1
proudly presents:proudly presents:
The Explorers, Magellan,The Explorers, Magellan, ElcanoElcano &&
Pigafetta. Discovery...
2
Passage into the Pacific; The journey continues.
The Mutiny at Puerto San Juan, (see episode 1)
3
4
The help of Duarte Barbosa was crucial in facing the riot in Puerto San Julian; Magellan appointed
him as captain of the...
5
The Santiago was sent down the coast on a scouting expedition and was wrecked in a sudden
storm. All of its crew survive...
6
Two of the crew returned overland to inform Magellan of what had happened, and to bring
rescue to their comrades. After ...
7
At 52°S latitude on 21 October, the fleet reached Cape Virgenes and concluded they had found
the passage, because the wa...
8
9
Magellan first assigned Concepcion and San Antonio to explore the strait. San Antonio, under
the command of Gomez, deser...
10
Discovery of the Philippines and the Death of Magellan
11
Heading northwest, the crew reached the equator on 13 February 1521. On 6 March they
reached the Marianas and Guam. Pig...
12
13
14
On 17 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, with 150 crew left.
Members of his expedition b...
15
16
Several days later after the friendship was confirmed Kolambu and Magellan concluded a “Kasi
Kasi” or blood compact on ...
17
Rajah Kolambu of Limasawa, guided Magellan’s fleet to Cebu, on April 7. Rajah Kolambu was
an ally of the Datu of Cebu.
...
18
Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly towards Magellan and the Spaniards; both he and his
queen Hara Amihan were baptized ...
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Baptism of Datu Humabon and his wife, Queen Hara Amihan
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21
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Afterward, Rajah Humabon and his ally Datu Zula convinced Magellan to kill their enemy,
Datu Lapu-Lapu on Mactan.
Magel...
23
24
25
26
Pigafetta and Ginés de Mafra provided written documents of the events culminating in
Magellan's death:
“When morning ca...
27
Pigafetta had been jotting down words in both Butuanon and Cebuano Languages, which
he started at Mazaua on 29 March an...
28
29
They left that island on 21 June and were guided to Brunei, Borneo by Moro pilots, who
could navigate the shallow seas....
30
When reaching the Spice Islands on 6 November, the total crew numbered 115. They
traded with the Sultan of Tidore a riv...
31
32
The Trinidad The Victoria
Elcano Pigafetta
33
Victoria set sail via the Indian Ocean route home on 21 December, commanded by Juan
Sebastian Elcano. By 6 May the Vict...
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Survivors
When Victoria, the one surviving ship, returned to the harbour of departure after
completing the first circum...
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Antonio Pigafetta’s journal is the main source for much of what is known about Magellan
and Elcano's voyage. The other ...
36Friar Andres de Urdaneta
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Magellan's expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe and the first to navigate
the strait in South America c...
39
40
We want to thank the following for their contributions to this article:
Other materials and some photos provided by: ww...
41
If you have suggestions or recommendations on how we can
improve this service for you please e-mail your ideas along to...
42
Visit our main website at either of the addresses below:
or Like Us on Facebook at:
www.facebook.com/historicoldphilipp...
43
Just a few of the churches Historic Philippines
has visited & reported on just for you!
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The Explorers, Magellan Elcano & Pigafetta, Episode 2. Re-discovery of the Philippines, Magellan's Death and the Return.

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Follow the saga, from the Straits of Magellan to the re-Discovery of the Philippines, the Death of Magellan and the Return to Spain of some of the surviving Crew. A riveting story of adventure, discovery, lies and deceptions...

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The Explorers, Magellan Elcano & Pigafetta, Episode 2. Re-discovery of the Philippines, Magellan's Death and the Return.

