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Our Continent – Our Culture Final Meeting (Essays 2010-2011))


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Our Continent – Our Culture Final Meeting (Essays 2010-2011))

  1. 1. OurContinent – OurCulture2010-2011<br />Universidade Sénior<br />Universidade da CoruñaSpain<br />International Meeting “OC – OC”Belfast, May 12-16th 2011<br />
  2. 2. Carlos Piñeiro<br />Luz Mary Calderón<br />Mª Luisa Morado<br />Mª Carmen Varela<br />Changes in Women’s role since 1945<br />Universidad Senior<br /> Ferrol (A Coruña)<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />A long proccess of change<br />First stage of Franco 1945-1960<br />Second stage of Franco 1960-1975<br />The transition<br />The last 30 years<br />
  4. 4. Introduction<br />Never before throughout History there has been, nor will there possibly be, such an extraordinary time of change for women, as the twentieth century. <br />
  5. 5. It has been said that women´s revolution has been one of the most important phenomena of the XX century. What has happened in our country in recent decades - that besides has coincided with the transition to Democracy-, corroborate this process of change, heightened by the fact that the delay we suffered was greater than in other European countries<br />
  6. 6. The two world wars in the early and mid-century, led to the massive entry of women into work, replacing men who were in the front. <br />This was the beginning of a feminist revolution to achieve social and professional equality with men that continues nowadays.<br />
  7. 7. Emilia Pardo Bazán<br />Throughout this time, great female personalities arise. All in their respective fields defending their rights, raised their voices against the role society forced them to take.<br /> Clara Campoamor<br />Concepción Arenal<br />Rosalía De Castro<br />
  8. 8. In this long period that left behind nearly a million dead, Franco´s Government launched a plan in order to increase the demographics. The family was the basis of the population. Political measures were introduced:<br />Divorce law is abolished<br />Marriage among young is encouraged<br />Abortion and contraception are penalized<br />Protection to large families is established<br />Female adultery is penalized<br />
  9. 9. The Feminine Section intended to install a model of woman that chose obedience and service for her necessary biological reproductive role. To create this stereotype they had strong support from the Catholic Church. <br />
  10. 10. Carmen Laforet<br />Despite the terrible censorship that NationalCatholicism imposed, the narrativeSpanish in the twentieth century, knownas generation of the fifties, gave important writers that showed the life after the war.<br />Carmen Martín Gaite<br />Ana María Matute<br />Josefina Aldecoa<br />
  11. 11. In the sixties, Spain discovered tourism under the strict gaze of Franco´s moral. Spain entered the ONU and the recognition of women's privileges took place from July 15th, 1961 with the law on political, professional and labour.<br />
  12. 12. The opening to Europe with migration and tourism was followed by economic and religious changes. A wave of liberality undermined the uses of a fossilized moral. <br />
  13. 13. Theentrance of womenintotheworkforce and theirincreasingaccesstohighereducationwasone of the causes of theprofundchangesthathappened in habits, values and ideas.<br />
  14. 14.  A better training also increases women´s presence in the world of work. There is a change in mentality. Equality policies that were developed over those years, ended with the prohibitions of entering the profession each woman had chosen.<br />
  15. 15. Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña<br />Women’s massive entry into the job market in Spain and its influence in children’s education.<br />Abstract<br />Course 2010-2011<br />
  16. 16. Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña<br />Items<br />The Spanish schedule and the working time<br />The women’s entry into the labour market in Spain<br />The school system in Spain – PISA Report<br />Collateral effects of women’s participation in the Spanish labour market<br />Work-life balance. An overview of the EU countries and the Spanish Status<br />Key findings and recommendations<br />Finland: A model to follow<br />
  17. 17. Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña<br />Work-flow<br />1.1 Starting Point<br /> PISA Report: Bad results for the Spanish school system.<br />1.2 Key Factors:<br /> Spanish time-table<br /> Increasing participation of Spanish women in the labour force and its collateral effects.<br /> The life-work balance in Spain. <br />1.3 Study Goals<br /> Evaluating these key factors and their influence on the children's education.<br />
