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  1. 1. WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaWQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaTesting Water Quality inGas Fracking RegionsPresented by Ivars Jaunakais
  2. 2. 2WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaTesting Water Quality in Gas Fracking Regions“Anyone who tells you there are notprofound risks in drilling shale fornatural gas is misleading you.But anybody who tells you there arenot extreme benefits is doing thesame thing.”The End of Country - Seamus McGraw, 2011
  3. 3. 3WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaWhat is Fracking?3Fracking is short for “hydraulic fracturing,” thecatch-all term used to describe the process ofextracting oil and natural gas from shale rockformations deep underground.
  4. 4. 4WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaWhat is Fracking?Fracking blasts a mixture of water, sand andchemicals at underground shale to release thegas or oil captured in the rock.This form of natural gas drilling has potential forgroundwater contamination.4
  5. 5. 5WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, Indiana5Fracking Illustrated
  6. 6. 6WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaFracking Illustrated6
  7. 7. 7WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaFracking is a growing industry7
  8. 8. 8WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaIn the United States, residents livingnear fracked gas wells have filed over 1,000complaints regarding tainted water andrecently, theEPA Connected Fracking To WaterContamination.
  9. 9. 9WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaWhat the frack?•  New Study Confirms Fracking Chemicalshave caused Water Contamination•  Pennsylvania is at the forefront of this subjectafter a recent study was released showingfracking is very possibly the cause ofcontaminated drinking water•  The natural gas companies are fighting backand claim that fracking deep in the groundcan not cause contamination
  10. 10. 10WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaFracking areas in the US10
  11. 11. 11WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaWhy Water Quality Testing is Vital•  There are no regulations or laws that requirewater testing if your house is served by aprivate water source (well / ground water)•  Water testing for public water supply isrequired by law. Routinely testing of thewater is done and water must meet USEPAwater quality standards•  Fracking is done in rural areas where privatewells are principal water source11
  12. 12. 12WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaWhy Water Quality Testing is Vital12•  A loophole in the 2005 Energy Billexempts gas drillers from EPAguidelines like the Clean Water Act•  A waters taste, smell, or color is notnecessarily an indicator of water quality•  Many hazardous contaminants areundetectable to the senses and canonly be detected by testing
  13. 13. 13WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaImportant Water Quality TestParameters in Gas Fracking Regions13
  14. 14. 14WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaList of Fracking Chemicals14
  15. 15. 15WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaFracking Fluid Components by Volume15
  16. 16. 16WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaAdditive Purposes16
  17. 17. 17WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaMinimum recommended water tests•  Bacteria(Total Coliform / E-coli)•  Barium•  Bromide•  Chloride (Salt)•  Foaming Agents•  Iron•  Manganese•  Methane / Ethane•  pH•  Total DissolvedSolids (TDS)17
  18. 18. 18WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaAdditional water tests to consider•  Alkalinity•  Arsenic•  Calcium•  Magnesium•  Nitrate•  Strontium•  Sulfate•  Total Hardness•  Zinc18
  19. 19. 19WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaAdditional water tests to consider•  Ammonia•  Gross Alpha Beta(Radiation)•  Lead•  Nickel•  Potassium•  Sulfide•  Uranium19
  20. 20. 20WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaAlkalinity•  A measure of materials in water that canneutralize acidity•  Common sources are carbonates andbicarbonates from bedrock — especiallylimestone•  Higher alkalinity water supplies have highhardness and/or total dissolved solids whichmay cause aesthetic issues.20
  21. 21. 21WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaArsenic•  Naturally occurring metal also found inindustrial wastes, pesticides and treatedlumber.•  Water should contain arsenic below the MCLof 0.010 mg/L to be safe to drink.•  Higher amounts are carcinogenic and cancause many other health problems.•  On-site Arsenic test kit that is USEPA verifiedcan be used.21
