Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Masters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use Development

Submitted by
in partial fulfillment for the award of t...
Submitted by
in partial fulfillment for the award of t...
CHENNAI – 603 103
Certified that the Thesis titl...
Loading in …3

Check these out next

1 of 112 Ad

More Related Content

Slideshows for you (20)

Similar to Masters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use Development (20)


More from Ar. M. Senthil [ senthilmani ] (20)

Recently uploaded (20)


Masters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use Development

  3. 3. HINDUSTAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE (HITS) CHENNAI – 603 103 BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that the Thesis titled “HIGH RISE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT AT CHENNAI” is the bonafide work of Mr. SENTHIL.M (1350010) who carried out the thesis work under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge this thesis work reported herein is does not form part of any other thesis on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other PG student. Signature of the Internal Guides Names: Prof. Kerstin Frick Asso.Prof. Suresh Ramachandran Dean PG Architecture School of Architecture Internal Examiner External Examiner Name ……………….. Name……………. Designation…………. Designation …….. Address Address . Prof. Kerstin Frick Dean PG Architecture School of Architecture Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Padur.
  4. 4. i ABSTRACT Urban migration, whereby populations flock to urban centers looking for work, leaves cities short on affordable housing, transport links and can either lead to inner- city poverty or urban sprawl. High-rise mixed use development offers solutions to both problems by maximizing the number of people that can live and work on a scarce, fixed amount of available land. Increasing demands for urban spaces pushed the environment to grow vertical and compact. The traditional front-lawn houses are cut away and rearranged into skyscrapers, losing their greenness and their “neighborhood”. So the necessity of mixed- use developments integrating plants and bio-climatic design principles has come up. This thesis explores the design issues and goals in high rise mixed use development. The designing and planning of high rise mixed use development involve consideration of all prevailing conditions and is usually guided by the local bye-laws. The various functional needs, efficiency, economy, energy conservation, aesthetics, technology, fire and life safety solution, vertical transportation, human comforts, operation and maintenance practices, provision of future growth are some of the main factors to be incorporated in the design.
  5. 5. ii This thesis has been emphasized on integration of plants into skyscrapers and applying bioclimatic design principles which play a vital role for the energy conservation by the building as well as improving the living quality into these vertical cities. Throughout the thesis work it has been studied to establish the necessity of planting to incorporate into skyscrapers, for the wellbeing of our economy, society and the environment. The provisions of integrating plants into skyscraper by the four possible options like, Green roof, Green wall, Bio filter and Indoor potting plants were incorporated into the design.
  6. 6. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank my thesis supervisors Ar.Kerstin Frick, Dean PG, Ar.Suresh Ramachandran, Associate Professor, Ar.Sathish, Assistant Professor and Professor Dr. Ravi Kumar Bhargava for their guidance and inputs throughout this process. I would like to thank Ar. Ezhil Arasi, Senior Manager, Jones Lang LaSalle, Bangalore for her valuable support during site visit to UB city. I would also like to thank my wife, Er. S. Jayalakshmi for all of her love, help and encouragement during my studies at Hindustan University. Lastly, I would like to thank my friends for their support. M. SENTHIL
  11. 11. viii 5 CONCLUSION 94 LIST OF REFERENCES 95
  12. 12. ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. TITLES PAGE NO. Fig: 1.1 Methodology Chart 4 Fig: 1.2 Location of the proposed site 5 Fig: 1.3 Annual temperatures 6 Fig: 1.4 Surrounding developments near to the site 7 Fig: 1.5 SWOT Analysis 7 Fig: 2.1 Ceiling height and floor-to-floor height 9 Fig: 2.2 Variation of wind speed with height. 17 Fig: 2.3 Simplified wind flow 18 Fig: 2.4 Vortices in different wind speed conditions 19 Fig: 2.5 Ventilation and Air-conditioning system 24 Fig: 2.6 Control system 25 Fig: 2.7 Typical design for area of Refuge 27 Fig: 2.8 Automatic Sprinkler System 28 Fig: 2.9 Burj Kalifa, Dubai 30 Fig: 2.10 Concept behind Burj Kalifa 31 Fig: 2.11 Type of Foundation 33 Fig: 2.12 Podium 33 Fig: 2.13 Structural system 34 Fig: 2.14 Vertical Zoning 35
  13. 13. x Fig: 2.15 Ground floor plan 36 Fig: 2.16 Basement parking plan 36 Fig: 2.17 Hotel floor plan 37 Fig: 2.18 Residential floor plan 37 Fig: 2.19 Types of Residential units plan 38 Fig: 2.20 Office floor plan 39 Fig: 2.21 Communication floors 39 Fig: 2.22 Mechanical floors 40 Fig: 2.23 Aerial view from Observation deck 40 Fig: 2.24 Spiral 41 Fig: 2.25 Exterior Cladding 41 Fig: 2.26 Cleaning System 42 Fig: 2.27 Elevators 43 Fig: 2.28 Fire Safety Elevators 44 Fig: 2.29 Landscape Aerial View 45 Fig: 2.30 Stone Paving Patterns 45 Fig: 2.31 Night View of UB City, Bangalore 47 Fig: 2.32 Aerial View 48 Fig: 2.33 Site plan 49 Fig: 2.34 UB Tower 51 Fig: 2.35 UB Tower typical floor plan 51 Fig: 2.36 Concorde block 52 Fig: 2.37 Concorde block typical floor plan 52 Fig: 2.38 Canberra block 53 Fig: 2.39 Canberra block floor plan 53 Fig: 2.40 Comet block 54 Fig: 2.41 Comet block typical floor plan 54
  14. 14. xi Fig: 2.42 Exterior cladding 55 Fig: 2.43 Bridge connecting Canberra and Concorde block 55 Fig: 2.44 View of Retail space 56 Fig: 2.45 View of Amphi Theatre, Food court and Landscape garden 57 Fig: 2.46 Night view of Roof top restaurant 58 Fig: 2.47 View of Parking area 59 Fig: 2.48 Water supply system 60 Fig: 2.49 View of Coffer slab 61 Fig: 2.50 Cambridge City hall 62 Fig: 2.51 Club Monaco 63 Fig: 2.52 Service core position 65 Fig: 2.53 Stairways position 65 Fig: 2.54 Window Orientations 66 Fig: 2.55 Deep recesses 67 Fig: 2.56 Building orientation 67 Fig: 2.57 Roof top Gardens 69 Fig: 2.58 Green wall concept 71 Fig: 2.59 Green wall concept in Elevations 72 Fig: 2.60 Biofilteration concept 72 Fig: 2.61 Indoor Plants 73 Fig. 4.1 Design process flow chart 78 Fig. 4.2 Site Zoning 79 Fig. 4.3 Vertical Circulation 80 Fig. 4.4 Evolution of Form 81
  15. 15. xii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CTBUH – The Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat LEED –Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design CGBC –Canada Green Building Council CMDA – Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority CCTV – Closed Circuit Tele Vision HVAC – Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning BIM – Building Information Modeling NBC – National Building Code DCR – Development Control Rules MEP – Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing AHU –Air Handling Unit BMU – Building Maintenance Unit BMS – Building Management System GRT – Green Roof Technology OSR – Open Space Reservation FSI – Floor Space Index IT – Information Technology
  16. 16. xiii LIST OF DRAWINGS DRAWING NO. TITLES PAGE NO. Drwg. : 4.1 Site plan 82 Drwg. : 4.2 Ground floor plan 83 Drwg. : 4.3 First floor plan 84 Drwg. : 4.4 Second floor plan 85 Drwg. : 4.5 Third floor plan 86 Drwg. : 4.6 Fourth floor plan 87 Drwg. : 4.7 Typical office floor plan 88 Drwg. : 4.8 Residential/Mechanical floor plan 89 Drwg. : 4.9 Typical Basement floor plan 90 Drwg. : 4.10 Sectional view 91 Drwg. : 4.11 Perspectives 92 Drwg. : 4.12 Front /Side Elevation 93
  17. 17. 1 CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION Man has always built monumental structures for the gods, including temples, pyramids and cathedrals which pointed to the sky; however, today’s monuments, i.e. tall buildings, symbolize power, richness, prestige, and glory. The major difficulty, from the ancient efforts to reach heaven with the Tower of Babel to the world’s tallest building – Bhurj Khalifa, has been to overcome the limitations of nature with human ingenuity. Until the introduction of modern metal frame construction, advent of electricity, fireproofing, and most importantly elevator, tall building actually was not practical. These technological innovations were first utilized in the Home Insurance Building (1885), and by the advances in these innovations, tall buildings become more and more practical. Today, it is virtually impossible to imagine a major city without tall buildings. Tall buildings are the most famous landmarks of cities, symbols of power, dominance of human ingenuity over natural world, confidence in technology and a mark of national pride; and besides these, the importance of tall buildings in the contemporary urban development is without doubt ever increasing despite their several undeniable negative effects on the quality of urban life. The feasibility and desirability of tall buildings have always depended on the available materials, the level of construction technology, and the state of development of the services necessary for the use of the building. Therefore, advances in structural design concepts, analytical techniques, and a more sophisticated construction industry, in conjunction with the high-strength lightweight materials have made it possible to construct very tall, much more slender and lightweight buildings at a low cost premium compared to conventional construction.