  18. 18. Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña<br />Key Findings and recommendations<br />KEY FINDINGS<br />1.1The work and family life balance is a pending subject in Spain. The lack of solutions penalizes the lives of thousands of women in our country, forcing them to resign to maternity (or to have less children than wished), to have children at older ages and/or to resign to higher education. <br />1.2The Spanish delay in women’s participation in the labour force has meant that the measures to arrange the conciliation between work and family have less time to develop than other countries<br />1.3Nordic countries, particularly Finland and Sweden, have put in place aids to the families from companies, institutions and governments towards the work-life balance. Among other factors beyond the scope of this study, this situation certainly contributes to the success of Finnish and Swedish students, who invariably obtain good results in the PISA evaluations. This institutionalized support greatly differs from the situation in Spain.<br />1.4However, we think there is a crucial factor that makes it difficult for Spain to adopt effective conciliation measures: the Spanish Schedule!.<br /> <br />
  19. 19. Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña<br />Key Findings and recommendations<br />2 RECOMMENDATIONS<br />2.1Hour Change<br />Go to the European Western Hour<br />2.2European Day Change<br /> 8x8x8 Day<br />2.3 Change of mentality in the family and society environment <br />Campaigns focused on putting on value non-paid housekeeping work and gender equality in it. <br />Improve the use of the parental rights, attention and care of dependent people. <br />Improve the education in gender equality issues in the school system.<br />Change men's mentality with the purpose of modifying the gender role. <br />Mass media monitoring and control of sexist contents and male stereotypes<br />
  20. 20. Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña<br />Key Findings and recommendations<br />2.4 Government Policies<br />Spanish Law of Conciliation must be improved. Right now, in case the law is not followed, there aren’t sanctioning procedures.<br />More public services for the caring dependent people (i.e. geriatric centers, day care centers)<br />More open time at day care centers. <br />Programs to develop skills and jobs for the care of dependent people. <br />Support for services implementation for the care of dependent people at the work centers or around. <br />2.5 Company Policies<br />Lights-off policy. <br />Gender equality language use. <br />Introduction of conciliation policies that surpass the stipulated ones in the Workers’ Statute and shift the scope towards a gender equality policy. <br />Time management courses and stress prevention.<br />Diversity and Equality Department. <br />Gearing Committee of conciliation policies. <br />Study impact of the implemented policies.<br />
  21. 21. Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña<br />Finland: A model to follow<br />1.Finland is in the proper time zone and its schedule is adapted to the solar time<br />2.Finland has a rational working time.<br />3. In Finland people believe in the gender equality at the home<br />4.The Finnish State implements policies towards work and family conciliation<br />5.The Finnish companies have a good support to the family – work balance<br />
  22. 22. Women and migration<br />A view from the Spanish cinema<br />
  23. 23. Women and migration<br />Scope<br />Recognise and analyse the rol of the women in the Spanish migratory flows of 1945-1973 and 1975-2009<br />Through the<br />
  24. 24. Women and migration<br />1945-1973<br />Emigration: Postwar and dictatorship<br />1951<br />1970<br />2007<br />
  25. 25. Women and migration<br />Analysis of the films<br /><ul><li>Emigrate as men’s partners or single
  26. 26. Their education is sexist
  27. 27. Are restricted to the private space
  28. 28. Do not have legal capacity
  29. 29. Are punished for what is excused </li></ul>to the men. <br /><ul><li>Recibe educación sexista</li></li></ul><li>Women and migration<br />1973-2009<br />Immigration: Transition and Democracy<br />1997<br />2005<br />
  30. 30. Women and migration<br />Analysis of the films<br /><ul><li>Have children and dependents
  31. 31. Migrate first than their husbands. Illegals
  32. 32. Can not practice their job
  33. 33. Are looking for a stable life
  34. 34. Are or were prostitutes
  35. 35. Bear physical violence and xenophobia</li></li></ul><li>Women and migration<br />In both periods<br /><ul><li>Otherness
  36. 36. Migrate from necessity
  37. 37. Have no the papers
  38. 38. Work as servants
  39. 39. Bear social discrimination and gender violence</li></ul>EMPOWERMENT<br />
  40. 40. Conclusions<br />Peoplemigratebecausetheyhave no place in their country<br />FromSpanishcinemawe can seethatwomen, emigrant and inmmigranthaveanaddedhandicap, theinferiority of gender.<br />The social rejectioniscausedbytheignorance of othercultures and produces stereotypes.<br />Poweristhebase of well-being and migration a pathforwomen’sempowerment.<br />To be continued...<br />
  42. 42. DEINDUSTRIALIZATION<br /><ul><li>Deindustrialization was typified by the relocation of industries from one country to another. For every factory that closes in Europe another one is opened in Southeast Asia, or in some other less developed country with European capital, European technology and with the abolition of customs and duties</li></ul>Globalization is the biggest transformation of all-time industrial production and therefore in the global economy.<br />
  43. 43. Deindustrialization affects the whole of Europe but we shall refer to the deindustrialization in the town of : Ferrol<br />Ferrol is located in the northwest of Spain in the province of A Coruña<br />Spain is a member of the UE since 1985.<br />