  1. 1. 1 proudly presents:proudly presents: The Explorers, Magellan,The Explorers, Magellan, ElcanoElcano && Pigafetta. Discovery of the Philippines,Pigafetta. Discovery of the Philippines, Death of Magellan and The SurvivorDeath of Magellan and The Survivor’’ss Return to Spain. Episode 2Return to Spain. Episode 2 written bywritten by:: Fergus DucharmeFergus Ducharme,, assisted by:assisted by: JoemarieJoemarie AcallarAcallar && NiloNilo JimenoJimeno
  2. 2. 2 Passage into the Pacific; The journey continues. The Mutiny at Puerto San Juan, (see episode 1)
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4 The help of Duarte Barbosa was crucial in facing the riot in Puerto San Julian; Magellan appointed him as captain of the Victoria. The Replica of the Victoria at Puerto San Julian
  5. 5. 5 The Santiago was sent down the coast on a scouting expedition and was wrecked in a sudden storm. All of its crew survived and made it safely to shore. The Santiago was lost during this sudden storm.
  6. 6. 6 Two of the crew returned overland to inform Magellan of what had happened, and to bring rescue to their comrades. After this experience, Magellan decided to wait for a few weeks more before resuming the voyage.
  7. 7. 7 At 52°S latitude on 21 October, the fleet reached Cape Virgenes and concluded they had found the passage, because the waters were brine and deep inland. Four ships began an arduous trip through the 373-mile (600 km) long passage that Magellan called the Estrecho (Canal) de Todos los Santos, ("All Saints' Channel"), because the fleet travelled through it on 1 November or All Saint’s Day.
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 Magellan first assigned Concepcion and San Antonio to explore the strait. San Antonio, under the command of Gomez, deserted and returned to Spain on 20 November. On 28 November, the three remaining ships entered the South Pacific. Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness Magellan and his crew were the first Europeans to reach Tierra del Fuego just east of the Pacific side of the strait.
  10. 10. 10 Discovery of the Philippines and the Death of Magellan
  11. 11. 11 Heading northwest, the crew reached the equator on 13 February 1521. On 6 March they reached the Marianas and Guam. Pigafetta described the "lateen sail" used by the inhabitants of Guam, hence the name "Island of Sails", but he also writes the inhabitants "entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on", including "the small boat that was fastened to the poop of the flagship. Those people are poor, but ingenious and very thievish, on account of which we called those three islands the islands of Ladroni."
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14 On 17 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, with 150 crew left. Members of his expedition became the first Spaniards to reach the Philippine archipelago.
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16 Several days later after the friendship was confirmed Kolambu and Magellan concluded a “Kasi Kasi” or blood compact on March 29th, 1521, Good Friday. In thanksgiving Magellan had a mass said by Friar Pedro de Valderama on a promontory over looking the sea on March 31st, 1521 – Easter Sunday. This was the first mass to be said in the Philippines. (You will recall from Episode 1 that the good Friar was also credited with saying the first mass in Argentina at Puerto San Julian, earlier in the Voyage.
  17. 17. 17 Rajah Kolambu of Limasawa, guided Magellan’s fleet to Cebu, on April 7. Rajah Kolambu was an ally of the Datu of Cebu. Magellan relied on Enrique, his Malay servant and interpreter, to communicate with the native tribes. He had been indentured by Magellan in 1511 after the colonization of Malacca, and had accompanied him through later adventures. They traded gifts with Rajah Siaiu of Mazaua who guided them to Cebu on 7 April.
  18. 18. 18 Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly towards Magellan and the Spaniards; both he and his queen Hara Amihan were baptized as Christians and were given the image of the Santo Niño which along with a cross (Magellan’s Cross) symbolizes the Christianization of the Philippines.
