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Proper Testing in Salt Water Pools


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ITS President Ivars Jaunakais informative presentation at the 2013 Pool Industry Expo Held September 26th - 28th in Monterey, California.

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Proper Testing in Salt Water Pools

  1. 1. Proper Testing ProceduresProper Testing Procedures inin Salt Water PoolsSalt Water Pools (The Importance of Accurate Results) By Ivars Jaunakais Thursday September 26, 2013 1:00 PM -1:45 PM / 2 CE Credit Hours
  2. 2. • History and benefits of salt pools • The importance of balanced water • Different and proper water testing methods and techniques • What salt pool tests need to be done • How to easily verify that you, the test method, and reagent is giving you correct answers TOPICS
  3. 3. SALT POOL HISTORY • Developed in Australia back in 1965 • 80% of all Australian pools use salt • Introduced in USA in 1980 • Popularity in USA finally caught on in the last 10 years as technology improved
  4. 4. HISTORY • In 2007 nearly 75% of American new pool installations were salt pools • An increase of 15% from 2002 • Currently over 1.6 million pools in the United States use salt
  5. 5. BENEFITS • Water is gentler on skin, eyes, nose and hair • Simple and convenient maintenance • Environmentally friendlier (less chemicals?) • Less expensive to operate in the long run • Less prone to algae problems
  6. 6. • Adequate generation of Chlorine by Salt System • Regular testing of pool water • Weekly Cleaning and Maintenance • Adequate circulation time • Quality filtration • Know what’s in the make-up water to anticipate problems MAINTAINING A SALT POOL
  7. 7. • Proper maintenance of salt pools begins with water testing • Primarily for the safety of bathers • Avoids Liability issues • Accurate and routine testing results in less problems • Testing is required to keep salt pools balanced • Chlorine testing is required to know if Salt System is adjusted properly TESTING IS VITAL
  8. 8. • Weekly testing of pH and chlorine • Monthly testing during the season for total alkalinity, calcium hardness, metals, and cyanuric acid • Monthly testing of salt levels need to match the proper level as specified by the chlorine generator manufacturer TESTING IS VITAL
  9. 9. • Happy customers • Accurate test results support correct maintenance, saving you and your customers money • Increased business SERVICE GOALS
  10. 10. • pH levels rise due to constant electrolysis (if problem continues consider Borate Buffer option) • Requires more muriatic acid to keep pH OK • This lowers total alkalinity levels • Monitor Cyanuric Acid levels • Monitor Salt levels • Corrosion of metal parts • Higher electricity use SALT POOL ISSUES
  11. 11. • Pool salt levels • Stabilizer levels • Control box settings • Pool circulation time settings COMMON ISSUES
  12. 12. • Poolside testing often performed in undesirable environmental conditions • Temperature, humidity, sunlight, wind, and rain affect results • Distractions including poolside activity and noise POOLSIDE TESTING CHALLENGES
  13. 13. • Cost per test (varies $0.02 to $0.30 up to $10) • Time to run test (time = money) • Ease of use • Portability and stability of tests • Compliance testing requirements if testing public or commercial pools and spas (meets State Health Department approval) • Test gives good results with a test Standard TESTING CONSIDERATIONS
  14. 14. • Be acceptable or compliant (i.e., Chlorine test uses DPD indicator) • Use tests that don’t challenge your patience • Not be technically difficult • Use reagents and equipment that are safe, reliable, and stable • Have good resolution (so precision is reliable) • Be accurate (answer is correct) TESTING SHOULD…
  15. 15. • Colorimeters (Photometers) and reagents • Titration or drop reagents • Comparator test • Test Strips COMMON TESTING TOOLS
  16. 16. Four colorimetric methods: 1) Digital Photometer – uses different reagents (liquid, powder, tablet, or reagent strip) 2) Colorimetric titration - counting drops and matching color using liquid and powder reagents 3) Comparator color test – uses liquid, powder, tablet, or reagent strip with a test tube or comparator color chart scale 4) Test strips - visual matching to a color chart scale COLORIMETIC TESTS
