, comes from several
regional cultivars of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
• This brand is mustard yellow in color and has a curcumin content of
• U.K. has a special preference to Madras turmeric, where it is
regarded as superior in quality and flavor.
• Madras Turmeric is produced in predominantly turmeric-growing
districts of Salem, Erode, and Coimbatore districts in Tamil
Nadu and exported through Madras and Tuticorin ports.
• Madras turmeric is the most common type used by curry
powder/masala manufacturers in U.K. and Europe.
• Madras turmeric is comprised of as many as nine
cultivars including Guntur, Salem, Rajamundry,
Nizamabad, and Cuddappah.
• The Madras turmeric is preferred by the British and
Middle Eastern markets for its more intense, brighter,
and lighter yellow color and is better suited for the
mustard paste and curry powder or paste used.
• Madras turmeric, has thicker and stumpier fingers but
about the same color content as Guntur (about 3.7%).
West Indian turmeric
• West Indian turmeric comes from the Caribbean,
Central, and South American countries and the
rhizomes are dull yellowish brown in color and
are regarded inferior in quality to Indian turmeric.
• Rhizomes are dull yellowish-brown in color,
mostly small, and of poor appearance.
It is grown from sea level to 1200 meters
above mean sea level.
• It comes up well at temperature between
C and an annual rainfall of about
• under rain fed or irrigated conditions.
• Planting is done either on raised beds or
Preparing Bed seedling Mulching
Initial Stage Matured Stage
• Mixed crops-Onion,Brinjal,Tomato
• For Sowing –Mother and fingers are used.
• Rhizomes for seed purpose are generally
stored covered with turmeric leaves.
• Weeding has to be done thrice at 60, 90
and 120 days after planting depending
upon weed intensity
• Harvested turmeric is washed well to remove the adhering
soil; roots removed, the fingers and mothers are
• Boiling fresh rhizomes in water until soft before drying.
• It removes the raw odor, reduces drying time, and yields
a uniformly colored product.
• Removes the ‘raw’ colour, reduces drying time,
gelatinises the starch and gives the turmeric a more
• Dry in the open in 5 to 7 cm thick layers on uncoated plain
bamboo mats or concrete drying floor.
• It may take 10 to 15 days for the rhizomes to become
• Drying using cross-flow hot air at a maximum temperature of
• It should be dried on clean surfaces to
ensure that the product doesnot get
contaminated by any extraneous matter.
• Artificial drying gives a brighter product
than sun drying.
• When the dried finger breaks cleanly with
a metallic sound, it is sufficiently dry
• Dried turmeric has a rough appearance
and dull surface color.
• Polishing removes the surface roughness
by getting rid of the surface scales,the
small rootlets, and any remaining soil
• Polishing is done by
• 1.Manual or
• Rubbing the dried turmeric on a hard
• Trampling them under feet wrapped with
• Shaking the rhizomes with stones in a
gunny bag or bamboo basket is also
• Polishing drums rotated by hand or by power.
• Polishing is not necessary for turmeric intended for
solvent extraction and recovery of color matter.
• Dried rhizomes are sometimes coated with turmeric
powder in the course of polishing in two ways
Turmeric powder is added to the polishing drum in the
last 10 min of polishing,
• 1.Dry coloring
Turmeric powder is added to the polishing
drum in the last 10 min of polishing,
• 2.Wet coloring
• turmeric powder suspended in water is sprinkled
over the rhizomes at the final stage.
• Treatment with emulsions containing alum,
turmeric powder, castor seed paste, sodium
bisulfite and sulphuric acid, or hydrochloric acid
• Separating the fingers, bulbs,
and splits, little grading of the
spice is done By Farmers.
• Turmeric of commerce is described in three ways
• These are the lateral branches or secondary, “daughter”
rhizomes, which are detached from the central rhizome
• size from about 2.5 to 7.5 cm in length and may be somewhat
over 1 cm in diameter.
• Broken and very small fingers are combined and
marketed separately from whole fingers.
• The fingers command a higher price
• than the bulbs and splits.
Splits are the bulbs that have been split
into halves or quarters to facilitate curing
and subsequent drying
• Dried rhizomes are ground to the required
• The powder is designated as
• Coarse if 98% passes through a 500-μm sieve,
Fine if 98% passes through a 300-μm sieve
• Powdered turmeric is packed in bulk, in a
variety of containers, fibreboard drums,
multiwalled bags and tin containers.
• The colour of turmeric will not be affected
for up to 6 months in any of the
packaging or storage conditions
• Steam Sterilization-treating the spice to
be sterilized with live steam for a short
• Fumigation-Methyl bromide is a widely
• Turmeric powder is adulterated with
foreign starch (tapioca, arrowroot, cereal
floor), husks, coal tarcolours, lead
• Adulterated turmeric powder will have low
• Turmeric color is attributed primarily to a group of related
compounds designated as curcuminoids with curcumin.
• Principal component admixed with its two derivatives,
• Spectrophotometric method for
quantification of curcumin.
• HPLC has emerged as an efficient tool for
the quantification of individual
• The microbial load in herbs and spices
can be controlled by three techniques,
1. steam sterilization
• Chemical pesticides at various in plant
growth results in accumulation of their
residue in spices.
• Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites of the
Aflatoxins in spices are generally classified into four
• Lead, cadmium,arsenic, and mercury are
of major concern. Atomic absorption
spectrophotometry is recommended as
the standard method for the analysis
(AOAC 2000b, 2000c).
• Limits specified forsome trace metals in
whole and ground turmeric under the
• colorant, flavorant, and for its preservative action.
• Manufacture of curcumin and its use in ice creams,
gelatins, lemonades, and liquor.
• bathing soap, body cream, lotion, powder,
• Ground turmeric is aclassic addition to chutneys and
• As coloring materials forcereal-based products, cheeses,
dry mixes, salad dressings, winter butter, and margarine.
• Turmeric is also used in coloring butter,
cheese, and vanaspati.
• It is used in fish curry, possibly to mask
the fishy odors.
• coloring materials for cereal-based
products, cheeses, dry mixes, salad
dressings, winter butter, and margarine.
• Standards PublishedTitleIS 1797:1985
(ISO 927:1982)Methods of test for spices and condiments (2nd
• (IS 1797:1985) is also technically equivalent with ISO
928:1980,930:1980, 939:1980, 941:1986 in addition to ISO 927IS
3576:1994Turmeric, whole (2nd revision)
• IS 10925:1984Turmeric OleoresinIS 1877:1985Terminology for
spices and condiments (2nd revision)
• IS 131145:1993Spices and condiments - Methods of sampling (1st
• Turmeric: The genus Curcuma
• edited by P. N. Ravindran, K. Nirmal Babu, Kandaswamy Sivarama