  18. 18. 2 However, every advance in height comes with a new difficulty and hence the race toward new heights has not been without its challenges as well. Understandably, the increased flexibility makes contemporary tall buildings much more vulnerable to environmental excitations such as wind, which leads to horizontal vibration. The tall buildings are designed primarily to serve the needs of the occupancy, and, in addition to the satisfied structural safety, one of the dominant design requirements is to meet the necessary standards for the comfort of the building users and the serviceability. In this context, since wind can create excessive building motion, the dynamic nature of wind is a critical issue, negatively affecting occupancy comfort and serviceability. Many researches and studies have been done in order to mitigate such an excitation and improve the performance of tall buildings against wind loads. Hence, different design methods and modifications are possible, ranging from alternative structural systems to the addition of damping systems in order to ensure the functional performance of flexible structures and control the wind induced motion of tall buildings. 1.1 DEFINITION OF HIGH RISE BUILDING As the notion of size or appearance of tallness is a relative matter, and not consistent over time and place, it is difficult to define or distinguish the ‘tall building’, ‘high-rise building’ or ‘skyscraper’ just in terms of size. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on what comprises a tall building or at what magical height, or number of stories, buildings can be called tall. The terms all mean the same type of building which is built extremely high – in which skyscraper is a more assertive term. Although the high-rise building has been accepted as a building type since the late 19th century, tall buildings have been constructed since ancient times for several purposes and, therefore, the history of tall buildings is much older than a century.
  19. 19. 3 “A building whose height creates different conditions in the design, construction, and use than those that exist in common buildings of a certain region and period.” -The Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) Consequently, the use of the terms ‘tall building’, ‘high-rise building’, and ‘skyscraper’ have common associations, and depending on time and place, the concept of height varies in relation to the progress of technology and the desires of society. 1.1.1 BENEFITS OF MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT • Reduced distances between housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and other amenities and destinations • More compact development • Stronger neighborhood character, sense of place • Walkable, bike-able neighborhoods, increased accessibility via transit, both resulting in reduced transportation costs 1.2 THE THESIS 1.2.1 AIM To design a bioclimatic architecture and integrating plants into skyscrapers for a high rise mixed use development. 1.3 SCOPE OF THE THESIS • Analysis and incorporating bioclimatic design principles for high rise mixed use development. • Analyzing and using new design techniques
  20. 20. 4 1.4 OBJECTIVES 1. To study how architecture contribute to the mixed use development 2. To design spaces which enhances the physical and visual interaction and reduce isolation. 3. To design spaces which bring closer to nature and harmony. 4. To bring transparency, openness and fluidity of space. 5. Priority to sustainable materials and functional requirements in design, while integrating services to it. 1.5 METHODOLOGY The Fig: 1.1 show the methodology chart for this study. This methodology chart explains the first step, about the study of general information of high rise planning. This includes the components of high rise planning, definition of high rise and its complex services. The next step is the study of high rise planning from various case studies. Then the classification of issues in different aspects is made from the findings. Then the detail study is made for each aspects through different case studies. Finally, the concept for the design is evolved, and progressed towards developing the design Fig: 1.1 Methodology chart
  21. 21. 5 1.6. THE SITE 1.6.1 LOCATION: Proposed site (Ref. Fig: 1.2) is at Rajiv Gandhi IT Expressway, Thaiyur. Site extent is about 30 acres It is closer to Siruseri SIPCOT This village comes under chengalpet taluk of Kancheepuram district in Tamil Nadu. Nearby Hospitals include Chettinadu health city . After the rise of IT park in Siruseri, it's surrounded with so many apartments and villas Near By Hospital - Chettinad Health City (1.5 km), Near by School - PSBB (2 km)Velammal vidyashram(3 km), Near By University- VIT chennai (6 km). and Hindustan university. It is 16 km from Tambaram and 3 km from Kelambakkam Fig: 1.2 Location of the proposed site
  22. 22. 6 1.6.2 CLIMATE: THAIYUR The climate here is tropical. In winter, there is much more rainfall in Thaiyur than in summer. In Thaiyur, the average annual temperature is 28.5 °C. The rainfall here averages 1202 mm. The driest month is March, with 2 mm of rain. Most precipitation falls in November, with an average of 311 mm. Fig: 1.3 Annual temperatures 1.6.3 SITE SURROUNDING DEVELOPMENTS Thaiyur is a fast developing village near Chennai. Proximity to major IT parks like SIPCOT, Siruseri (around 5 KM away from sipcot through a newly laid road back linking back side of SIPCOT); Hospitals like Chettinadu health city and appollo hospitals; major apartment complexes like Hiranandani, L&T and Arihant; Jain Housing and Land Marvel Constructions.
  23. 23. 7 Fig: 1.4 Surrounding developments near to the site 1.6.4 SWOT - ANALYSIS Fig: 1.5 SWOT Analysis
  24. 24. 8 CHAPTER -2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2.0 DATA COLLECTION 2.1 PLANNING AND DESIGNING OF HIGH RISE BUILDINGS 2.1.1 BASIC PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS Basic planning considerations for high rise building design include the following parameters: • Planning module • Span • Ceiling height • Floor-to-floor height • Depth of structural floor system • Elevator system • Core planning • Parking Planning module, namely the space one needs for living, changes according to the culture and the economic class. Span, described as the distance from a fixed interior element such as building core to exterior window wall, is another important criterion for good interior planning. These depths change depending on the function of the space, and acceptable span is determined by office layouts, hotel room standards, and residential code requirements for outside light and air. Usually, the depth of the span should be between 12 and 18 m for office functions, except where very large single tenant groups are to be accommodated. Lease span for hotels and residential units range from 9 to 12 m.
  25. 25. 9 Ceiling height (Fig: 2.1) is also an important factor in building planning. Commercial functions require a variety of ceiling heights ranging between 2.7 and 3.7 m. While office functions necessitate ceiling heights of approximately 2.5 to 3.0 m, residential and hotel functions require ceiling heights of 2.5 to 3.0 m. Floor-to-floor height (Fig: 2.1), which is a function of the necessary ceiling height, the depth of the structural floor system, and the depth of the space required for mechanical distribution, determines the overall height of the building, and affects the overall cost. A small increase or decrease in floor-to-floor height, when multiplied by the number of floors and the area of the perimeter enclosure by the building, can have a great effect on many systems such as the exterior, structural, mechanical system, and the overall cost. Depth of structural floor system plays an important role for planning considerations in high rise buildings, and varies broadly depending on the floor load requirements, size of the structural bay, and type of floor framing system. Elevator system is another major component for good interior planning. In the design of an elevator system, waiting interval, elevator size and speed interpretation of program criteria, areas to be served, the population density of the building, and the handling capacity of the system at peak periods, must be considered. This becomes even more complicated for mixed-use projects. Fig 2.1 Ceiling height and floor-to- floor height
  26. 26. 10 For preliminary planning, one elevator per 1000 m2 of gross area is a rule of thumb for estimating the number of elevators needed. Besides this, the net usable area varies from one elevator zone to another and from floor to floor, and should average from 80 to 85% over the entire building. The sky-lobby concept is an important and innovative approach in elevator system design. This concept uses high-speed express shuttle cars to transport passengers from the ground level to a lobby higher up in the building for transfer to local elevator zones so that the area used for elevator shafts and lobbies on the lower floors of the building is reduced. Core planning is another significant issue for planning considerations. A typical floor in a high rise building contains a perimeter zone, an interior zone, and a core zone. While perimeter zone is described as an approximately 4.5 m or 5 m deep area from the window wall with access through the interior zone, interior zone is defined as the area between the perimeter and the public corridor. On the other hand, core zone consists of those areas between elevator banks which become rentable on floors at which elevators do not stop. Central core, which is generally used in the buildings with a rectangular plan, and split core, which is generally used in the building with a relatively square plan, is the most typical core arrangements. Cores accommodate elevator shafts, mechanical shafts, stairs, and elevator lobbies. Core elements that pass through or serve every floor should be located, so that they can rise continuously, and thus avoid expensive and space-consuming transfers. Parking is another planning requirement, which varies according to different functions such as business, residential, and like. When parking facility provided within the footprint of the building, it has a great impact on the plan and the structure. If it is inevitable, the structural bay should be well arranged to obtain efficient space use for parking and functional areas, and the core elements should be effectively located to minimize interference with car parking and circulation. Mechanical ventilation is one other important concern for the user of parking facility, and pedestrians.
  27. 27. 11 2.1.2 BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The basic design considerations for a high rise building include the following parameters: • the cultural, political, and social aspects of the city where the building will be located • a strong relationship with the city • the master plan and an appropriate site selection • sustainability • safety and security issues • learning about the possibilities and limitations of technology When a high rise building is designed, the design team should also be aware of the codes, regulations, zoning requirements, and life safety issues. The master plan is one of the significant design considerations for high rise buildings, in which well-performed site analysis include, automobile, traffic and pedestrian impact, accessibility, minimal blockage of view, and minimizing the building shadows to neighboring buildings. Besides this, an appropriate site selection also includes the consideration of reuse or rehabilitation of existing buildings, and physical security. The location of high rise buildings within an urban area affects the amount of day lighting, and may even create wind tunnels. Sustainability is also a key element in high rise building design. This concept is based on the following objectives: optimization of site potential, minimization of energy consumption, protection and conservation of water, use of environmental- friendly products, enhancement of indoor environmental quality, and optimization of operational and maintenance practices. Day lighting, natural shading, energy efficient and photovoltaic facades, wind power systems, and the sky garden concept are also the main parameters for a more sustainable high rise building design.
  28. 28. 12 Designing a safe and secure high rise building has always been a primary goal for owners, architects, engineers, and project managers. There is an increased concern on these issues for high rise building design especially after the disastrous 9/11 incident. Natural disasters, acts of terrorism, indoor air quality, hazardous materials, and fire are very significant and immediate safety issues to be considered in the design. Learning about the possibilities and limitations of technology is critical for the success of the project. New technology and new building materials are being introduced at a fast rate; it is important to track these changes. The different demands of the ever changing nature of business and lifestyle also force us to be aware of the technological changes. 2.2 HIGH RISE DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKE ZONES 2.2.1 NATURE OF EARTHQUAKE The earth’s outer layer is composed of plates ranging in thickness from 32 to 241 km. The plates are in constant motion, riding on the molten mantle below, and normally traveling at the rate of a millimeter a week, which is equivalent to the growth rate of a fingernail. Hence, this motion causes continental drift and the formation of mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes The Richter scale is a logarithmic scale for determining the energy dissipated in an earthquake. This means that an earthquake measuring 7 on the Richter scale dissipates 32 times the energy of a size-6 quake, while one measuring 8 dissipates roughly 1,000 times as much energy. The energy dissipated by these earthquakes is expressed in horizontal and vertical acceleration forces acting on the skyscrapers. The immense forces transmitted from underground must be absorbed by the supporting structures of the buildings. These dynamic loads are replaced by structural equivalent loads in horizontal and vertical direction when a structural analysis of the building is performed.