  17. 17. • Uses colorimetric or precipitation chemistries and the color (or precipitate) is measured by a digital instrument that measures light transmission through sample • Concentration is determined by the amount of light that is transmitted through the reacted pool water sample • Chlorine has 0.01PPM resolution; 0.03 PPM accuracy • Hardness has 1PPM resolution; 10 to 20 PPM accuracy TESTING TOOL #1 Photometer and Reagent (Most accurate method)
  18. 18. RESOLUTION EFFECTS ACCURACY! Resolution 1 ppm Resolution 0.1 ppm
  19. 19. • Colorimetric chemistry that uses visual color change for testing concentration • End point color change can be difficult to gage • Accurate counting of drops is required • Test is dependent on technique (swirling is required ) • Math required (drops are multiplied by concentration factor) • Chlorine has 0.2 PPM (or 0.5PPM) resolution and expect 0.6PPM (or 1.5PPM) accuracy • Hardness has 20PPM resolution; 60 PPM accuracy TESTING TOOL #2 Colorimetric (visual) titration Commonly used FAS/DPD method
  20. 20. • Fast and inexpensive • Minimum resolution & accuracy • Liquid reagents have stability issues • Requires good visual judgment • Chlorine has 1PPM resolution and 3 PPM accuracy at lower levels • pH has 0.3 resolution; 0.5 accuracy TESTING TOOL #3 COLOR COMPARATOR
  21. 21. • Fast and inexpensive • Suitable for screening • Good shelf life • pH resolution is 0.3 and accuracy is 0.5 • Chlorine resolution is 1 PPM or greater and accuracy is 3 PPM • Available for most parameters TESTING TOOL #4 Test strips
  22. 22. COLOR BLINDNESS Over 32 million Americans (8% of men) are color blind
  25. 25. • Circulate pool water before collecting sample, or manually stir water in sample area • Rinse sample cell/vial two or three times with pool water before sampling • Sample water 18 inches below surface (most important for Chlorine, Bromine, and Cyanuric Acid testing) TESTING Best Practices
  26. 26. • Do not collect water sample near return lines • Note the temperature of water to be tested (Very cold or very hot water can effect test results) • Read test instructions for procedure how to run test with very cold or very hot water TESTING Best Practices
  27. 27. • Perform tests as soon as possible after collecting sample (immediate testing is required for accurate Free Chlorine results) • If collecting samples for later testing, handle carefully to avoid contamination, fill bottle to capacity, & seal sample bottle tightly TESTING Best Practices
  28. 28. • Pay careful attention to expiration dates on reagents and test strips • Keep reagent containers tightly capped and store in a cool, dark place when posiible. • Don't swap/mix the caps on reagent bottles to avoid chemical cross contamination TESTING Best Practices
  29. 29. • Where required, measure volume of water sample to be tested (Measure the bottom of sample meniscus, not the top at fill mark) • Don't interchange sample vials or cells • Follow manufacturer’s test directions carefully TESTING Best Practices
  30. 30. • Add liquid reagents carefully – make sure the correct number of drops are added to sample and drops are equal and full- sized • Mix reagents with test samples thoroughly TESTING Best Practices
  31. 31. Match visual test results under right conditions: 1.Proper lighting 2.Don’t wear sunglasses 3.Read colors against an appropriate background 4.Don’t match colors in bright sunlight TESTING Best Practices
  32. 32. • Record results and maintain those records for each pool or spa • Never dispose of tested samples/reagents in the pool • Rinse sample test vials and cells immediately after testing TESTING Best Practices
  33. 33. ∗ When using a photometer, verify your results using a Pool Water Standard to verify photometer, reagents, and operator ∗ Pool Water Standards can also be used for verifying titration and comparator reagents TESTING Best Practices
  34. 34. Average ACCURACY you can expect
  35. 35. IDEAL LEVELS for Salt Pools CHEMICAL IDEAL LEVELS Salt 2700 to 3400 ppm Free Chlorine 1.0 to 3.0 ppm Cyanuric Acid 60 to 80 ppm Total Alkalinity 80 to 120 ppm Calcium Hardness 200 to 400 ppm Metals (Copper?) 0 ppm Saturation Index -0.2 to +0.2 (non-salt pools -0.05 to +0.05) Nitrates at 0 PPM
  36. 36. BALANCED WATER • Healthy Water = Balanced Water • For balanced water 6 parameters to consider and they are used to calculate (Langelier) Saturation Index 1) pH 2) Total Alkalinity 3) Calcium Hardness 4) Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 5) Temperature 6) Cyanuric Acid (CY)