  19. 19. 19 Baptism of Datu Humabon and his wife, Queen Hara Amihan
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22 Afterward, Rajah Humabon and his ally Datu Zula convinced Magellan to kill their enemy, Datu Lapu-Lapu on Mactan. Magellan wanted to convert Lapu-Lapu to Christianity, as he had Humabon, but Lapu- Lapu rejected that. On the morning of 27 April 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small attack force. During the resulting battle against Lapu- Lapu's troops, Magellan was struck by a bamboo spear, and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons. Lapu-Lapu & Magellan
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26 Pigafetta and Ginés de Mafra provided written documents of the events culminating in Magellan's death: “When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two cross-bow flights before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats. When we reached land, [the natives] had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred people. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries... The musketeers and crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly... Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice... A native hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the native's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off.” Magellan provided in his will that Enrique, his interpreter, was to be freed upon his death. But after the battle, the remaining ships' masters refused to free the Malay. Enrique escaped his indenture on 1 May with the aid of Rajah Humabon, amid the deaths of almost 30 crewmen.
  27. 27. 27 Pigafetta had been jotting down words in both Butuanon and Cebuano Languages, which he started at Mazaua on 29 March and his list grew to a total of 145 words. He continued communications with indigenous peoples during the rest of the voyage. "Nothing of Magellan's body survived, that afternoon the grieving rajah-king, hoping to recover his remains, offered Mactan's victorious chief a handsome ransom of copper and iron for them but Datu Lapulapu refused. He intended to keep the body as a war trophy. Since his wife and child died in Seville before any member of the expedition could return to Spain, it seemed that every evidence of Ferdinand Magellan's existence had vanished from the earth. So what happened next? The casualties suffered in the Philippines left the expedition with too few men to sail all three of the remaining ships. Consequently, on 2 May they abandoned and burned Concepción. Reduced to Trinidad and Victoria, the expedition fled westward to Palawan.
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29 They left that island on 21 June and were guided to Brunei, Borneo by Moro pilots, who could navigate the shallow seas. They anchored off the Brunei breakwater for 35 days, where Pigafetta, an Italian from Venice, recorded the splendour of Rajah Siripada's court (gold, two pearls the size of hens' eggs, porcelain from China, eyeglasses from Europe etc.). In addition, Brunei boasted tame elephants and an armament of 62 cannons, more than five times the armament of Magellan's ships. Brunei people were not interested in the Spanish cargo of cloves, but these proved more valuable than gold upon the return to Spain. The Trinidad The Victoria
  30. 30. 30 When reaching the Spice Islands on 6 November, the total crew numbered 115. They traded with the Sultan of Tidore a rival of the Sultan of Ternate, who was the ally of the Portuguese. The two remaining ships, laden with valuable spices, tried to return to Spain by sailing westwards. However, as they left the Spice Islands, the Trinidad began to take on water. The crew tried to discover and repair the leak, but failed. They concluded that Trinidad would need to spend considerable time being overhauled, but the small Victoria was not large enough to accommodate all the surviving crew. As a result, Victoria with some of the crew sailed west for Spain. Several weeks later, Trinidad departed and tried to return to Spain via the Pacific route. This attempt failed. Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese and was eventually wrecked in a storm while at anchor under Portuguese control.
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32 The Trinidad The Victoria Elcano Pigafetta
  33. 33. 33 Victoria set sail via the Indian Ocean route home on 21 December, commanded by Juan Sebastian Elcano. By 6 May the Victoria rounded the Cape of Good Hope, with only rice for rations. Twenty crewmen died of starvation before Elcano put into Cape Verde, a Portuguese holding, where he abandoned 13 more crew on 9 July in fear of losing his cargo of 26 tons of spices (cloves and cinnamon). On 6 September 1522, Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan's voyage arrived in Spain aboard the Victoria, almost exactly three years after the fleet of five ships had departed. Magellan had not intended to circumnavigate the world, but rather had intended only to find a secure route through which the Spanish ships could navigate to the Spice Islands. After Magellan's death, Elcano decided to push westward, thereby completing the first known voyage around the entire Earth. Maximilianus Transylvanus interviewed some of the surviving members of the expedition when they presented themselves to the Spanish court at Villadolid in the autumn of 1522. He wrote the first account of the voyage, which was published in 1523. Pigafetta's account was not published until 1525, and was not published in its entirety until 1800. This was the Italian transcription by Carlo Amoretti of what is now called the "Ambrosiana codex." The expedition eked out a small profit, but the crew was not paid full wages. Four crewmen of the original 55 on Trinidad finally returned to Spain in 1522; 51 had died in war or from disease. In total, approximately 232 sailors of assorted nationalities died on the expedition around the world with Magellan.
