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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Turmeric is known as the “golden spice” as well as the “spice of life.”’ • “Indian saffron. • Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) • Family Zingiberaceae, consists of about 110 species, • Native of Tropical south Asia (India)
  3. 3. Major Exporters of Turmeric • India - largest exporter (approximately 90%) of Turmeric • Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries • Taiwan • Various Pacific islands • Central and Latin American countries
  4. 4. Major Importers of Turmeric • Japan • Sri Lanka • Iran • United States • United Kingdom • Middle Eastern countries • North African countries • Ethiopia
  5. 5. Major Trading Centers in India • Nizamabad (Andhra Pradesh) • Dugirala (Andhra Pradesh) • Sangli (Maharashtra) • Coimbatore (Tamilnadu) • Salem (Tamilnadu) • Erode (Tamilnadu) • Dharmapuri (Tamilnadu)
  8. 8. PRODUCTS 1.Turmeric fresh 2.Turmeric dry 3.Ground turmeric 4.Turmeric oil 5.Turmeric oleoresin 6.Curcumin 7.Curry powder
  9. 9. Fresh Turmeric
  10. 10. Turmeric Powder
  11. 11. Turmeric oil
  14. 14. GROWING REGIONS • Kerala-Allepey Finger • Tamil Nadu-Erode, Salem,Madras • Maharashtrian varieties-Lokahandi and Rajpuri, Sangli • Andhra Pradesh varieties-Duggriala, Tekurpeta, Katuri, Pasupa, Amoar, Nizamabad, Chayapasupa,Cuddapah) • Orissa-Roma, Suroma, Ranga and Rasmi • North Eastern Varieties-GL Puram, Dehradun local, Daghi, Lakadong
  15. 15. ALLEPPEY TURMERIC • Alleppey turmeric comes from Kerala, especially from the region of Thodupuzha and Muvattupuzha taluks • It is characterized by deep yellow to orange TO yellow in color and has high curcumin, up to 6.5%. • U.S. has a special preference to Alleppey Finger Turmeric, where it is used as food colorant preferred for curcumin extraction. • Alleppy variety is easier to grind than its Madras counterpart
  16. 16. MADRAS TURMERIC • Madras turmeric, exported from Madras, comes from several regional cultivars of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. • This brand is mustard yellow in color and has a curcumin content of around 3.5%. • U.K. has a special preference to Madras turmeric, where it is regarded as superior in quality and flavor. • Madras Turmeric is produced in predominantly turmeric-growing districts of Salem, Erode, and Coimbatore districts in Tamil Nadu and exported through Madras and Tuticorin ports. • Madras turmeric is the most common type used by curry powder/masala manufacturers in U.K. and Europe.
  17. 17. • Madras turmeric is comprised of as many as nine cultivars including Guntur, Salem, Rajamundry, Nizamabad, and Cuddappah. • The Madras turmeric is preferred by the British and Middle Eastern markets for its more intense, brighter, and lighter yellow color and is better suited for the mustard paste and curry powder or paste used. • Madras turmeric, has thicker and stumpier fingers but about the same color content as Guntur (about 3.7%).
  18. 18. West Indian turmeric • West Indian turmeric comes from the Caribbean, Central, and South American countries and the rhizomes are dull yellowish brown in color and are regarded inferior in quality to Indian turmeric. • Rhizomes are dull yellowish-brown in color, mostly small, and of poor appearance.
  19. 19. CULTIVATION It is grown from sea level to 1200 meters above mean sea level. • It comes up well at temperature between 20o to 30o C and an annual rainfall of about 150cm. • under rain fed or irrigated conditions. • Planting is done either on raised beds or on ridges
  20. 20. Preparing Bed seedling Mulching Initial Stage Matured Stage
  21. 21. • Mixed crops-Onion,Brinjal,Tomato • For Sowing –Mother and fingers are used. • Rhizomes for seed purpose are generally stored covered with turmeric leaves. • Weeding has to be done thrice at 60, 90 and 120 days after planting depending upon weed intensity
  23. 23. HARVESTING
  24. 24. POST HARVESTING • Harvested turmeric is washed well to remove the adhering soil; roots removed, the fingers and mothers are separated.
  25. 25. 1.CURING • Boiling fresh rhizomes in water until soft before drying. • It removes the raw odor, reduces drying time, and yields a uniformly colored product. • Removes the ‘raw’ colour, reduces drying time, gelatinises the starch and gives the turmeric a more uniform colour.
  26. 26. 2.DRYING • Dry in the open in 5 to 7 cm thick layers on uncoated plain bamboo mats or concrete drying floor. • It may take 10 to 15 days for the rhizomes to become completely dry. • Drying using cross-flow hot air at a maximum temperature of 60°C
  27. 27. • It should be dried on clean surfaces to ensure that the product doesnot get contaminated by any extraneous matter. • Artificial drying gives a brighter product than sun drying. • When the dried finger breaks cleanly with a metallic sound, it is sufficiently dry
  28. 28. 3. POLISHING • Dried turmeric has a rough appearance and dull surface color. • Polishing removes the surface roughness by getting rid of the surface scales,the small rootlets, and any remaining soil particles. • Polishing is done by • 1.Manual or 2.Mechanical means
  29. 29. Manual polishing: • Rubbing the dried turmeric on a hard surface . • Trampling them under feet wrapped with gunny bags. • Shaking the rhizomes with stones in a gunny bag or bamboo basket is also practiced
  30. 30. Mechanical polishing • Polishing drums rotated by hand or by power. • Polishing is not necessary for turmeric intended for solvent extraction and recovery of color matter.