  37. 37. • Balanced Water is water that will neither scale nor corrode pool or spa surfaces and/or equipment • Corrosion is the dissolving or wearing-away of pool wall, pipes or equipment (SI value below 0.2) • Scale is the white deposit or precipitate that builds up on fixtures, surfaces, & equipment (SI value above 0.2) • Balanced water is non-irritating to eyes & skin of bathers, & allows sanitizer to work effectively (SI is perfect when 0 but OK best between -0.2 to +0.2) BALANCED WATER
  38. 38. BALANCED WATER Amazon price - $13.89
  39. 39. • Protects bathers health – prevent transmission of infectious disease, prevent skin irritation, respiratory problems, eye irritation; etc • Protects Pool or Spa surfaces & Equipment from corrosion and/or scale-formation, & discoloration • Minimizes potential Health hazards from disinfection by-products (combined chlorine is especially a problem for indoor pools/spas) • Maintains compliance with Health Dept regulations “Majority of pool problems are caused by poor water quality” BALANCED WATER
  40. 40. • Chemicals found in make-up water, when treated by the municipal water treatment plant. Including disinfection by- products: lime, alkalis, phosphates and ammonia that forms monochloramines (combined chlorine compounds) in some chlorine treated systems • Metals in make-up water is frequently found because pipes corrode as water flows through them • Chemicals used to treat pool water - pH correction chemicals, sanitizers, oxidizers, stabilizer, chemicals for treating algae, mold, etc. CHEMICAL SOURCES IN POOL WATER
  41. 41. • Bather sweat, urine, dirt, lotions, sunscreen, cosmetics, soap residues, deodorant, hair spray, etc. • Environmental items - debris, dirt, leaves , vegetation, etc., also contribute chemicals • Disinfection by-products - trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorate, nitrogen trichloride, etc. • Rain water (can dilute your balanced water) OTHER THINGS IN POOL WATER
  43. 43. CYANURIC ACID (CY) • Used since 1956 in outdoor pools to protect chlorine from the Sun’s ultraviolet rays (Degradation) • CY controls stability of the chlorine in the water but increases the amount of chlorine needed to maintain proper chlorine balance in pools • CY buffers the pH against downward changes • Contributes to the overall Alkalinity level • Very important pool water parameter
  44. 44. CYANURIC ACID (CY) and 10x RULE Effectiveness of chlorine protection to keep pool clean and algae free is influenced by the CY concentration RATIO to Free Chlorine concentration • Ratio of 8 to10 times is suggested to be best for clean pools so for convenience I use 10 times (10X RULE) • When the CY level is 40 PPM then keep Free Chlorine level at 4.0 PPM (10X RULE) • So if your pool has 100 PPM CY then technically you should have 10 PPM Chlorine (10X RULE)
  45. 45. CYANURIC ACID (CY) • CY forms weak reversible complex with Free Chlorine • CY does not affect Tests for Free Chlorine (FC) • CY/FC complex is affected by pH and concentration of FC and CY • CY/FC Complex ties up as much as 95% of the Free Chlorine. So if your pool water test reads 4.0 PPM FC then your complex free chlorine level is about 0.2 PPM • As little as 0.01 to 0.05 PPM Free Chlorine is needed to keep pool clean according to CDC and World Health
  46. 46. CYANURIC ACID (CY) • Effective concentration is 10 times the Free Chlorine concentration (10X RULE) • Amount recommended to stabilize Free CL 10 ppm CY - 1.0 ppm Free CL 20 ppm CY - 2.0 ppm Free CL 30 ppm CY - 3.0 ppm Free CL 40 ppm CY - 4.0 ppm Free CL 50 ppm CY - 5.0 ppm Free CL
  47. 47. CYANURIC ACID (CY) • If CY is NOT used in an outdoor pool anticipate 75% Free Chlorine degradation every 60 minutes on a sunny day • Makes good economic sense to use CY for Free Chlorine protection – less chemicals = less money on Chlorine • So with a Free Chlorine of 3.0 ppm in the pool then a good level of CY is 20 to 30 ppm • NEW recommendations by CDC is to limit the CY level to a maximum of 60 PPM • As CY increases, SI decreases so pool water becomes more corrosive
  48. 48. CY AND TA • Cyanuric Acid (CY) effects Total Alkalinity (TA) in the pool • CY elevates TA and is influenced by the pH Examples: CY of 40PPM with 7.0 pH elevates TA by 8.8 ppm CY of 40PPM with 8.0 pH elevates TA by 14.4ppm • So If you keep CY levels at or below 40 ppm the TA effect averages about about 10 ppm and at this point you can ignore CY influence on TA. • This is one more reason to keep CY below 40 PPM