  29. 29. 13 2.2.2 ACTION OF SEISMIC LOADS ON THE BUILDING The horizontal and vertical acceleration of the subsoil due to an earthquake causes the building to vibrate. In simplified form, these loads can be represented by horizontal and vertical equivalent loads acting on the mass centre of gravity of the building. The magnitude of these equivalent loads depends directly on the mass of the building. This leads to the conclusion that as the height of the building increases, the mass centre of gravity normally wanders upwards and the flexural effect on the building is intensified by the longer lever arm. The potential earthquake damage suffered by high-rise buildings varies. The damage depends more on the rate of motion and magnitude of the displacement than on the acceleration. 2.2.3 ROLE OF SUBSOIL Natural rock is the best subsoil from the point of view of its earthquake properties. Sandy soils saturated with water and artificially backfilled land are considered to be particularly critical. The widely-feared liquefaction effects (plasticization of the soil) can occur if an earthquake coincides with high groundwater levels. The building may subsequently remain at a slant or both the building and the surrounding terrain may subside. 2.2.4 FOUNDATIONS DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKE Deep foundations generally display better seismic resistance than shallow foundations. Floating foundations can prove advantageous on soft ground, since they may be better able to attenuate resonance action. The risk of subsidence is considerably greater with floating foundations than with deep foundations. “Base isolation” is an anti-seismic construction technique that uses the principle of attenuation to reduce vibrations. The building is isolated from the solid subsoil by damping elements arranged on a foundation ring or foundation plate. The building was retroactively more or less mounted on ball bearings which are intended to gently damp down the impact of a future earthquake. As in the case of wind loads, earthquakes can also give rise to resonant vibration.
  30. 30. 14 2.2.5 HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING High rise buildings are more susceptible to damage from strong remote earthquakes than from weak earthquakes close at hand. They normally have a lower resonant frequency and a lower attenuation than low buildings. Short-wave oscillation components in earthquakes are rapidly damped, while the long-wave components (frequency f <1 Hz) can still make themselves felt at a distance of several hundred kilometers, particularly in the form of surface waves. 2.2.6 SYMMETRY OF THE HIGH-RISE BUILDING Symmetric layouts, rigidity and mass distribution lead to a considerably better seismic response than asymmetric layouts, rigidity and mass distribution. This is because asymmetric buildings are subjected to stronger torsion (twisting) around the vertical axis by horizontal seismic loads. 2.2.7 SHAPE OF THE HIGH-RISE BUILDING When parts of different height are permanently connected to one another as, for example, is often found in high-rise buildings with atriums, then the various structures in the building can be subjected to considerable torsional stresses by the seismic loads. Buildings of different heights can also be subjected to a whole series of effects in an earthquake, higher buildings were literally jammed in between lower buildings, thus extensively damaging the floors at the clamping point. In some cases, the buildings simply buckled over at the edge of the lower adjacent buildings. Resonance effects can also cause buildings to oscillate so strongly that they hammer against one another. Another effect observed in high-rise buildings is the soft-storey effect: due to lobbies, atriums or glazed shopping passages, some floors – usually near the ground floor – are distinctly “softer” than those above them. These “soft” floors then collapse in an earthquake.
  31. 31. 15 2.3 LATERAL LOADS ON HIGH RISE BUILDINGS From the structural design point of view, due to its height, a high rise building could be described, as one that is more affected by lateral loads created by wind or earthquake actions compared to other building types. Thus, loads acting on high rise buildings are different from those on low rise buildings in terms of accumulation into much larger structural forces, and the increased importance of wind loading. Wind loads on a high rise building act not only over a very large surface, but also with greater amount at the greater heights, and with a larger moment arm than on a low- rise building. Even though the wind loads on a low-rise building generally have a minor affect on the design and structural configuration, they can play a vital role for the selection of the structural system in a high rise building. Depending upon the mass and shape of the building, and the region, although, the wind load is very important in the design of high rise buildings, in seismic regions, inertial loads from the shaking of the ground also play an important role. Furthermore, in contrast to vertical loads which can be estimated roughly from previous field observations, lateral loads, namely the wind and earthquake loads, on buildings are fairly unpredictable, and cannot be assessed accurately. 2.3.1 NATURE OF WIND Wind, which is created by temperature differences, could be described as an air motion, generally applied to the natural horizontal motion of the atmosphere. The vertical motion, on the other hand, is termed as a current. Air close to the surface of the earth moves three dimensionally, in which horizontal motion is much greater than the vertical motion. While the vertical air motion is significant particularly in meteorology, the horizontal motion is important in engineering. The surface boundary layer concerning the horizontal motion of wind extends upward to a certain height above which the horizontal airflow is no longer affected by the ground effect. Most of the human activity is performed in this boundary layer, and hence how the wind effects are felt within this zone is of great concern in engineering.
  32. 32. 16 Wind is a very complex phenomenon owing to the many flow situations resulting from the interaction of wind and structure. In wind engineering, on the other hand, simplifications are made to find meaningful predictions of wind behavior by distinguishing the following features: • variation of wind speed with height • turbulent and dynamic nature of wind • vortex-shedding phenomenon • cladding pressures 2.3.2 WIND EFFECTS ON HIGH RISE BUILDINGS The wind is the most powerful and unpredictable force affecting high rise buildings. High rise building can be defined as a mast anchored in the ground, bending and swaying in the wind. This movement, known as wind drift, should be kept within acceptable limits. Moreover, for a well-designed high rise building, the wind drift should not surpass the height of the building divided by 500. Wind loads on buildings increase considerably with the increase in building heights. Furthermore, the speed of wind increases with height, and the wind pressures increase as the square of the wind speed. Thus, wind effects on a high rise building are compounded as its height increases. Besides this, with innovations in architectural treatment, increase in the strengths of materials, and advances in methods of analysis, high rise building have become more efficient and lighter, and so, more vulnerable to deflection, and even to swaying under wind loading. The swaying at the top of a high rise building induced by wind may not be seen by a passerby, but its effect may be a concern for those occupying the top floors. Unlike dead loads and live loads, wind loads change rapidly and even abruptly, creating effects much larger than when the same loads were applied gradually, and that they limit building accelerations below human perception.
  33. 33. 17 2.3.3 VARIATION OF WIND SPEED WITH HEIGHT An important characteristic of wind is the variation of its speed with height (Fig: 2.2). The wind speed increase follows a curved line varying from zero at the ground surface to a maximum at some distance above the ground. The height at which the speed stops to increase is called the gradient height, and the corresponding speed, the gradient wind speed. This important characteristic of wind is a well understood phenomenon that higher design pressures are specified at higher elevations in most building codes. Additionally, at heights of approximately 366 m from the ground, surface friction has an almost negligible effect on the wind speed; as such the wind movement is only depend on the prevailing seasonal and local wind effects. The height through which the wind speed is affected by the topography is called atmospheric boundary layer. The wind speed profile within this layer is in the domain of turbulent flow and could be mathematically calculated. Fig: 2.2 Variation of wind speed with height.
  34. 34. 18 2.3.4 TURBULENT AND DYNAMIC NATURE OF WIND Wind transfers some amount of its energy to the object that it hit on its path. The measure of the amount or energy transferred is called the gust response factor. Terrain roughness and variety of the height above ground, affect wind turbulence (also known as gustiness).Wind loads related with gustiness or turbulence, change rapidly and even abruptly unlike the mean flow of wind with static characteristic. Furthermore, the motion of wind is turbulent. Turbulence can be described as, any movement of air at speeds greater than 0.9 to 1.3 m/s, resulting in random movement of air particles in all directions. The scale and intensity of turbulence can be related to the size and rotating speed of eddies (a circular movement of wind) that create the turbulence. Additionally, the flow of a large mass of air has a larger overall turbulence than that of a small mass of air. Consequently, from the structural engineer’s point of view, the wind speed can be considered to include two components; a mean speed component increasing with height and a turbulent speed fluctuation. 2.3.5 VORTEX-SHEDDING PHENOMENON Along wind and across wind are two important terms used to explain the vortex- shedding phenomenon. Along wind or simply wind is the term used to refer to drag forces. The across wind response is a motion, which happens on a plane perpendicular to the direction of wind. When a building is subjected to a wind flow, the originally parallel wind stream lines are displaced on both transverse sides of the building (Fig 2.3), and the forces produced on these sides are called vortices. Fig 2.3 Simplified wind flow
  35. 35. 19 At low wind speeds, the vortices are shed symmetrically (at the same instant) on either transverse side of the building (Fig 2.4a), and so building does not vibrate in the across wind direction. Fig 2.4 Vortices in different wind speed conditions: (a) vortices in low speed of wind (there is no vibration in the across wind direction); (b) vortices in high speed of wind – vortex-shedding phenomenon (there is vibration in the across wind direction) On the other hand, at higher wind speeds, the vortices are shed alternately first from one and then from the other side. When this occurs, there is an impulse both in the along wind and across wind directions. The across wind impulses are, however, applied alternatively to the left and then to the right. This kind of shedding which causes structural vibrations in the flow and the across wind direction is called vortex- shedding, a phenomenon well known in fluid mechanics. This phenomenon of alternate shedding of vortices for a rectangular high rise building is shown schematically in Fig: 2.4b. 2.3.6 CLADDING PRESSURES The cladding design for lateral loads is a very significant subject for architects and engineers. Even though the broken glass resulting from the exterior cladding failure may be a less important consideration than the structural collapse during an earthquake, the cost of replacement and risks for pedestrians require careful concentration in its design. Wind forces play a major role in glass breakage, also affected by solar radiation, mullion and sealant details, tempering of the glass, double or single glazing of glass, and fatigue. Breaking of large panels of glass in high rise buildings can badly damage the neighboring properties and injure the pedestrians.