  44. 44. Arsenal and Royal Shipyard<br />In 1726 Felipe V decided to strengthen the Navy and to build a huge Arsenal and Royal Shipyard, for which he chose the town of Ferrol and its enclosed and secure harbour. Fernando VI and Carlos III continued the works. <br />Ferrol became the capital of the Maritime Department of Spain.<br />The Shipyards have been for many years the engine of Ferrol and its area. Nowadays it is an area in crisis. <br />Ferrol is an example of the City of Enlightenment built in the eighteenth century. <br />It was born by and for the Navy. <br />
  45. 45. It was in Ferrol where the launching of the first Spanish steam ship took place in 1858, as well as the first iron-hulled ship and King Alfonso XIII attended the launching of the first battleship.<br />In 1945 the shipbuilding yard was converted into a public factory under the name of BAZÁN. Many years later it was renamed as IZAR and since January 2005 its name is NAVANTIA.<br />
  46. 46. Industry in Ferrol went on expanding till it reached its peak when:<br /><ul><li> BAZÁN Factory had about 10,000 workers and
  47. 47. ASTANOFactory some 6,000. </li></ul>Many workshops that emerged up around the Shipyards.<br />E.N. BAZÁN <br />E.N. Bazánmonopolized the shipbuilding in Spain from 1909 till the Spanish Civil War. <br />During the war it was confiscated by the state and its activity was non stop, day and night, repairing ships and other Navy equipment.<br />NORTH WEST SHIPYARD AND WORKSHOPS (ASTANO)<br />In 1941 a small shipyard is created in Ferrol, and started its career with some thirty workers. <br /> This Shipyard became, a few years later, one of the most important shipbuilding yards in the world.<br />
  48. 48. Economic crisis in Ferrol<br />The fierce competition and globalization caused many companies to Ferrol, unable to adapt to changing times, had to close their doors.<br />The economic crisis that went with the Transition and the commercial opening of the frontiers put an end to a protective production model and a captive market.<br />Some government schemes have been designed to find other sectors of development (alternative energy) to draw the city from its agony.<br />
  49. 49. THE EUROPE’S WEST GATE<br />The start of the new millennium, however, has generally been a time of relative expansion of small businesses and the improvement of infrastructures with the building of a new highway and an external harbour, but still awaiting the completion of the rail link that will make the port and harbour of Ferrol “Europe’s West Gate”.<br />
  51. 51. It is said that when you reach the bottom there is no other way to go than upwards.<br />Ferrol in this new millennium, has a big challenge ahead: to regain the splendour of the past with the most innovative tools and competitiveness.<br />Mª Isabel CainzosTeijido<br />Mª Teresa Cela Milia<br />Isabel GranullaqueDapena<br />Alberto LangtryGrandal<br />Rafael López Miranda<br />
  53. 53. OBJECTIVE<br />In this paper, we make an approach to the process of modernization in Spain through the European Community influence, since the end of the civil war until our integration into the EU.<br />We analyze the most important events that have influenced in it. We are going to see how these ones have determined adaptations and changes that marked the path to a democratic and modern state.<br />
  54. 54. DEVELOPMENT WORKMODERNIZATION, A SOCIOLOGICAL PHENOMENON<br />This work has been based on the study and <br />analysis of the following bibliography:<br />Sociology Academic documentation about the processes of modernization.<br />Historical volumes wrote by different reputable authors.<br />Volume wrote about sociological phenomena, called "collective intelligence".<br />Different statistical information obtained directly from data bases.<br />Before diving into the development of the issue, we will approach from the science of Sociology, the various stages and rhythms, which are identified in any modernization process.<br />
  55. 55. MODERNIZATION, A SOCIOLOGICAL PHENOMENON<br />PHASES<br />A new legal structure<br />The transformation of economic structure<br />The democratization of political regimes<br />The universalization of education<br />Secularization<br />State organization<br />RHYTHMS<br />Moreover, the pace of events is explained in the theory of the Three Clocks, (Dahrendorf ,1960):<br />The creation of standards<br />The economic model<br />The acceptance of cultural / ideological<br />
  56. 56. THE SPAIN OF THE POSTWAR, 1948<br /> After three years of a very bloody civil war, Spain was subjected to a dictatorial regime which abolished democracy. We should remark the following Spanish features:<br />Fascism<br />It was an autarchy<br />No industrialization<br />Economically polarized society<br />Human losses<br />
  57. 57. THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT OF FRANCO’S SPAIN<br />The world was coming out of the Second World War. The great nations were polarized and aligned into two big blocs: The Atlantic Alliance and the Warsaw Pact.<br />Franco's regime wanted to join into the Atlantic block, but it was rejected.<br />Of the many circumstances that defined this period, we would highlight the following:<br />Potsdam 1943 and the UN<br />The U.S. political repositioning<br />The Munich Congress<br />