  22. 22. 22WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaBarium•  A metal that occurs naturally in lowconcentrations but found in a variety of wastefluids from gas drilling and other industries•  Water should be below the MCL of 2.0 mg/Lto be safe to drink due to gastrointestinalillness, muscular weakness and high bloodpressure.•  Testing Lab is recommended22
  23. 23. 23WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaBacteria (Total Coliform / E-coli)•  Bacteria (Coliform) is common in surfacewater.•  Subgroups of fecal coliform or E. colibacteria, indicate animal or human wastecontamination•  Coliform bacteria including fecal coliformand/or E. coli bacteria should be absent(MCL <1) to avoid gastrointestinal issues•  On-site visual Bacteria tests are USEPAcompliant and can be used for testing.23
  24. 24. 24WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaBromide•  Found abundantly in salt waters, brines, and variouswaste fluids•  Bromide in water can form carcinogens whenchlorine is added to disinfect water•  On-site Salt (Photometer) test can be used todetermine level or by Testing Lab24
  25. 25. 25WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaChloride (Salt)•  Naturally occurring salt that occurs atelevated levels from road salt runoff, gasdrilling and septic systems•  Water should have less than the MCL of 250mg/L to avoid salty taste, metal corrosion andother aesthetic problems•  On-site Salt test (photometer or salt meter)can be used or by Testing Lab25
  26. 26. 26WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaGross Alpha Radiation•  Measure of alpha radiation given off bynaturally occurring radium in water•  Water should have less than the MCL of 15pCi/L due to health concerns including somecancers•  Requires sophisticated Lab equipment todetermine contamination levels26
  27. 27. 27WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaHardness (Calcium and Magnesium)•  Naturally occurring minerals that cause grayish orwhite scale and other aesthetic water issues•  No industry standard for testing•  High hardness causes scale build-up, especiallywhere water is heated•  TH is Total Hardness and measures both Calciumand Magnesium s•  And Calcium Hardness measures only Calcium•  On-site photometer test meters are available for bothtests27
  28. 28. 28WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaIron•  Mineral which occurs naturally in the environment orfrom disturbances like fracking•  Causes orange/brown stains and metallic taste•  Water should contain less than 0.3 mg/L due toaesthetic problems•  On-site photometer test kits available for test28
  29. 29. 29WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaManganese•  Another Mineral that occurs naturally in theenvironment•  Causes black stains or sediment and metallic taste•  Water should contain less than 0.5 mg/L due toaesthetic problems•  On-site photometer test kits are available for test29
  30. 30. 30WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaMethane / Ethane•  Naturally occurring or from fossil fuels, animalmanure, biomass decomposition or landfills.•  Cause bubbling noise in well, spurting faucets, whitegas bubbles in water•  No testing standard•  Vented well caps suggested when levels exceed 7 to10 mg/L and aeration suggested above 28 mg/L•  Lab testing is recommended30
  31. 31. 31WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaNitrate-N•  Common nutrient found > 1.0 mg/L in pristinegroundwater and streams•  Increased levels (above 3 mg/L) from fertilizer,animal wastes, and septic systems•  Water should be under the MCL of 10 mg/L•  Nitrate-N causes health concerns related to blue-baby disease•  On-site photometer test kits can give levels in 10minutes31
  32. 32. 32WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianapH•  An important measure of water quality. Low pHcauses corrosion of metal plumbing componentswhile high pH causes taste issues•  Water should have a balanced pH between the 6.5and 8.5 to avoid aesthetic problems like metalcorrosion and poor tasting water•  On-site testing can be done by pH meter or pHphotometer test kit32
  33. 33. 33WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaSulfate•  A common, naturally occurring constituent of water.•  High sulfates originate from bed-rock or frackingactivity•  Water should contain less than 250 mg/L due toaesthetic effects•  On-site photometer test kit is available for test33
  34. 34. 34WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaTotal Dissolved Solids (TDS)•  A measure of dissolved inorganic & organicsubstances, acceptable levels for human drinkingwater is 100 mg/l•  High levels caused by natural minerals (likehardness) or pollution from various environmentalactivities•  TDS levels can indicate increased levels of toxicsubstances•  Gives water a salty or metallic taste•  On-site TDS meter is available for test34