  36. 36. 20 2.4 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS: LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEMS The key idea in conceptualizing the structural system for a slender high rise building is to think of it as a beam cantilevering from the earth. As a general rule, when other things being equal, the high rise building more necessary is to identify the proper structural system for resisting lateral loads, in which the rigidity and stability requirements are often the dominant factors in the design. Moreover, the selection of the structural system of a high rise building involves the following factors: • economic criteria related to the budget of the project; • function of the building; • internal planning; • material and method of construction; • external architectural treatment; • planned location and routing of the service systems; • height and proportions of the building. Consequently, the effect of lateral loads must be considered from the very beginning of the design process, and the structural systems need to be developed around concepts associated entirely with resistance to these load Basically, there are three main types of buildings: steel buildings, reinforced concrete buildings, and composite buildings. 2.4.1 STEEL, REINFORCED CONCRETE AND COMPOSITE HIGH RISE BUILDINGS Even though the application of steel in structures can be traced back to Bessemers steelmaking process (1856), its application to high rise structures received its stimulus from the 300 m high Eiffel Tower (1889). Furthermore, the role of steel members which used to carry only gravity loads in the early structures, has been entirely upgraded to include wind and earthquake resistance in systems ranging from the modest portal frame to innovative systems involving outrigger systems, interior and exterior braced frames, and like. Today, structural steel could be utilized in a variety of structures from low-rise parking areas to 100-story high skyscrapers.
  37. 37. 21 Most of the high rise buildings in the world have steel structural system, due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, ease of assembly and economy in transport to the site, availability of various strength levels, and wider selection of sections. Innovative framing systems and modern design methods, improved fire protection, corrosion resistance, fabrication, and erection techniques combined with the advanced analytical techniques made possible by computers, have also permitted the use of steel in just any rational structural system for high rise buildings. Although concrete as a structural material has been known since early times, the practical use of reinforced concrete was only introduced in 1867. The invention of reinforced concrete increased the significance and use of concrete in the construction industry to a great extent. Particularly, because of its moldability characteristics, and natural fireproof property, architects and engineers utilize the reinforced concrete to shape the building, and its elements in different and elegant forms. Besides this, when compared to steel, reinforced concrete high rise buildings have better damping ratios contributing to minimize motion perception and heavier concrete structures offer improved stability against wind loads. Moreover, high strength concrete and lightweight structural concrete allow using smaller member sizes and less steel reinforcement. All high rise buildings can be considered as composite buildings since it is impossible to construct a functional building by using only steel or concrete. In this study, buildings having reinforced concrete beams, columns, and shear walls are accepted as reinforced concrete (or concrete) buildings, and in the same way, buildings having steel beams, columns and bracings are accepted as steel buildings. Namely, the frame and bracing or shear walls – but not the floor slabs – are the determining parameters for the building type. A concrete column became more economical than a pure steel column thanks to the introduction of high and ultra- high-strength concrete with compressive strength up to 181MPa in 1960. Besides the economic feature, moldability, high stiffness and insulating, and fire-resisting quality of concrete, have all contributed to realize its structural combination with steel which has merits of high strength-to-weight ratio especially for seismic zones, fast construction, long span capacity, ease of assembly and field work.
  38. 38. 22 Both steel and concrete constructions have advantages and drawbacks. Moreover, without composite construction, many of our contemporary high rise buildings may never have been constructed in their present form today. On the other hand, here, the term composite system means any and all combinations of steel and reinforced concrete elements and is considered synonymous with other definitions such as mixed systems, hybrid systems, etc. The classification of structural systems of high rise buildings are: • Frame (rigid frame) systems; • Braced frame and shear walled frame systems; • Outrigger - belt truss systems; • Framed tube systems; • Braced (exterior braced) systems; • Bundled tube systems. 2.5 INSTALLATION OF SERVICE SYSTEMS The installation for air-conditioning, ventilation, lighting and fire alarms are usually located between the load-bearing ceiling and a suspended false ceiling into which the lamps are normally integrated. Small-scale electrical installations are contained in trucking in the screed flooring. Cables can then be routed as desired in the space below the floor; the equipment is connected to sockets in so-called floor tanks. False floors are to be found almost everywhere in modern houses, since cables can be rerouted without difficulty, as is increasingly required on account of the rapid pace of change in office and communications technology. Moreover, the space below the floor can also be used for ventilation and air-conditioning installations. Particular attention must be paid to the question of fire protection in such false floor constructions. Connection of the flexible partition walls to both the suspended ceiling and the elevated false floor can pose problems. From the point of view of soundproofing and thermal insulation, it would be better to install high rise the partition walls between the load-bearing floors.
  39. 39. 23 However, since the suspended ceilings and false floors normally extend over the entire area and are not confined to any single room on account of the technical installations, the partition walls must also be fitted between the suspended ceiling and false floor. This consequently makes it necessary to use soundproofing and thermally insulating floor coverings, as well as ceiling materials. Facade elements into which technical components have already been incorporated by the manufacturer are conveniently linked to the remaining network by means of screw-in and plug-in connections. However, it is becoming increasingly rare for such technical service connections to be installed in the external walls, as they do not permit as flexible use of the room as floor tanks. Due to the relatively small area available per floor, fire resistant elements (fire walls) are usually only to be found in the core areas incorporating the elevators, stairwells, service and installation shafts, sanitary and ancillary rooms. A vertical breakdown into fire compartments is mostly obtained with the aid of fire-resistant floor 2.5.1 ENERGY AND WATER SUPPLY Unlike the case with normal multi-storey buildings, the technical service components in high rise buildings must meet special requirements if only on account of the height, since the required supply of energy, water and air and the effluent volume are incomparably larger. These utilities must also be transported to the very last floor in sufficient quantities, under adequate pressure and at sometimes to tally different temperatures. The planning effort required on the part of the service engineers responsible for the supply and disposal services in high-rise buildings is therefore very much greater than in the case of smaller and medium sized projects. The pressure load on the individual components is reduced through subdivision into several pressure stages with technical service centres in the basement or on the ground floor, on intermediate floors and on the roof.
  40. 40. 24 2.5.2 VENTILATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING The systems should be designed in such a way as to ensure flexible division of the areas (large rooms, individual rooms) so that their use can subsequently be changed without extensive conversions. A variety of ventilation and air-conditioning systems can be installed, depending on the purpose for which the building is used. The high- rise headquarters of the Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt am Main, for instance, is supplied by a two-channel high-pressure system in which the air is injected from above and discharged through corresponding exhaust air windows. A second, independent two-channel high-pressure system additionally blows air into the rooms from the false floors. Fig 2.5 Ventilation and Air-conditioning system In principle, all air-conditioning and ventilation systems must meet the same basic requirements: • The air in the room must be continuously renewed (at three to six fold exchange of air is normally required per hour). • The outside air flow must be guaranteed with a minimum fresh air flow of 30 to 60 m3/h per person. • The risk of drafts must be minimized and any nuisance due to the transmission of sound eliminated. • It must be possible to shut off individual plant segments when the corresponding parts of the building are not in use.
  41. 41. 25 2.5.3 SANITATION Pressure stages are also required for the sanitation, thus permitting the use of smaller pumps. Sanitary dispensing points must additionally be isolated from the building as such for soundproofing reasons. The internal heat loads (e.g. hot exhaust air, exhaust heat from refrigeration systems) accumulated in high-rise buildings are commonly used to heat water with the aid of heat pumps or heat recovery systems. Studies shown that the height does not have any effect on the flow rate and rate of fall, since fiscal matter and effluent do not simply drop to the ground under the force of gravity, but more or less wind their way downwards along the pipe walls. 2.5.4 CONTROL SYSTEMS Today’s complex, ultra-modern control systems are primarily based on intelligent digital controllers. This technology permits a direct link between DDC (direct digital control) substations and the centralized instrumentation and control which also takes over energy management functions, such as: • Optimization of the overnight and weekend temperature reduction, • Linking the heating of service water with re-cooling of the refrigeration system, operation of the external blinds. • Fig 2.6 Control system
  42. 42. 26 2.6 FIRE FIGHTING Fire is one of the greatest risks for every building and particularly for high-rise buildings. Due to the spectacular photographs and film sequences shown in the media, major fires have always made – and will continue to make – headline news not only during the construction phase, but above all during the occupancy phase. 2.6.1. FIRE FIGHTER ACCESSIBILITY It is important for emergency personnel (e.g. firefighters, paramedics, police) to be able to access a building quickly in the event of an emergency. In addition, these personnel cannot be expected to scale all floors through stairwells. This need gets back to the elevator systems. The tower has service elevators that run higher than local passenger elevators. In fact, one of these service elevators runs over the tower. These are very fast, and are configured to override the local elevators to allow for the quickest and easiest transfers. The elevators themselves are fire/smoke resistant. With these, it makes accessing the building a relatively painless process. 2.6.2 OCCUPANT EVACUATION Occupant evacuation is the concern of any building; however, it poses a special challenge given the height of the high rise buildings. With the tremendous climb, occupants will need information on the situation, mechanical assistance to speed the process, and stairwells and safe zones in the event of mechanical failures. It is important to note that most crises the building will experience will not require full building evacuation. However, when lives are at stake, it is still important to be sure that it is possible. 2.6.3. AREAS OF REFUGE The tower design includes strategically placed areas of refuge which allow for better controlled evacuation. Represented in Fig: 2.7, the typical area of refuge will have fire rated exit stairs closed off by doors to counter the spread of smoke. Building employees will be trained to direct and instruct evacuees. Also, the areas of refuge are designed to connect to various stairwells.