  49. 49. CYANURIC ACID IN THE U.S. One study 20 Years ago reported: • Average concentration – 76 ppm • Maximum concentration – 406 ppm • Another more recent study reported 25% (122 of 486) of private pools had more than 100 ppm • CY is allowed for public pools in every State except New York • CDC recommends CY levels below 60PPM because higher levels have potential PROBLEMS
  50. 50. My CYANURIC ACID (CY) guidelines • The optimal level for cyanuric acid is 20 - 50 ppm • Levels above 50 ppm reduce chlorine effectiveness • Health Departments will close commercial pools above 100 ppm (Florida recommends 60 ppm) • When using CY maintain Free Chlorine using 10X RULE • To reduce CY levels, partially drain pool and refill • Test and keep track of CY levels regularly if you use Dichlor or Trichlor in your service
  51. 51. VARIATIONS IN CY LEVELS CY levels at the bottom, mid- and surface-levels at the deep end of one Olympic-sized pool with poor water circulation were found to vary: • Bottom – 100 ppm (12 feet) • Mid-level – 50 ppm • Pool surface – 20 ppm
  52. 52. • Photometric (1 ppm) • Visual black dot comparator (over 20 ppm) • Test Strip (over 50 ppm) CYANURIC ACID TEST METHODS (resolution)
  53. 53. • You need to use Photometric method to get accurate test results for Cyanuric Acid • Very important when you want to keep CY between 20 - 50 ppm CYANURIC ACID TESTING IN THE FUTURE
  54. 54. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) • AL is a measure of how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a significant change in pH • AL is the ability of water to resist a change in pH -“Buffering capacity” • Water with AL of 80 to 120 PPM will resist wide & rapid fluctuations in pH (called pH bounce) • AL is the bicarbonates, carbonates, & hydroxides in water • Proper AL stabilizes pH
  55. 55. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) • If AL is low, pH will be affected by anything introduced into the pool • If AL is high, pH will be difficult to adjust (water will scale) • Total Alkalinity is key to pH water balance • Recommended that it should be adjusted FIRST, before pH • Addition of acid or alkaline to adjust pool or spa Alkalinity will change pH, and vice versa
  56. 56. Low Alkalinity (below 80PPM) can cause: • Wide and rapid pH fluctuations • Corrosion of pool or spa and equipment • Skin / Eye Irritation • Cloudy water • Adding acid like Muriatic Acid will lower pH & Alkalinity TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL)
  57. 57. • When you add supplemental Chlorine products anticipate their different pHs, and anticipate Alkalinity effect • Ideal level is 80-100 ppm with CHLORINE sanitizers such as Sodium, Calcium, or Lithium Hypochlorite • Ideal level is 100-120 ppm with CHLORINE sanitizers such as Dichlor, Trichlor, Bromine, or Chlorine Gas • Maximum must be below 160 PPM NOTE: Parts per million (ppm) is equivalent to milligrams per liter (mg/L). TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL)
  58. 58. •Photometric (1 ppm) •Titration (10 ppm) •Test Strips (40 ppm) TOTAL ALKAINITY TEST METHODS (resolution)
  60. 60. • pH is most important factor • Affects all other chemical / balance parameters • Determines acidity of water • Measured on a scale from 0-14 • pH 7 is neutral • Below 7 is acidic (e.g. lemon juice and coke) • Above 7 is basic or alkaline (e.g. baking soda and concrete) pH
  61. 61. • pH in the ideal range will be comfortable for human eye at 7.5 • Pool water pH is acceptable from 7.2 - 7.8 • Ideal pH range is 7.4 - 7.6 • pH levels should be tested DAILY! • High pH reduces Chlorine’s effectiveness pH
  62. 62. pH
  63. 63. •pH meter (0.01 or 0.1) •Photometric (0.1) •pH comparator (0.2) •Test Strips (0.2 or 0.3) pH Testing Methods (resolution)
  64. 64. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA) • Defined as the amount of Calcium Salts in water (reported as Calcium Carbonate) • Term Calcium Hardness used because hardness in tap water is due to Calcium • Magnesium, barium & sulfate can contribute to Hardness • Make-up water used to fill pool will vary in its calcium content depending on region of country / city or well water • Ideal range is 200-400 PPM as CaCO3 • Maximum of 1000 PPM ?