  31. 31. 4.COLORING • Dried rhizomes are sometimes coated with turmeric powder in the course of polishing in two ways 1.Dry coloring 2.Wet coloring 1.Dry coloring Turmeric powder is added to the polishing drum in the last 10 min of polishing,
  32. 32. • 1.Dry coloring Turmeric powder is added to the polishing drum in the last 10 min of polishing, • 2.Wet coloring • turmeric powder suspended in water is sprinkled over the rhizomes at the final stage. • Treatment with emulsions containing alum, turmeric powder, castor seed paste, sodium bisulfite and sulphuric acid, or hydrochloric acid
  33. 33. GRADING • Separating the fingers, bulbs, and splits, little grading of the spice is done By Farmers.
  34. 34. Turmeric (Mother) Bulb
  35. 35. • Bulbs: • These are the central “mother” rhizomes, which are ovate in shape and are of a shorter length but a greater diameter than fingers
  36. 36. Turmeric Fingers
  37. 37. • Turmeric of commerce is described in three ways FINGERS • These are the lateral branches or secondary, “daughter” rhizomes, which are detached from the central rhizome before curing • size from about 2.5 to 7.5 cm in length and may be somewhat over 1 cm in diameter. • Broken and very small fingers are combined and marketed separately from whole fingers. • The fingers command a higher price • than the bulbs and splits.
  38. 38. Turmeric Splits
  39. 39. • Splits: Splits are the bulbs that have been split into halves or quarters to facilitate curing and subsequent drying
  40. 40. TURMERIC POWDER • Dried rhizomes are ground to the required particle size. • The powder is designated as • Coarse if 98% passes through a 500-μm sieve, Fine if 98% passes through a 300-μm sieve
  41. 41. • Powdered turmeric is packed in bulk, in a variety of containers, fibreboard drums, multiwalled bags and tin containers. • The colour of turmeric will not be affected for up to 6 months in any of the packaging or storage conditions
  42. 42. • Steam Sterilization-treating the spice to be sterilized with live steam for a short • duration. • Fumigation-Methyl bromide is a widely used fumigant.
  43. 43. ADULTERATION • Turmeric powder is adulterated with foreign starch (tapioca, arrowroot, cereal floor), husks, coal tarcolours, lead chromate, etc. • Adulterated turmeric powder will have low curcumin content.
  45. 45. 1.CURCUMIN • Turmeric color is attributed primarily to a group of related compounds designated as curcuminoids with curcumin. • Principal component admixed with its two derivatives, • demethoxycurcumin • bisdemethoxycurcumin
  46. 46. • Spectrophotometric method for quantification of curcumin. • HPLC has emerged as an efficient tool for the quantification of individual curcuminoids.
  47. 47. 2.CLEANLINESS
  48. 48. 3.MICROBIOLOGY
  49. 49. CONTROLLING MICROORGANISMS • The microbial load in herbs and spices can be controlled by three techniques, namely: 1. steam sterilization 2. fumigation 3. irradiation
  50. 50. 4.PESTICIDE RESIDUES • Chemical pesticides at various in plant growth results in accumulation of their residue in spices. • MRL
  51. 51. 5.AFLATOXINS • Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites of the fungi, Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus parasticus Aflatoxins in spices are generally classified into four categories 1.B1 2.B2 3.G1 4.G2
  52. 52. 5.HEAVY METALS • Lead, cadmium,arsenic, and mercury are of major concern. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry is recommended as the standard method for the analysis (AOAC 2000b, 2000c). • Limits specified forsome trace metals in whole and ground turmeric under the Indian standards
  53. 53. APPLICATION • colorant, flavorant, and for its preservative action. • Manufacture of curcumin and its use in ice creams, gelatins, lemonades, and liquor. • bathing soap, body cream, lotion, powder, • Ground turmeric is aclassic addition to chutneys and pickles. • As coloring materials forcereal-based products, cheeses, dry mixes, salad dressings, winter butter, and margarine.
  54. 54. • Turmeric is also used in coloring butter, cheese, and vanaspati. • It is used in fish curry, possibly to mask the fishy odors. • coloring materials for cereal-based products, cheeses, dry mixes, salad dressings, winter butter, and margarine.
  55. 55. REFERENCES • Standards PublishedTitleIS 1797:1985 (ISO 927:1982)Methods of test for spices and condiments (2nd revision) • (IS 1797:1985) is also technically equivalent with ISO 928:1980,930:1980, 939:1980, 941:1986 in addition to ISO 927IS 3576:1994Turmeric, whole (2nd revision) • IS 10925:1984Turmeric OleoresinIS 1877:1985Terminology for spices and condiments (2nd revision) • IS 131145:1993Spices and condiments - Methods of sampling (1st revision) • Turmeric: The genus Curcuma • edited by P. N. Ravindran, K. Nirmal Babu, Kandaswamy Sivarama