  43. 43. 27 This means that occupants can be directed down the safest path, and will almost never be trapped. As usual, the areas of refuge are encased in fire resistant concrete, are well ventilated, and can be lit by emergency lights. Fig: 2.7 Typical design for area of Refuge 2.6.4 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Hand-operated fire extinguishers must be installed at clearly marked and generally accessible points in high-rise buildings in order to fight incipient fires. These extinguishers are intended for use by the building’s residents. However, teams should be present on every floor made up of the people who work and live there; they must then be instructed on what to do if a fire breaks out and also be familiarized with the use of these hand-operated fire extinguishers. 2.6.5 FIRE-FIGHTING WATER The cases outlined above have shown how important it is to have an effective supply of fire fighting water when combating a fire in a high-rise building. So that the firemen can start to fight the fire as soon as they arrive on the scene, wet risers must be installed in every stairwell or in their vicinity and a wall hydrant with hose line connected to these risers on every floor. The hoses must be sufficiently long to direct fire-fighting water to every point on that floor.
  44. 44. 28 An adequately dimensioned water line and adequate water pressure must be ensured when planning and designing the building. In very high buildings, booster systems must be installed in the wet risers to increase the water pressure. Whether the water for fire-fighting can be taken from the public mains or from separate water reservoirs or tanks must be decided in each individual instance in accordance with local conditions and regulations. For greater safety, it may be useful to install not only wet risers, but also dry risers into which the fire brigade can feed water at the required pressure from the ground floor. 2.6.6 SPRINKLERS An automatic sprinkler system is the most effective protective measure for fighting and controlling a fire in a high-rise building. Care must be taken to ensure that the complete building is protected by such sprinklers. In the cases outlined above, there were either no sprinklers at all or no activated sprinklers on the burning floors. Based on past experience, the installation of sprinkler systems is in many countries prescribed by law for high-rise buildings from a certain height onwards – as from 60 m in Germany, for example. In some cases, the statutory regulations even stipulate that sprinklers have to be installed retroactively in high-rise buildings erected before the regulations came into force. Fig: 2.8 Automatic Sprinkler System
  45. 45. 29 Automatic sprinkler systems throughout the building are important since they must fight a fire as early as possible and must either extinguish the fire directly or keep it under control until the fire brigade arrives to finish off the job. However, a sprinkler system will normally be unable to control a fire in full flame, for instance if it leaps from a floor with no sprinklers to one with sprinklers. Sprinkler systems are simply not dimensioned to cope with such developments. Sprinkler systems must meet the following requirements: • They must rapidly control a fire in the fire compartment in which it breaks out; • They must limit the emission and spread of flames, hot fumes and smoke, they must trigger an alarm in the building, preferably also indicating to the central control panel where the seat of the fire is located, the alert must be forwarded to the fire brigade or other auxiliary forces. • The ability of the system to indicate to the central control panel where the seat of the fire is located presupposes that a separate sprinkler system with an alarm valve is assigned to each floor and to each fire compartment. As already mentioned in connection with fire-detection systems, the installation of an automatic fire-detection system in addition to the sprinkler system is advisable so that fires can be discovered and signaled more quickly. Sprinkler systems must be installed in accordance with the applicable directives or standards, the best known of which include NFPA, CEA, FOC and VdS. All the components used for installation must comply with the relevant standards. The various directives and standards permit a variety of solutions with regard to the water supply: Water supply from the public mains – possibly via an intermediate tank on the ground – via booster pumps on the ground to supply several groups of floors with different pressure levels intermediate tanks on various upper floors, under either normal pressure or excess pressure, to supply the sprinkler groups above or below deep tanks and pressurized tanks on the roof, as well as intermediate tanks in the middle of the building, to supply the sprinklers below with static or high pressure Tanks on upper floors can be replenished via low-capacity pumps.
  46. 46. 30 Depending on the type of supply selected, it may be necessary to install rise pressure- reducing valves on the individual floors. For a sprinkler system to operate smoothly, it must not only be correctly installed and set, but also be regularly inspected and serviced by specialist personnel. 2.6.7 OTHER EQUIPMENT Other automatic fire-fighting equipment may be appropriate for certain systems in a high-rise building, such as transformers, electrical switchgear and control rooms, computer centers and telephone switchboards. 2.7 NET CASE STUDY 2.7.1 BURJ KHALIFA, DUBAI Architect: SOM (skidmore owings merill) London based Firm A mixed use development which has office, retail, hotels and residential spaces. The Burj Khalifa was revealed to be 828m (2,716ft) high, far high riser than the previous record holder, Taipei 101. With a total built-up area of about 6 million sq ft, Burj Khalifa features nearly 2 million sq ft of residential space and over 300,000 sq ft of prime office space, in addition to the area occupied by Armani Hotel Dubai and the Armani Residences. The tower also lays claim to the highest occupied floor, the high riseest service lift, and the world's highest observation deck on the 124th floor. The world's highest mosque and swimming pool will meanwhile be located on the 158th and 76th floors. Bhurj Dubai includes 163 habitable floors plus 46 maintenance levels and 9 parking levels in the basement. The tapering spire is made out of reinforced concrete, steel, stainless steel and glass. Fig: 2.9 Burj Kalifa, Dubai
  47. 47. 31 The exterior cladding of reflective glazing is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures. The building contains more than 1,000 apartments and 49 floors of office space, served by 57 lifts. There are a total of four swimming pools and a private library and 160-room hotel. The foundations were dug to depths of 50m (164 ft). 2.7.2 CONCEPT The architects incorporated islamic traditional patterns and modern sophistication to design a structure that will stand the test of time. Organic and desert Influence: The hymenocallis desert flower was the main source of inspiration for the architects. The design not only reduces wind forces on the building, but also allows each tenant to have an incredible view of the surrounds From the top of the structure the islamic design influences can clearly been seen, Including the use of arches and other architectural structures Fig: 2.10 Concept behind Burj Kalifa
  48. 48. 32 1. The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the hymenocallis flower. 2. The tower composed of three elements around central core. 3. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential Fig: 2.10 Concept behind Burj Kalifa Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross section of the tower incrementally as it spirals skyward. The central core emerges at the top and culminates in a sculpted spire. A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Arabian Gulf. 2.7.3 FOUNDATION The superstructure is supported by a large reinforced concrete mat, which is in turn supported by bored reinforced concrete piles. The mat is 3.7 meters thick, and was constructed in four separate pours totaling 12,500 cubic meters of concrete. The minimum centre-to-centre spacing of the piles for the tower is 2.5 times the pile diameter. The 1.5 meter diameter x 43 meter long piles represent the largest and longest piles conventionally available in the region.
  49. 49. 33 A high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations, as well as a cathodic protection system under the mat, to minimize any detrimental effects form corrosive chemicals in local ground water. It is founded on a 3.7m thick raft supported on bored piles, 1.5 m in diameter, extending approximately 50m below the base of the raft. Fig: 2.11 Type of Foundation PODIUM The Podium provides a base anchoring the tower to the ground, allowing on grade access from three different sides to three different levels of the building. Fully glazed entry pavilions constructed with a suspended cable-net structure provide separate entries for the corporate suites at B1 and Concourse levels, the Burj Khalifa residences at ground level and the Armani Hotel at Level 1. Fig: 2.12 Podium
  50. 50. 34 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM • The structure is modular in nature with a central hexagonal shaft or core and three branches that spread out at 120 degrees from each other. • Attached to these branches are wall like columns at 9 meter spacing that simply drop off as each leg sets back, avoiding complex and costly structural transfers. • In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. • This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability. • The structural system can be described as a “buttressed core”, and consists of high performance concrete wall construction. Each of the wings buttress the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. • This central core provides the torsional resistance of the structure, similar to a closed pipe or axle. Corridor walls extend from the central core to near the end of each wing, terminating in thickened hammer head walls. • These corridor walls and hammerhead walls behave similar to the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the wind shears and moments. Perimeter columns and flat plate floor construction complete the system. • The setbacks are organized with the tower’s grid, such that the building stepping is accomplished by aligning columns above with walls below to provide a smooth load path. As such, the tower does not contain any structural transfers. • These setbacks also have the advantage of providing a different width to the tower for each differing floor plate. This stepping and shaping of the tower has the effect of “confusing the wind”: Wind vortices never get organized over the height of the building because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape. Fig: 2.13 Structural system
  51. 51. 35 2.7.4 FLOOR PLANS VERTICAL ZONING Fig: 2.14 Vertical Zoning
  52. 52. 36 TYPE OF FLOOR PLANS 1. GROUND FLOOR PLAN Fig: 2.15 Ground floor plan 2. BASEMENT PARKING PLAN Fig: 2.16 Basement parking plan
  53. 53. 37 3. HOTEL FLOOR PLAN Fig: 2.17 Hotel floor plan 4. RESIDENTIAL FLOOR PLAN Fig: 2.18 Residential floor plan
  54. 54. 38 5. TYPES OF RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLANS Fig: 2.19 Types of Residential units plan
  55. 55. 39 6. OFFICE FLOOR PLAN Fig: 2.20 Office floor plan COMMUNICATION FLOORS The top four floors have been reserved for communications and broadcasting. These floors occupy the levels just below the spire. Fig: 2.21 Communication floors