  66. 66. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA) • CA levels should be tested regularly • Pool & spa water must have a certain amount of Calcium • Calcium Hardness, when outside optimal range, can allow corrosion to occur or cause scaling • Make-up water with high calcium is “hard water” • Make-up water with low calcium is “soft water” • Low water hardness allows corrosion or pitting of calcium rich surfaces such as concrete, plaster, & grout
  67. 67. •Photometric (1 PPM) •Titration (20 PPM) •Test Strips (over 50 PPM) CALCIUM HARDNESS TEST METHODS (resolution)
  68. 68. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) • TDS is the total of all dissolved material in water • TDS value is contributed and influenced by ions of calcium, magnesium, sulfate, chloride, sodium, potassium, phosphate, nitrate, all ions; Alkalinity; Cyanuric Acid; and other chemicals present in water • If it is dissolved in the water, it is part of TDS
  70. 70. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) High TDS levels ( over 1500 PPM) increase these undesirable events: • Increases algae growth despite adequate sanitizer • Corrosion despite water being otherwise balanced • Cloudy water despite adequate filtration • Eye and skin irritation • Deposits on pool wall • Salt pool TDS just add salt concentration: so 3500 PPM Sodium Chloride will add about 3500TDS
  71. 71. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS in Salt Pools • TDS will increase in a salt pool over time • Why? - chemicals are added, dirt and debris blow or wash • water evaporation from pool • If TDS exceeds 1500 ppm of initial level (like 5000PPM) monitor TDS, clarity, and SI • TDS at even 8000 ppm can work but requires effort to keep track of SI
  72. 72. TESTING TDS • TDS levels should be tested MONTHLY using 1. Digital Conductivity meter ($20 - $900) (can do thousands of tests) 2. Test strips ($0.30 to $0.50 per test) • Maximum TDS is 1500 ppm over start-up TDS • Some professionals find 5000 ppm TDS levels in pool water acceptable
  73. 73. TEMPERATURE • Temperature is a water balance factor but difficult to control • Pool water is normally 78 - 82◦ F. • Spa water is normally 96 - 104◦ F • Test with digital or IR thermometer
  74. 74. • If pH goes up then Calcium Hardness and Alkalinity has to be kept at lower end (200 for CA & 80 for AL) • Danger signs – pH above 7.8 and TA above 120 SI and RELATIONSHIP OF BALANCED WATER
  75. 75. SI (LSI)
  76. 76. SANITIZER AND DISINFECTANTS • A disinfectant kills disease-causing organisms • A sanitizer kills all microorganisms with impunity, (USEPA 99.9% effective) i.e. , chlorine • Oxidation refers to the “chemical reaction” that organic contaminants or waste products undergo • The pool environment is constantly exposed to new contaminants, two important considerations: 1. Sanitize water to kill microorganisms 2. Oxidize organic contaminants
  77. 77. CHLORINE • Chlorine is the most popular worldwide sanitizer, disinfectant, algae killer and oxidizer • Chlorine is inexpensive, safe when used properly effective • Chlorine doubles as a sanitizer and oxidizer in a pool or a spa • Chlorine is most effective under certain conditions – The pH is most important factor and must be in optimal range for chlorine to be effective
  78. 78. CHLORINE • Effective against a broad range of microorganisms • Over 79,000 tons are used in the United States and Canada to treat water yearly • Monitoring chlorine concentrations is very important • Used in pools to protect bathers health, water clarity and equipment • Inactivation of pathogens depends on contact time • In the United States, Health Departments require all public pools to be routinely tested for chlorine
  79. 79. GERM INACTIVATION TIME IN 1 ppm CHLORINATED WATER GERM INACTIVATION TIME E. Coli O157:H7 Bacterium Less than 1 minute Hepatitis A Virus About 16 minutes Giardia Parasite About 45 minutes Cryptosporidium Parasite About 15300 minutes (10.6 days)pH 7.5, 77 F
  80. 80. CHLORINE SOURCESS Salt Systems generate HOCl -------or NaOCl equivalent Chemical Name Chemical Formula Form % Chlorine Chlorine Gas Cl2 Gas 100% Calcium Hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 Solid 65-70% Sodium Hypochlorite NaOCl Liquid ~12%
  81. 81. ABOUT CHLORINE SOURCES ∗ Despite their chemical and physical differences, they form hypochlorous acid, or as more commonly known in the pool industry - Chlorine ∗ This change occurs when added to water ∗ Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the effective disinfecting agent
