Salvador de Madariaga


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Salvador de Madariaga

  1. 1. Senior University Universidad de La Coruña <ul><li>SALVADOR DE MADARIAGA (1886-1978) </li></ul><ul><li>Validity of SALVADOR DE MADARIAGA’s contributions to the idea of “Europe” </li></ul><ul><li>OC-OC Workshop, La Coruña, May 18, 2010 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Validity of the SALVADOR DE MADARIAGA’ s contributions to the idea of “ Europe ” <ul><li>Madariaga's Europe is not very distant of the future of Europe, particularly in its essence rather than its form. And the Europe of today is not more than the sum of efforts and events chained, so that the EU, known name under which the process of European integration in its current phase is the result of a long and complex process of construction rooted in the history of our continent. Indeed, the idea or ideal of European unity, the history of European integration is lost in time and entered into this struggle that has seen Europe from early Mediterranean civilizations and the call is determined by contradictory sovereignty and partnership, autarky, cooperation, particularism and unity. To be reactivated on the European company, we have to wait at the end of World War II which destroyed the ideal of unity in this continent. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> In this stage, Don Salvador de Madariaga promotes a contribution to the idea of Europe during those years, which is shaping his interest in European integration and European thought, as reflected in his writings and in his intense international life. </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE IDEA OF Madariaga’s Europe: FREEDOM OF THInKING AND RESPECT FOR THE HUMAN BEING <ul><li>The Person </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It is impossible to separate the idea of Europe that was designed and intellectually built by Madariaga from its own vital development as an European citizen and as a citizen of the world. Professor, political writer, rigorous and independent historian, biographer, journalist, diplomat, led to all his work the same passion for truth and freedom, as we have said to the very different banks. For he has said that he was European before Spanish and universal rather than European, but his way of being European and universal was Spanish. In Europe, Madariaga has not only been a prolific thinker and historian but also a man of the land, the protagonist of his story. No detailed biography of Mr. Salvador de Madariaga has been extensively exposed by another working Group.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The history of Europe and Madariaga's life from the thirties are interrelated, in the interwar period, he launched his cosmopolitanism proposals and he worked towards a better understanding of the people from Europe, but it was after World War II when Europe begins to take shape projects into reality, as a result of the division of Europe into two blocks, which were limited to the western part of our continent, and where his voice and his ideas captivated in the European forums. </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE FOOTPRINTS OF MADARIAGA IN EUROPE <ul><li> There are many and varied ideas conceived by Madariaga over his works and his public speeches are now on European integration. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Europe is not a continent, it is an idea, it is a civilization moving. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Madariaga saw in Europe a continent rather than by geography, by the will of the people who populate it. A wide Europe without edges or boundaries, since for him, Europe is a civilization in motion. Madariaga thought that respect for the person would be the common denominator of people who participate in this civilization in motion.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>These ideals led him, as it is well known, to participate in the creation of the College of Europe in Bruges, cradle of many generations of Europeans, in this college he was Chairman and founder. </li></ul><ul><li>In those years, Salvador de Madariaga was witness and star of direct confrontation or buried to oppose these two tendencies, one particular unit and the other, which have always toured Europe. </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE FOOTPRINTS OF MADARIAGA IN EUROPE <ul><li>This idea of Europe as consciousness appears in one of his main contributions in this matter, in his book Sketch of Europe, he said that “ while the natural solidarity which is already a fact, we must seek the solution of European problems on a European basis, this search is sterile because there is no moral solidarity, and added &quot;Europe is already a body and a soul, not yet a conscience.&quot; How to create, then, this consciousness? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Its main track is, undoubtedly, the fight like others of his generation, freedom and respect for the rights of the individual. The main legacy of this struggle and this consciousness is the European convention on fundamental rights and freedoms, fundamental piece to understand the modern history of the European continent and, most recently Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE FOOTPRINTS OF MADARIAGA IN EUROPE <ul><li>Europe , a new &quot;homeland&quot; based on the harmonization of national peculiarities.   </li></ul><ul><li>For Madariaga, the consequences of nationalism were evident in Europe throughout his life, he met the First World War, European totalitarianism, therefore in the end of the Second World War, Madariaga joined from the beginning the idea of United Europe, occupying positions of responsibility which allowed him to participate in the design of what later became the European construction, a new &quot;homeland&quot; of all Europeans, built on a voluntary, peaceful and democratic form. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE FOOTPRINTS OF MADARIAGA IN EUROPE <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Federalism, confederalism, functionality ... </li></ul><ul><li>In forums where in the postwar years the European model was discussed, Madariaga took an active role, although, ironically warned Brugmans, never knew what was really their choice, whether it was a federalist, confederal, functional or institutional. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>He had the opportunity to expose this ideas in a work &quot;L'Esprit de L'Europe&quot;, published in Brussels in 1952, which is manifested by a greater unity between European states without sacrificing national diversities. In this work he is declared federalist.   </li></ul>
  8. 8. THE FOOTPRINTS OF MADARIAGA IN EUROPE <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>There will be no Europe without European citizens who can move freely throughout the continent . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Human being was always the main concern for Salvador de Madariaga. </li></ul><ul><li>For Madariaga, being European was, in fact, his way of being Spanish, such as the manner of his being European and his passion were also Spanish, as he never ceased to repeat, it was the personal freedom, that made him involved, from the outset, in the project of European unity, and so, Salvador de Madariaga was Europeanism, advocate of a liberal and united Europe, a Europe at a time Socratic and Christian, and, therefore, a defender of man, of European citizens, of freedom of movement of ideas and thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. THE FOOTPRINTS OF MADARIAGA IN EUROPE <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>An independent European identity in international relations </li></ul><ul><li>  The continent that was guide to the world from 1200 to 1900 can not resign itself to being a mere object of history, between engines market and slaves market. Europe has to re-take in their hands the destiny of the world. &quot;In this line, he said that no European nation can take a foreign policy by itself, or that of Europe or the United States or the Soviet Union. And, mainly, for two reasons: because there is no such policy, and because if there, there is no European nation with sufficient military potential to make it effective. </li></ul><ul><li>This thought is none other than that stated in the Message to the Europeans coming out in the European Congress of The Hague in 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. THE FOOTPRINTS OF MADARIAGA IN EUROPE <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The boundaries of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Another issue that worried him was the limits or borders of Europe, that is, so far is Europe and which countries should include, very close subject to the current issue of enlargement. In this regard, Madariaga was always in favor of a big European house in which all nations would fit. To him it was common sense that only confederates, European nations would be able to avoid being dominated by the United States or the Soviet Union. </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE FOOTPRINTS OF MADARIAGA IN EUROPE <ul><li>  An economic Europe, but also political </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>To Madariaga Europe, the smallest of all continents in order to act as a champion of the world, as well did for centuries of its history, required not only trade and economic unity, but also a political body, a government, international personality that corresponds to that required and still requires the time and it own spirit, finally, its destiny. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The unity of Europe is no longer a dream or a theoretical ideal but a reality that, with natural fluctuations, will strengthen step by step. Reality, as Madariaga had wished, hopefully to be done in the most democratic, more transparently and effective as possible and this is possible in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>