  56. 56. 40 MECHANICAL FLOORS Seven double-storey height mechanical floors house the equipment that bring Burj Khalifa to life. Distributed around every 30 storeys, the mechanical floors house the electrical sub-stations, water tanks and pumps, air- handling units etc, that are essential for the operation of the tower and the comfort of its occupants. OBSERVATION DECK An outdoor observation deck, named At the Top, opened on 5 January 2010 on the 124th floor. At 452 m (1,483 ft), it was the highest observation deck. Burj Khalifa opened the 148th floor SKY level at 555 m (1,821 ft), once again giving it the highest observation deck in the world on 15 October 2014. Fig: 2.22 Mechanical floors Fig: 2.23 Aerial view from Observation deck
  57. 57. 41 SPIRAL The crowning touch of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. The spire also houses communications equipment. 2.7.5 EXTERIOR CLADDING The exterior cladding is comprised of reflective glazing with aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels and stainless steel vertical tubular fins. Close to 26,000 glass panels, each individually hand- cut, were used. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer heat. Fig: 2.24 Spiral Fig: 2.25 Exterior Cladding
  58. 58. 42 CLEANING Cleaning of Burj is met by using custom made Building Maintenance Units [BMU]. While the pinnacle is reserved for specialised rope technicians. With al 18 BMU’S in operation, the façade will take two to three months to clean. 2.7.6 SERVICES Seven double-storey mechanical floors house the equipment that bring Burj Khalifa to life. Distributed around every 30 storeys, the mechanical floors house the electrical sub-stations, water tanks, pumps and air handling units that are essential for the running of the building. These mechanical areas typically serve the 15 floors above and below them. MEP operations are managed by a central BMS, with local control panels in each plant room, all connected by fibre-optic cabling. PLUMBING SERVICES The Burj Khalifa's water system supplies an average of 946,000 L (250,000 US gal) of water per day through 100 km (62 mi) of pipes. An additional 213 km (132 mi) of piping serves the fire emergency system, and 34 km (21 mi) supplies chilled water for the air conditioning system. The waste water system uses gravity to discharge water from plumbing fixtures, floor drains, mechanical equipment and storm water, to the city municipal sewer. Fig: 2.26 Cleaning System
  59. 59. 43 ELECTRICITY The tower's peak electrical demand is 36mW, equal to about 360,000 100 Watt bulbs operating simultaneously. AIR CONDITIONING The air conditioning system draws air from the upper floors where the air is cooler and cleaner than on the ground. At peak cooling times, the tower's cooling is equivalent to that provided by 13,000 short tons (26,000,000 lb) of melting ice in one day,or about 46 MW. The condensate collection system, which uses the hot and humid outside air, combined with the cooling requirements of the building, results in a significant amount of condensation of moisture from the air. The condensed water is collected and drained into a holding tank located in the basement car park; this water is then pumped into the site irrigation system for use on the Burj Khalifa park. ELEVATORS Burj Khalifa is home to 57 elevators and 8 escalators the building service/fireman's elevator have a capacity of 5,500 kg and is the world's high riseest service elevator. Burj Khalifa is the first mega-high rise in which certain elevators are programmed to permit controlled evacuation for certain fire or security events. Burj Khalifa's observatory elevators are double deck cabs with a capacity for 12- 14 people/ cab.Traveling at 10 m/s. Fig: 2.27 Elevators
  60. 60. 44 SKY LOBBIES The Burj Khalifa features distinct sections: residential apartments, serviced apartments and hotel rooms, and corporate offices. Elevators have been arranged in zones to serve these different audiences, with ‘sky lobby’ system. The sky lobby is an intermediate floor where residents, guests and executives will change from an express elevator to a local elevator, which stops at every floor within a certain segment of the building. Burj Khalifa’s sky lobbies are located on level 43, 76 and 123 and will include a lounge area and kiosk, amongst other amenities. 2.7.7 FIRE SAFETY Concrete surrounds all stairwells and the building service and fireman's elevator will have a capacity of 5,500 kg and will be the world's high tallest service elevator. There are pressurized, air-conditioned refuge areas located approximately every 25 floors. First Application of “Lifeboat” evacuations Refuge levels: 42,75,111 & 138 10 elevators available for emergency evacuations Fig: 2.28 Fire Safety Elevators
  61. 61. 45 2.7.8 LANDSCAPE The park's 11 hectares of greenery and water features serve as both entry to Burj Khalifa and outdoor living space. The landscape design includes three distinct areas to serve each of tower's three uses: hotel, residential and office space. The main entry drive is circled with a palm court, water features, outdoor spaces and a forest grove above. The grand terrace features garden spaces, all-around pedestrian circulation, custom site furnishings, a functional island and a lake edge promenade. The landscape design includes six major water features: the main entry fountain, hotel entry fountain, residential entry fountain, the grand water terrace, children's fountain pool and the sculptural fountain. The plants and the shrubbery will be watered by the building’s condensation collection system that uses water from the cooling system. The system will provide 68,000,000 L annually. Spectacular stone paving patterns welcome visitors at each entry. Fig: 2.29 Landscape Aerial View Fig: 2.30 Stone Paving Patterns
  62. 62. 46 2.7.9 INFERENCES The Burj is not only the tallest building in the world, it’s also home to the highest observation deck, swimming pool, elevator, restaurant, and fountain in the world. Once at the top, visitors can enjoy temperatures that are nearly 15 degrees cooler than at the building’s base. Burj dubai has no helipad. All windows were fixed windows, no scope for natural ventilation
  63. 63. 47 2.8 LIVE STUDY 2.8.1 UB CITY, BANGALORE Architect: Thomas Associates, Pune UB City is the biggest luxury commercial property project in Bangalore, India. It is built on 13 acres (53,000 m2) of land and hosts 1,000,000 sq ft (93,000 m2) of high- end commercial, retail and service apartment space. UB City has four towers namely, UB Tower (19 Floors), Comet (11 Floors), Canberra (17 Floors) and Concorde (19 Floors). Centrally located in the CBD (Central Business District), on the corner of Kasturba road and Vittal Mallya Road, it is just 1.8kms away from M.G. Road - Brigade road junction. UB City is one of the largest mixed-use development projects in Bangalore. UB City sprawls over a campus of 7 acres of which a third of it is reserved for landscaped gardens. UB CITY will house the UB Group offices under one roof in the UB Tower. 'Concorde' & 'Canberra' will have retail space on the lower floors and office space in the higher levels, while 'Comet' will have service apartments. The campus will house commercial offices, banks, high-end retail stores, serviced apartments, restaurants, food courts, pubs, health clubs and cafes. Multi-level parking areas will offer virtually unlimited parking spaces. Also on the blueprint is an amphitheater with food courts and landscaped gardens. UB CITY will provide parking space for over 1,100 cars. Fig: 2.31 Night View of UB City, Bangalore
  64. 64. 48 High Performance Products glass were used in the facade to achieve the twin functions of abundant light transmission and lower Relative heat gain. In order to ensure that traffic within UB CITY's sprawling seven acres and is properly regulated, a traffic consultant has been specially hired. UB  CONCORDE  CANBERRA  Fig: 2.32 Aerial View Fig: 2.31 Night View of UB City, Bangalore
  65. 65. 49 An elevated roof top helipad will provide a five minute aerial commute to the airport. Four storeys of multi level parking, in addition to one common basement for the entire UB City and extensive surface level car parks, will provide UB City the remarkable prospect of offering virtually unlimited car parking space. CONCORDE/CANBERA BLOCK Fig: 2.33 Site plan
  66. 66. 50
  67. 67. 51 2.8.2 UB TOWER UB Group will shift all its corporate offices to this tower on your left, "UB Tower". The Chairman has his luxurious penthouse which is a closely guarded secret. Fig: 2.34 UB Tower Fig: 2.35 UB Tower typical floor plan
  68. 68. 52 2.8.3 CONCORDE BLOCK The splendid tower to your right is the "Concorde". The lower floors of this tower will be destination for retailers and the upper floors reserved for corporate offices. Fig: 2.36 Concorde block Fig: 2.37 Concorde block typical floor plan
  69. 69. 53 2.8.4 CANBERRA BLOCK This tower on your left, is the "Canberra". Once again lower floors are reserved for retailers and upper floors are marked for commercial office space. Fig: 2.38 Canberra block Fig: 2.39 Canberra block floor plan
  70. 70. 54 2.8.5 COMET BLOCK The magnificent building (below) is the "Comet" and in line with Mallya's reputation of Rich and Famous, will host Marriott International, Luxurious Serviced Apartments, High-End retail stores and a world class pub. Comet also has a Helipad. Fig: 2.40 Comet block Fig: 2.41 Comet block typical floor plan
  71. 71. 55 High Performance Products glass were used in the facade to achieve the twin functions of abundant light transmission and lower Relative heat gain. Fig: 2.42 Exterior cladding Fig: 2.43 Bridge connecting Canberra and Concorde block
  72. 72. 56 2.8.6 SERVICES RETAIL SPACE The retail space is being designed as a luxury mall, using elements of Mediterranean architecture. Fig: 2.44 View of Retail space
  73. 73. 57 AMPHI THEATRE Also an amphi theater with food courts and landscaped gardens. Fig: 2.45 View of Amphi Theatre, Food court and Landscape garden
  74. 74. 58 ROOF TOP RESTAURANT It also has an eye-catching pinnacle right on top which puts the building's total height at 128 metres, making it one of the high riseest structures in the city PARKING SPACE One common basement for the entire UB City and extensive surface level car parks, will provide UB City the remarkable prospect of offering virtually unlimited car parking space. UB CITY will provide parking space for over 1100 cars. In order to ensure that traffic within UB CITY's sprawling seven acres and is properly regulated, a traffic consultant has been specially hired. Fig: 2.46 Night view of Roof top restaurant
  75. 75. 59 Fig: 2.47 View of Parking area
  76. 76. 60 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM Water Supply is thro the pressurised booster pump.100 % generator service for all blocks Building is tohigh risey controlled by BMS system. Fig: 2.48 Water supply system
  77. 77. 61 ROOFING SYSTEM Coffer slab are designed to achieve large span. 2.8.7 INFERENCES • The spaces should have both aesthetic and functional value. • Ventilation is another important aspect of the design. Importance to Natural ventilation is not given. • When there is level difference, we should always provide comfort slopes to the roads. Too much steps for connecting different levels are not desirable. Fig: 2.49 View of Coffer slab