  82. 82. CHLORINE CHEMSTRY • The sum of Hypochlorous acid (HOCI) and Hypochlorite ion (OCI ¯ ) is called free chlorine, and the chemical equation or relationship is:
  83. 83. HYPOCHLOROUS ACID REACTIONS • Two chemical reactions impact the performance of Hypochlorous acid as a disinfectant: • FIRST REACTION involves a hydroxide ion (OH¯ ) • OH¯ is available in aqueous solution especially when pH level is above 7 which causes Hypochlorous acid to form Hypochlorite ion
  84. 84. HYPOCHLOROUS ACID REACTIONS • Hypochlorite ion is less than one third as effective as a disinfectant as Hypochlorous acid • The next slide shows the relationship between pH versus chlorine species (Hypochlorous acid and Hypochlorite ion)
  86. 86. CHLORINE REACTION • The SECOND REACTION is a series of chlorine reactions that occur with ammonia (NH3) and organic nitrogen compounds like proteins and amino acids in the pool to form chloramines • Chloramines are less effective disinfectants • Active chlorine can be transferred from inorganic chloramine to amine (organic) containing compounds
  87. 87. BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION 89 • The process which eliminates both the combined chlorine and the ammonia problem responsible for creating the chloramine is called Breakpoint Chlorination • In the pool industry its called “Shock” or “Super- Chlorination” • Shock is required less frequently in Salt pools and depends on a variety of considerations
  88. 88. TOTAL CHLORINE • Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine • Free chlorine and total chlorine can be monitored by automated equipment and confirmed by poolside testing for swimmer protection Total Chlorine = Free Chlorine + Combined Chlorine
  89. 89. • DPD methods have become preferred for chlorine measurement • DPD methods determine concentration by measuring intensity of color formed when chlorine reacts with DPD • DPD-FAS Titration method determines chlorine by measuring amount of FAS Titrant needed to bleach out DPD-chlorine color formed • State health departments accept DPD tests because they are quick, enjoy wide acceptance & EPA approved DPD CHLORINE TESTING
  90. 90. • DPD Photometric Digital Meter (0.01) • DPD-FAS Titrimetric (0.2) • DPD Colorimetric Comparator (1 or 2) • TMB Test Strip (0.2 but only detects free chlorine) EPA ACCEPTED CHLORINE TEST METHODS (FREE AND TOTAL)
  91. 91. • Combined chlorine = TC - FC • Free chlorine = 1.58 ppm (FC) • Total chlorine = 1.89 ppm (TC) • Combined chlorine = 1.89 – 1.58 = 0.31 ppm Combined chlorine is above the recommend level of 0.20 ppm and suggests pool needs to be shocked: in this example ( 10 X 0.31 = 3.1 ) this pool can be shocked by increasing the pool chlorine level by 3.1 ppm TOTAL CHLORINE (TC) = FREE CHLORINE (FC) + COMBINED CHLORINE
  93. 93. OZONE GENERATION • Ozone is negatively-charged oxygen atoms • Occurs naturally in the atmosphere, through the action of lightning • Non-toxic • Useful water purifier, used for decades in municipal water systems • Reduces the amount of chemicals needed to combat algae and bacteria • Ozone has no effect on the pH balance, alkalinity or TDS of the pool water, but it does NOT eliminate the use of chlorine • Breaks down immediately on contact with water-borne contaminants, but does not combat algae formation on pool and spa walls
  94. 94. OZONE • Can reduce the use of biocides and algaecides in a pool, it is not a complete solution • Ozone generation involves the use of an ultraviolet (UV) or Corona Discharge (CD) unit which converts Oxygen (O2) to Ozone (O3) • Advantages: • Reduces the use of sanitizing chemicals • No effect on water balance • Disadvantages: • Ineffective against algae • High installation expense
  95. 95. PHOSPHATE • Phosphorus is 0.12% of the earth’s crust • Human bones and teeth contain calcium phosphate • Muscle, nerves and brains of animals, contain complex organic compounds of phosphorus, which are formed from vegetable matter • Red phosphorus is used for pyrotechnics and for the manufacture of safety matches and fertilizers • Phosphate is an essential nutrient for algae growth • Phosphate Testing is challenging below 0.2PPM (200ppb)
  96. 96. HOW PHOSPHATE GETS IN WATER • Runoff from lawns • Rain water • Bathers (sweat and urine) • Pool treatment chemicals • Leaves and debris that is blown in