  35. 35. 35WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaTotal Suspended Solids (TSS)•  A measure of the visible sediment and parti-cles inthe water due to soil, metals, etc•  Causes cloudiness to water. No standard for TSSbut there is a MCL for Turbidity of 1 NTU•  On-site Turbidity meters can do test35
  36. 36. 36WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaZinc•  Zinc can be introduced into water naturally byerosion of minerals from rocks and soil•  High natural levels of zinc in water are usuallyassociated with higher concentrations of othermetals such as lead and cadmium•  High levels of zinc can lead to stomach cramps,nausea and vomiting•  Water with a zinc concentration of more than 5 mg/Lbecomes chalky in appearance with a detectabledeterioration in taste•  On-Site photometer test kits are available to do test36
  37. 37. 37WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaWhen to monitor your tap water?•  Test early to establish a baseline for certainmarkers of tap water, stream or watershedhealth. Document location, time, date carefully.•  Fracking wastewater includes salt brine andmetals - take pH and TDS readings whencollecting samples.•  Measure TDS – which will rise dramatically whenstreams are contaminated with frackingwastewater37
  38. 38. 38WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaNow YOU can professionally testWater Quality at home38
  39. 39. 39WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaThe ultimate waterquality tester
  40. 40. 40WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, Indiana•  Lab quality accuracy atminimal cost•  Handheld and uses a easysafe procedure•  Dual wavelength (525 nm & 638)•  Battery operation allowsportable field/on-site testing•  Directly reads over 35 waterquality parameters withmemory storage•  WaterproofFeatures
  41. 41. 41WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, Indiana•  US Patented testmethod that uses awaterproof colorimeterwith a “cell” or cuvettepermanently weldedinto the meter•  Plastic cell replacesglass cells to reducebreakageFeatures
  42. 42. 42WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaSimple and patented test procedure•  The US Patent in addition covers thecolorimetric reagents delivery method by atest strip (eXact Micro Strip), which addsreagent(s) into the “cell” when dipped for 20seconds
  43. 43. 43WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaRinse cell three times with water sample to betested and fill cell to capacity.Simple test procedure (Total Hardness)
  44. 44. 44WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaPlace cap over cell and pressON/ZERO Button to Zero MeterSimple test procedure (Total Hardness)
  45. 45. 45WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaInsert Reagent Test Strip into Cell and Press READ. Meterbegins 20-second countdown and during countdown, movestrip back & forth to add colorimetric reagent.Simple test procedure (Total Hardness)
  46. 46. 46WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaRemove and discard strip. Add cell cap and meter willautomatically continue to the read and store in memory.Total Hardness result is 127 ppm (7.4 gpg) as CaCO3( 17.1 ppm = 1gpg )Simple test procedure (Total Hardness)
  47. 47. 47WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaMicro 20 List of Tests• Alkalinity, Total (525 nm)• Aluminum (638 nm)• Ammonia (638 nm)• Biguanide (683 nm)• Bromine (DPD-1) (525 nm)• Chloride (as NaCl) II (638 nm)• Chlorine Dioxide (DPD-1) (525 nm)• Chlorine, Free (DPD-1) (525 nm)• Chlorine, High Range Free (525 nm)• Chlorine, Total (DPD-3)** (525 nm)• Chlorine, Total (DPD-4) (525 nm)• Chromium (VI) (525 nm)• Copper (Cu+2) (525 nm)• Cyanide (638 nm)• Cyanuric Acid II (638 nm)• Fluoride (638 nm)• Hydrogen Peroxide LR (525 nm)• Total Hardness (as CaCO3) (525 nm)• Total Iron, TPTZ (638 nm)• Manganese (525 nm)• Nitrate (as NO3) (525 nm)• Nitrite (as NO2) (525 nm)• Ozone (DPD-4) (525 nm)• Peracetic Acid (DPD-4) (525 nm)• Permanganate (DPD-1) (525 nm)• pH (525 nm)• pH, BT (638 nm) - Salt Water Drops• pH, BT (638 nm) - Regular water• Phosphate (638 nm)• Quaternary Ammonia (638 nm)• Sulfate (638 nm)• Sulfide (638 nm)
  48. 48. 48WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaRecommendations•  Test private home well water every 6 months•  Find unbiased sources and stay informed about fracking•  Understand the existing Federal, State and Local regulations, including thetesting that might be done on well water supplies•  Save copies of all results from water tests performed on each Well and besure they are documented properly for Date, Time of day, Test Method,Operator of testing the water, Water source with full details of address,,owner of well, and which faucet was used for sample for the water sample.The more details the better.•  On-site photometers should be confirmed that they operate accurately byusing and documenting Ready-Snap Standard test results.48
  49. 49. 49WQA Aquatech USA 2013 • Indianapolis, IndianaQuestions?Industrial Test Systems,