  78. 78. 62 2.9 LITERATURE STUDY 2.9.1 CAMBRIDGE CITY HALL – GREEN WALL CASE STUDY Cambridge City Hall is the largest capital project in the municipality’s history and is setting the pace for Canadian building experts. It’s the first city hall in Canada to achieve the ranking of gold in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) from the Canada Green Building Council. And it has revitalized the downtown and become the integral piece that joins together the Civic Square as a community meeting place. “Building green and sustainable buildings for our public infrastructure is going to be fundamental to our ability to address the challenges of climate change and in reducing our greenhouse gas emissions,” remarked Gerretsen. The building incorporates features of sustainable design and is the wave of the future in the field of architecture. The focal point of the atrium is a “living wall” of tropical plants that cleanse the air of pollutants such as formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, dust, and spores. Designed by Dr. Allan Darlington of Nedlaw, it’s all about healthy environment and the plant wall has a running water supply behind it which provides humidity during the winter months, and the soothing sounds all year long. The open concept allows for greater air flow, reducing cooling costs and increasing the penetration of natural light to offset other light sources. A semi-intensive, 135-metre-squared, green roof with plants and shrubs. Over 3,000 plants in the building – a natural biofilter. A 10,000-litre cistern collects rainfall which is recycled for toilets. Seventy-five per cent of the building has natural light available, which makes it easy to work without supplementing lights. Fig: 2.50 Cambridge City hall
  79. 79. 63 2.9.2 THE LIVING WALL AT CLUB MONACo : AN URBAN BIOFILTRATION CASE STUDY The number of office buildings in the heart of Canada's largest city have become involved in an exciting new "eco-engineering" application. Over the past three years, Canada Life, Panasonic and the Club Monaco clothing chain have each had a self- sustaining ecosystem or "breathing wall" installed in their Toronto headquarters. Far from a few token plants, these ecosystems are complex combinations of water, rock, frogs, fish, insects and over 400 species of plant life. Besides its aesthetic value, the breathing wall also serves a very practical purpose: It acts as a biofilter, removing contaminants from the air and then circulating clean air through the office naturally. In the breathing wall, water flows over a lava rock wall covered by moss and other plants, then into a small pond. Contaminants in the air are absorbed by the vegetation and consumed by microorganisms in the soil. Any excess waste is carried to the pond, where it is eaten by fish, frogs or insects. "Everything acts as a filter," explains Amelung, and studies conducted by Guelph University confirm the biofilter's success. Genetron's latest project is a 40- foot-square installation at the Toronto offices of Club Monaco. Employees of the club had complained of frequent headaches, red eyes and lethargy, signs of "sick building syndrome." Club Monaco CEO Joe Miriam says there was a noticeable improvement in air quality shortly after the installation opened. "Not only did the air smell sweeter, but I also noticed a higher energy level among the staff," he says. "The plants helped increase the humidity and eliminate the dryness common to office buildings." The goal of the design was to develop a building from the inside out, from the individual working environment to the overall complex structure of the building. Largely due to the collaboration of the design team, developer, client, and construction team, this led to an environment friendly, highly communicative, and innovative signature building. Fig: 2.51 Club Monaco
  80. 80. 64 2.10 SPECIAL STUDY 2.10.1 BIOCLIMATIC SKY SCRAPPER Bioclimatic architecture - connection with nature, it is about a building that takes into account the climate and environmental conditions to favor thermal comfort inside. This architecture seeks perfect cohesion between design and natural elements (such as the sun, wind, rain and vegetation), leading us to an optimization of resources. The main principles of this architecture are: The consideration of the weather, hydrography and ecosystems of the environment in which buildings are built for maximum performance with the least impact. The efficacy and moderation in the use of construction materials, giving priority to low energy content compared to high energy. The reduction of energy consumption for heating, cooling, lighting and equipment, covering the remainder of the claim with renewable energy sources. The minimization of the building overall energy balance, covering the design, construction, use and end of its life. Ken Yaeng has developed the bioclimatic principles into design solutions for skyscrapers. The way in which these principles are applied to the skyscraper designs are as follows: SERVICE CORE POSITIONS The core position affects the structural design and the thermal performance of the bioclimatic skyscraper. Yeang identifies two core types - central core, double sided core.
  81. 81. 65 The double core is preferable in the tropics with the cores on the east and west side of the building. That is, on the elevations receiving most solar gain. In this position the cores provide a buffer zone. LIFT LOBBIES, STAIRWAYS AND TOILET POSITIONS If on the periphery of the building the lobbies, toilets and stairways can be naturally ventilated and have a view to outside then this is where they should be located. Thus saving on mechanical ventilation and artificial lightiug. BUILDING ORIENTATION High rise buildings are exposed to the full impact of external temperatures and radiant heat. The longest elevation should therefore face the direction of least solar irradiation. This will reduce the air conditioning load. Fig: 2.52 Service core position Fig: 2.53 Stairways position
  82. 82. 66 WINDOW OPENINGS Window openings should also be on the elevations with least solar radiation. Solar shading is required on the elevation receiving most solar. (In temperate zones balconies or recesses on the elevations receiving the least solar can act as 'sun spaces' and collect solar heat. ) DEEP RECESSES Deep recesses can provide shading to sides of the building receiving the most heat. Altematively if the window is recessed skycourts or balconies can be formed to provide a flexible space. Fig: 2.54 Window Orientations
  83. 83. 67 BUILDING PLAN The building plan should incorporate both the culture and work style of the place. It should allow air movement through the building and allow sunlight in to the building. In the tropics the ground floor should be naturally ventilated and make a connection to the street by being open to the outside. Fig: 2.55 Deep recesses Fig: 2.56 Building orientation
  84. 84. 68 PLANTING AND LANDSCAPING Yeang states that plants should be used because of their ability to cool the environment and not just because of their aesthetic or 'ecological' qualities. Planting as vertical landscaping will provide benefit to the surroundings by absorbing carbon dioxide and generating oxygen. SOLAR SHADING Solar shading is essential for all glazing facing the sun. In the tropics this is essential all year round and in the temperate regions it is essential in the summer months. NATURAL VENTILATION Good air circulation is essential for maintaining comfort in a building. Cross ventilation allows fresh air in and exhaust air out. Air and wind flow in to the internal spaces are encouraged by wind scoops, side vents, Skycourts, atriums and transitional spaces. 2.10.2 GREEN ROOFS : GREEN OUTER Incorporating Green plants into the skyscrapers has some design possibilities. There are two options for building to make it green. Plants can be integrate at outside and at inside. For outside, it can be done on roofs, outer vertical walls and for inside, it can be a living wall or biofilter, or potted plants placed in atriums, indoor rooms to act as a pocket of green patch into these vertical cities. An aerial view of most urban areas shows swathes of asphalt, black tar and gravel- ballasted rooftops. Heat radiates off of the dark roofs, and water rushes over the hard, impermeable surfaces. Studies shows that most traditional dark colored roof surface absorb 70% or more the solar energy striking them, resulting in peak roof temperature of 65-88 degree Centigrade. These heat absorption and monotony of these common roofs can be break though green roof tops.
  85. 85. 69 Green rooftops have begun to appeal to homeowners, businesses and even cities as an attractive way to promote environmentalism while solving the problems of conventional roofs. Green roofs supplement traditional vegetation without disrupting urban infrastructure – to take a neglected space and make it useful. The term "green roof" is generally used to represent an innovative yet established approach to urban design that uses living materials to make the urban environment more livable, efficient, and sustainable. Other common terms used to describe this approach are eco roofs, and vegetated roofs. Green Roof Technology (GRT) is the system that is used to implement green roofs on a building. Green roofs replace the vegetated footprint that was destroyed when the building was constructed. The concept of rooftop gardens is introduced with the aim of reducing heat gain into a building and modifying the ambient conditions through photosynthesis and evapotranspiration of plants. Results from several studies suggest that rooftop gardens can effectively cool down the immediate ambient environment by 1.5 [degrees] C. Generally, the surface temperature readings collected from the rooftop garden were found to be lower than that recorded on a barren concrete rooftop. This shows that the thermal insulation of a building is improved in the presence of plants. High relative humidity (RH) at the rooftop garden was also observed due to the presence of plants. To prevent discomfort due to high humidity, adequate natural ventilation should be ensured. Fig: 2.57 Roof top Gardens
  86. 86. 70 Green roofs are constructed using components that: • have the strength to bear the added weight; • seal the roof against penetration by water, water vapour, and roots; • retain enough moisture for the plants to survive periods of low precipitation, yet are capable of draining excess moisture when required • provide soil-like substrate material to support the plants; • maintain a sustainable plant cover, appropriate for the climatic region; • offer a number of hydrologic, atmospheric, thermal and social benefits for the building, people and the environment; • protect the underlying components against ultraviolet and thermal degradation 2.10.3 GREEN WALL : GREEN OUTER The green façade is the outer wall which can be free-standing or part of a building, partially or completely covered with vegetation and in some cases, soil or an inorganic growing medium. They are also referred to as living walls, biowalls, or vertical gardens. The vegetation for a green façade is always attached on outside walls, but some cases it can also be used in interiors. Cities are cooler and quieter through shading, evaporative transpiration, and the absorption of sound by green walls. Fig: 2.57 Roof top Gardens