  97. 97. CONTROL ALGAE BY CONTROLLING PHOSPHATE • Pool water will be regularly refreshed with City make-up water that may contain 1PPM phosphate • Increase swimming pool chlorine level if phosphate is present. • “Flock” the phosphate with a phosphate flock salt and vacuum. • Rain water is usually OK
  98. 98. SALTS THAT REMOVE PHOSPHATES • Iron salts (undesirable in pools) Used by municipal water and wastewater plants. Very effective in removing phosphate. HPO4 -2 + Fe+3 → FePO4↓ + H+ • Aluminum salts (inexpensive) Effective for levels above 1000 ppb. Does not remove phosphate below 100ppb. HPO4 -2 + Al+3 → AlPO4↓ + H+ • Lanthanum salts (expensive) Effective for maintaining low levels of phosphate. Easier to use and apply than Aluminum salts. Can drop phosphate levels below 100 ppb. HPO4 -2 + La+3 → LaPO4↓ + H+
  99. 99. LATHANUM SALTS (chloride and sulfate) • Form a water insoluble Lanthanum Phosphate precipitate • Easily removed by the pool filter media • In high concentrations, salts will not cause cloudy water or staining of the pool
  100. 100. KEEP Salt POOLS PHOSPHATE FREE • Test the water phosphate levels regularly • Avoid lawn/garden run-off from entering the pool • Remove leaves promptly • Keep phosphate below 120 ppb (0.12PPM) • Test the make-up water for phosphate (City water may have as much as 1 PPM or 1000PPB phosphates) • Preferred photometric test uses molybdate reaction with phosphate in mild acid solution to form molybdophosphoric acid or heteropoly blue complex
  101. 101. PHOSPHATE TESTING (resolution) • Digital Photometric with reagent 0.01 PPM (or 10 PPB) resolution • Test Strip with Comparator 0.1 PPM (or 100 PPB) resolution • Ideally keep level below 0.1PPM or 100 PPB • If Chlorine is maintained above 4PPM and CY below 60PPM pool can tolerate 0.5PPM (500PPM) phosphate without algae problem.
  102. 102. SALT • Salt in pool water also called salt chlorination • Dissolved salt (1,800–6,000 ppm) is needed for the chlorination system • The chlorinator uses electrolysis to break down the salt (NaCl +H2O = NaOH + HOCl). • The resulting chemical reaction eventually produces Sodium HypoChlorite equivalent or NaOCl • Saltwater pool utilizes a chlorine generator instead of direct addition of chlorine.
  103. 103. COMMERCIAL CHLORINE SALT GENERATOR • Device that produces chlorine from a mixture of salt and water (brine) through electrolysis • Chlorine used is produced through the electrolysis of brine • Electrolysis uses two electrically-charged electrodes: • Anode (positively-charged) • Cathode (negatively-charged) • Electrolyzing salt, the electrodes are contained in different chambers because the result is chlorine gas and caustic soda, also known as lye, which should not be allowed to mix • The chambers are separated by a special membrane allowing sodium ions and electricity to pass through it, but not chloride ions or water.
  104. 104. SALT • Anode chamber must periodically be refilled with water and salt • The caustic soda can be re-used for adjusting the pool's pH balance • A chlorine generator designed for a 25,000 – 30,000 gallon pool requires 45- 50 pounds of salt, which must be replenished 2-4 times per year. • A similar unit can generate Bromine by using Sodium Bromide instead of Sodium Chloride as a generating source • Since chlorine and bromine generators produce water sanitizers continuously during operation, it is less necessary for chemicals to be added to the pool or spa water • Equipment is expensive to buy and install • In addition to regular testing, chlorine or bromine generators require salt level determination (Chloride or Bromide)
  105. 105. SALT TEST KITS (resolution) • Photometric with SALT reagent (10 PPM) • TDS meters with Salt Algorithm (10 PPM) can be used but at least once a year verify salt level with a second method (test strip or photometric) • Salt Test Strips (500 PPM) and Salt Titrator Strips (100 PPM) • Most Salt System Manufacturers recommend accuracy of 500PPM for you testing
  106. 106. • Another word for cloudiness • Caused by several factors: 1. Body-waste contamination 2. Non-organic suspended solids 3. Algae 4. Chemical imbalance (high alkalinity, high calcium) • Turbidity is most commonly measured with a “turbidometric” meter – and is very accurate • Can be tested with a photometer (less accurate) TURBIDITY
  107. 107. Using STANDARDS to Confirm Accuracy of your results
  108. 108. • Standards are used in an analytical chemistry laboratory to verify the accuracy of a test • Standards are now available for pool service professionals What is a “STANDARD?”