  34. 34. 34 Survivors When Victoria, the one surviving ship, returned to the harbour of departure after completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth, only 18 men out of the original 237 men were on board. Among the survivors were two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus was a Genoese or Savonese Chief Steward. His history is preserved in the nominative registers at the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. The family name is referred to with the exact Latin patronymic, "de Judicibus". Martino de Judicibus, initially assigned to the caravel Concepción, one of five ships of the Spanish fleet of Magellan, had embarked on the expedition with the rank of captain. A Caravel similar to The Concepcion
  35. 35. 35 Antonio Pigafetta’s journal is the main source for much of what is known about Magellan and Elcano's voyage. The other direct report of the voyage was that of Francisco Albo, the last Victoria's pilot, who kept a formal logbook. In 1525, soon after the return of Magellan's expedition, Charles V sent an expedition led by Garcia Joffre de Loaisa to occupy the Moluccas, claiming that they were in his zone of the Treaty of Tordesillas. This expedition included the most notable Spanish navigators: Juan Sebastián Elcano and the young Andres de Urdaneta. They had difficulty reaching the Moluccas, docking at Tidore. The Portuguese were already established in nearby Ternate and the two nations had nearly a decade of skirmishing over the "possession." (occupied by indigenous peoples.) Since there was not a set limit to the east, in 1524 both kingdoms had tried to find the exact location of the antimeridian of Tordesillas, which would divide the world into two equal hemispheres and to resolve the "Moluccas issue". A board met several times without reaching an agreement: the knowledge at that time was insufficient for an accurate calculation of longitude, and each gave the islands to their sovereign. An agreement was reached only with the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 1529 between Spain and Portugal. It assigned the Moluccas to Portugal and the Philippines to Spain. The course that Magellan charted was followed by other navigators, such as Sir Francis Drake. In 1565, Andres de Urdaneta discovered the Manila-Acapulco route.
  36. 36. 36Friar Andres de Urdaneta
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 38 Magellan's expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe and the first to navigate the strait in South America connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Magellan's name for the Pacific was adopted by other Europeans. Magellan's crew observed several animals that were entirely new to European science, including a “camell without humps", which was probably a guanaco, whose range extends to Tierra del Fuego. The lama, vicuna and alpaca natural ranges were in the Andes mountains. A black “goose" that had to be skinned instead of plucked was a penguin. The full extent of the Earth was realized, since their voyage was 14,460 Spanish leagues (60,440 km or 37,560 mi). The expedition showed the need for an International Date Line to be established. Upon returning the expedition found its date was a day behind, although they had faithfully maintained the ship's log. They lost one day because they traveled west during their circumnavigation of the globe, opposite to Earth's daily rotation. This caused great excitement at the time, and a special delegation was sent to the Pope to explain the oddity to him. A replica of the Victoria, the only ship of Magellan's to survive the entire voyage, can be visited in Puerto San Juan.
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. 40 We want to thank the following for their contributions to this article: Other materials and some photos provided by: www.wikipedia.org This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
  41. 41. 41 If you have suggestions or recommendations on how we can improve this service for you please e-mail your ideas along to: info@historicphilippines.com
  42. 42. 42 Visit our main website at either of the addresses below: or Like Us on Facebook at: www.facebook.com/historicoldphilippines www.historicphilippines.com or www.oldphilippines.com
  43. 43. 43 Just a few of the churches Historic Philippines has visited & reported on just for you!

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