  87. 87. 71 GREEN WALL CATEGORIES There are two main categories of green walls: green façades and living walls. Green façades are made up of climbing plants either growing directly on a wall or in specially designed supporting structures. The plant shoot system grows up the side of the building while being rooted to the ground. On the other hand, in a living wall the modular panels are often comprised of polypropylene plastic containers, geotextiles, irrigation systems, a growing medium and vegetation. EXAMPLES OF GREEN WALL Patrick Blanc, a French botanist, invented a vertical garden that relies on an innovative way to grow the plant walls without soil. The garden walls are not heavy and can be installed outdoors or indoors and in any climatic environment. For indoors some type of artificial lighting is required, while the watering and fertilization is automated. The walls act as a phonic and thermal isolation system, as well as an air purification device. About 150 plant species are growing at Quai Branly, where the wall is composed of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet on a metal frame. The sheet serves as a waterproof layer, provides rigidity, and prevents roots from penetrating the drywall-and-stud assembly beyond, says Jean-Luc Gouallec, a botanist and consultant for the wall’s designer, of Patrick Blanc. The plants grow in a layer of acrylic felt stapled to the PVC. An automated drip irrigation system supplies water and periodic fertilization. Maintenance, primarily trimming of overgrown plants, is conducted about three times a year, says Gouallec. However, the Aquaquest project uses rainwater collected from the roof and stored in an underground cistern to irrigate the living wall, as well as to flush toilets and refill freshwater fish tanks. Fig: 2.58 Green wall concept
  88. 88. 72 2.10.4 BIOFILTERS : GREEN INNER There is another type of green wall, known as 'Active living walls' or ‘Biofilter’, which is used in indoors incorporating with building’s HVAC system based upon the sciences of bio filtration and phytoremediation. These biofilters replace high-tech, energy consumptive air filtration systems with living walls that harness the natural phytoremediation capabilities by drawing air through the root system of the wall of tropical houseplants to effectively remove common airborne pollutants. Beneficial microbes actively degrade the pollutants in the air before returning the new, fresh air back to the building’s interior. In the breathing wall filtration takes place right in the active Living Wall. Basically, dirty air, drawn in from indoor space, makes close contact with the constantly- flowing water within the wall, pollutants are moved from air to water. Water flows over a lava rock wall covered by moss and other plants, then into a small pond. Contaminants in the air are absorbed by the vegetation and consumed by micro-organisms in the soil, improving air quality. Once dissolved into the water, pollutants are attacked by biological components on the wall itself, and are metabolized into a harmless state. Fig: 2.57 Green wall concept Fig: 2.60 Biofilteration concept Fig: 2.59 Green wall concept in Elevations
  89. 89. 73 2.10.5 INDOOR PLANTS : GREEN INNER Interior landscaping has become increasingly popular during the last 30 years. Most architects now include plants in their design specification for new shopping centres, office complexes and other public areas, and people expect to see when they walk through the door. Thus plants became such important building accessory. The main reason is, indoor plants look attractive – people get charmed by the graceful arch of palm leaves or the exotic beauty of orchids. However, recent research has shown that the value of plants goes far beyond the purely aesthetic. Plants are actually good for the building and its occupants in a number of subtle ways and are an important element in providing a pleasant, tranquil environment where people can work or relax. Plants can be used to decrease noise levels in an office. According to Green Plants for Green Buildings, if plants are placed strategically, they can help to quite down the office. A small indoor hedge placed around a workspace will reduce noise by 5 decibels. The presence of plants in the office not only aesthetically pleasing but also helps increase workers productivity, reduce stress and improve air quality. Plants can also improve the indoor environmental quality. The plants clean the office air by absorbing pollutants into their leaves and transmitting the toxin to their roots, where they are turned into food for the plant. Fig: 2.61 Indoor Plants
  90. 90. 74 CHAPTER -3 ANALYSIS 3.1 DESIGN GOALS & ISSUES • Environment and micro-climate: surrounding environment and the micro- climate will help understand the reason of the orientation of the structure. • User behavior and requirements: Studying the functioning of a place helps framing the design requirements. • Form and Function: Form of building should merges with the surrounding environment. Form and Function go hand in hand. The form of the building should be able to convey the function of the building. • Site Planning and Landscape detailing: In such a way, there should be a clear traffic movement and easier pedestrian access. • Horizontal and vertical circulation: Horizontal circulation consists of elements such as the corridors and lobbies. Vertical circulation includes elevators, staircases, ramps etc. The efficiency of the placement of these services should be appropriate. • Building Services: such as Fire Alarm system, HVAC, Water supply systems: The working of Fire Alarm system, HVAC and Water supply systems should be examined and their space requirements are to be appropriate. • Design detailing considering the Barrier-free environment: Implementation of the Barrier-free architecture for comfortable access to disabled people. • Parking details and standards: There should be appropriate four and two wheeler parking as per the standards
  91. 91. 75 3.2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS A. SHOPPING COMPLEX • Shops – Large & Small – Range from 100 sq.m to 500 sq.m • Lobby • Atrium • Staff area – BMS room • Service area o Toilets o Parking o Stairs o Lifts /Escalators Source: case study / literature study. B. OFFICE COMPLEX • Offices – Large & Small – 3000 sq.m to 6000 sq.m • Lobby • Atrium • Staff area – BMS room • Service area o Toilets o Parking o Stairs o Lifts /Escalators Source: case study / literature study. C. APARTMENTS: • 2 Bedroom Unit – 200to 250 sq.m. • 3 Bedroom unit - 300 to 400 sq.m. • Entrance Lobby • Staircase • Lifts
  92. 92. 76 • Fire escape stairs • AHU rooms • Electrical rooms Source: case study / literature study. D. SERVICED APARTMENTS: • Number of rooms [ single / double / suites] / toilets • Details of public areas – • lobby /lounge, • restaurants bars, • shopping, • banquet/ conference halls , • health club, • Swimming pool, Source: Government of India, Department of Tourism. 3.2.1 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES A. BUILDING NORMS • Minimum Road width for building above 60m is 30.5m • Maximum F.S.I. 2.50 • Premium F.S.I. 40% of normally allowable FSI • OSR – OPEN SPACE RESERVATION – 10% of the plot extent • Maximum plot coverage = 30% • Maximum Height above ground leve is 60m • Further every increase in height of 6m, minimum extent of setback left additionally shall be 1m. • Spacing between blocks will be 7m. • Vehicular access within the site 7.2m • Height of basement floor 1.2m
  93. 93. 77 B. NON FSI AREAS: • Staircase and lift rooms • Lift wells • Fire escape staircases • Cantilever fire escape passages • Stilt parking floor • Service ducts / garbage shaft • Ahu rooms • Electrical room • Pump room • Generator room C. PARKING DETAILS • Parking: 1 car space for every 50 sq.m. for shopping / 100 sq.m. for office / 75 sq.m. for flats / 50 sq.m. for hotels. • 1 Two wheeler parking for every 50 sq.m. of shopping/ for every 25 sq.m. of office space / for every 75 sq.m. of flats / for every 50 sq.m. of hotels • Car stall size ; 2.5 x 5.0m / two wheeler 1.0m x 1.8m • Drive way 3.0m for one way / 7.0 m for two –way • Width of entry exit gates - 3m wide • Ramp: ramp gradients 1 in 8 / turning radius 4.0m
  94. 94. 78 CHAPTER -4 PROJECT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 4.1 DESIGN PROCESS The process of generating concepts varies from designer to designer; however, the process of concept generation should encompass a handful of important steps. Understanding the project and then consolidate ideas and choose a direction to go with. Fig. 4.1 Design process flow chart 4.2 CONCEPT Developing the Concept: Keywords: mixed-use, mass, traffic flow, vertical movement Interconnections = “ Form Follows the circulation Movement” Concept = Form follows movement Design Considerations: -site context -architectural character -crowd dynamics -flexible spaces -natural illumination -technology -vertical circulation
  95. 95. 79 4.3 SITE ZONING Fig. 4.2 Site Zoning
  96. 96. 80 4.4 VERTICAL CIRCULATION Fig. 4.3 Vertical Circulation
  97. 97. 81 4.5 FORM EVOLUTION Form Follows Movement: “ The principle is that the shape of a building or object should be primarily based upon its intended function or purpose. A simple rectangular form, which follows the functional arrangements of the services assigned. ” Fig. 4.4 Evolution of Form
  98. 98. 82 4.6 DRAWINGS Drwg. : 4.1 Site plan
  99. 99. 83 Drwg. : 4.2 Ground floor plan
  100. 100. 84 Drwg. : 4.3 First floor plan
  101. 101. 85 Drwg. : 4.4 Second floor plan
  102. 102. 86 Drwg. : 4.5 Third floor plan
  103. 103. 87 Drwg. : 4.6 Fourth floor plan
  104. 104. 88 Drwg. : 4.7 Typical office floor plan
  105. 105. 89 Drwg. : 4.8 Residential/Mechanical floor plan
  106. 106. 90 Drwg. : 4.9 Typical Basement floor plan
  107. 107. 91 Drwg. : 4.10 Sectional view
  108. 108. 92 Drwg. : 4.11 Perspectives
  109. 109. 93 Drwg. : 4.12 Front /Side Elevation
  110. 110. 94 CHAPTER -5 CONCLUSION For the ever growing cities the construction of sky high buildings could not be stopped rather the demand increases day by day. So, this is the high time to look forward to restore the nature and bring back it into the built environment. As we have seen the enormous benefits of plants, along with potential ways of incorporating technologies to integrate them in the building envelope as well as inside it, but still the process is very much slow and under knowledgeable to mass people. Proper utilization of the benefits and more public awareness on this regards can change our environment drastically within near future if all the processes are followed. For the best benefit the building orientation and the climatic condition of the site should also be necessary to consider while designing green buildings besides incorporating plants into the design. We hope that the few drawbacks of technologies should be overcome soon and more options to plant integration into the high rise buildings should draw the builder’s attention. Thus we can have a better environment as well a better future for our next generation.
  111. 111. 95 LIST OF REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY Alcazar, S.S. and Bass, B., (2005). Energy performance of green roofs in a multi storey residential building in Madrid. University of Toronto Beedle, L. S. et al; (2007), The Skyscraper and the City: Design, Technology, and Innovation, Book 1, USA, The Edwin Mellen Press, ISBN-13: 9780773453296 Buyukozturk, D. O. (2004). High-Rise Buildings: Evolution and innovations. Cambridge. Ching, Frank, 2007,Architecture: Form, Space, & Order, 3rd ed, Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (2008) Second Master Plan for Chennai Metropolitan Area – 2026, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, Chennai. Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. (2004). Development control rules for Chennai Metropolitan Area, CMDA: Chennai. Dunnet, N., and Kingsbury, N, (2004), Planning Green Roofs and Living Walls, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 254p. Jacobs, Hayley. (2008a). Green Plants for Green Buildings, Retrieved on April 08, 2009 from http:// Kaplan, R. (1993), The role of nature in the context of the workplace. Landscape and Urban Planning, 26, 193-201.