  109. 109. • To verify the working condition of your instrument or test method • To verify your results are accurate • To ensure correct testing procedure is followed • To verify reagents are good Why use a “STANDARD?”
  110. 110. • Food, Medical, and Drinking Water Agencies (Government regulators and inspectors) require that your testing equipment be confirmed by Standards regularly. • Liability is a big motivator Why use a “STANDARD?”
  111. 111. • Ready Snap 1P requires no dilution: just twist open, fill test cell with sample, and run test • Can be used with most instruments and test methods • Ampoule (10 ml of solution) contains Standard that is used to verify your pool testing procedure and reagents • Ready Snap 1P are in plastic ampoules and are ideal for pool service technicians EXAMPLES OF STANDARDS
  112. 112. •Snap open a Ready Snap 1P Method Verification Standard by twisting the top 180° Using READY SNAP with TITRATION STEP 1
  113. 113. • Squeeze plastic ampoule to fill CELL to capacity Using READY SNAP With TITRATION STEP 2
  114. 114. ∗ Add test tube sample to test bottle ∗ Add colorimetric reagent (powder) to test bottle ∗ Color will change from clear to red due to the presence of Calcium Hardness Using READY SNAP With TITRATION STEPS 3 & 4
  115. 115. • Start titration: add drop by drop (count drops) Titration Reagent to test bottle and mix between each drop. Observe color • Observe when color changes to PURPLE this indicates titration is near completion Using READY SNAP With TITRATION STEPS 5 & 6
  116. 116. • BLUE color indicates end point (8 drops used) • Multiple 8 X 20 equals 160PPM Total Hardness • According to chart, this is borderline value • Typical for titration accuracy Using READY SNAP With TITRATION STEP 7
  117. 117. • Fill test vial with standard • Dip test strip in standard sample for 5 seconds Using STANDARDS in a STRIP SCANNER
  118. 118. • Wipe excess liquid with paper towel according to procedure • Place strip into scanner channel Using STANDARDS in a STRIP SCANNER
  120. 120. • Turn on the Photometer and rinse out three times with clean water • Break open a Ready Snap by twisting the top 180° Using READY SNAP With a PHOTOMETER STEP 1
  121. 121. • Squeeze plastic ampoule to fill photometer CELL to capacity (4mL) • Discard this liquid sample followed with a quick shake of the meter to empty the CELL of the remaining water drops Using READY SNAP With a PHOTOMETER STEP 2
  122. 122. • Select the MENU for the test method procedure you need verified (Calcium Hardness in this example) and run the test method • Verify the displayed value result against the Solution Value chart (Next Slide) Using READY SNAP With PHOTOMETER STEP 3
  123. 123. ∗ Run the test method as you do normally using the correct procedure ∗ Compare the displayed value against the assigned value chart provided below and on back Using READY SNAP With a PHOTOMETER STEP 4
  124. 124. • If your value is within the acceptable range, you are operating the photometer correctly for this MENU test method • If your value is borderline, review the manual and the proper procedure Using READY SNAP With a PHOTOMETER STEP 5
  125. 125. READY SNAP Standard for TESTING:
  126. 126. • Pride in your work • Customers expect it • Health Departments require it • Liability issues are bad for business STRIVE FOR BEST RESULTS
  127. 127. Questions? Ivars Jaunakais – Chief Analytical Chemist DOWNLOAD THIS PRESENTATION:
  128. 128. HELPFUL RESOURCES • Book: Pool Chlorination Facts by Robert W. Lowry • Book: Intermediate Training Manual Part 1-Chemicals by Robert W. Lowry • Book: The Ultimate Guide to Pool Maintenance by Terry Tamminen • Book: The Pool Maintenance Manual by Terry Tamminen • Internet: Florida Health Dept: • Internet: CDC