  58. 58. EARLY OPENING OF INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION OF SPAIN<br />Here we see how the strength of Europe in its<br />economic development, had a significant influence on<br />the implementation of liberalization measures in Spain,<br />which would eventually become the germ of a whole<br />social process for the modernization of the country.<br />In this way, almost as a logical consequence, we will present<br />the first steps in the process of opening up to Spain in the field of the democratic world.<br />In the multilateral agency<br />In the approach to the EEC<br />
  59. 59. THE EPILOGUE OF FRANCO (1967-1975)<br />After Franco´s death, there was a period of political struggle for the succession. Spain had to face great tensions and difficulties:<br />Concerns about the political capacity and loyalty to the regime of the Crown Prince, Juan Carlos de Borbon<br />The increasingly strong social pressure calling for "political freedom.“<br />The worldwide rejection of the death sentences in trials held without a trial.<br />The assassination of president of government and the appointment of a successor who was more of the same.<br />
  60. 60. POLITICAL TRANSITION<br />The socio-political analysis of this period, has been for us the most interesting part of the project. It was the most substantive of the modernization of Spain because of its consequences. This process of democratization, although it develops from top to bottom, is accompanied by a strong pressure from the civil society and international communities, especially from Western European countries.<br />In chronological order, the most significant milestones of political change:<br /><ul><li>The death of the dictator (1975)
  61. 61. The speech of the King of Spain
  62. 62. The conditions of the EEC
  63. 63. Legalization of political parties and trade unions
  64. 64. An extensive amnesty for prisoners and political reprisals
  65. 65. Democratic elections
  66. 66. The EEC is open toSpain</li></li></ul><li>THE DEMOCRATIC SPAIN<br /> Having overcome the barriers imposed by the lack of political freedom, we had to deal with other big difficulties: adjustment measures in the productive and economic model that produced social and political tensions:<br />European Economical Community negotiations. Europe yes, but not at any price<br />The Spanish consensus cracks<br />
  67. 67. THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE CHANGE AND THE MODERNIZATION OF THE STATE<br /> In a context of great social problems, ETA terrorism, with multiple economic failures and scandals, in 1982, for the first time in the young democracy, wins the election the Spanish Socialist Workers Party with absolute majority to govern alone.<br /> The dilemma before the demands of the EU to join, it was not the right thing to do, eliminate protectionism; it was how we had to do it.<br />
  68. 68. THE CONSOLIDATION OF CHANGE AND THE MODERNIZATION OF STATE<br />The country's structural adaptations included the following facts:<br /><ul><li>The Communist and Socialist parties refocused his own political vision.
  69. 69. The UGT union took the convenience of adjustment.
  70. 70. The essential transformation of corporate culture, moving from a reactive position to another proactive.
  71. 71. The behaviour of Spanish society, its capacity to reinvent itself through a collective intelligence.
  72. 72. Spain becomes a member of EEC</li></li></ul><li>MODERNIZATION OF SPAIN IN FIGURES<br />To support the analysis of this phenomenon, we chose a set of statistical variables that represent the progress that have occurred:<br />Illiteracy rate (over 10 years)<br />PER CAPITA INCOME (€ PER CAPITA) AND% ON EUROPEAN MEDIA<br />
  73. 73. Secularization A:practicing Catholics, B: No practitioners and non-believers<br />KM RAILWAY<br />KM OF ROADS AND HIGHWAYS<br />
  74. 74. A VISION OF THE EUROPEAN PERCEPTION<br />In this section we discuss the results of a field study, conducted amongst 45 people, workers, teachers, junior and senior students of the University of A Coruña, aged 23 to 75 years old. <br />The best experience was not only to have had the opportunity to share with other colleagues our objectives but to be in contact with them working together.<br />Results:<br />They are Spanish and European citizens at the same time, 43%.<br />They are not well represented in Europe by any political party (students under 25 years 100%), 57%.<br />The last word on important decisions should be held by the national government, 64%.<br />Belonggingto Europe has benefits, 80%.<br />The influence of Spain in Europe is low, 77%.<br />
  76. 76. CONCLUSION<br />At this end of the work, we are going to see some of the reflections made about the sociological phenomenon of modernization of a country, that was consolidated following carefully the steps and rhythms that identify modern sociology.<br />We should stress the following ones:<br /><ul><li>INTEGRATING SOCIAL AWARENESS had born.
  77. 77. The process was led by the elites.
  78. 78. The process was accompanied by external forces.
  79. 79. The process was assimilated and materialized within society itself. Long time has been taken, fifty years.</li></li></ul><li>Changes in thewomen’s role since 1945<br />Fromtheearlyyears of civilization, womensufferedallkind of discrimination, untilthe late nineteenthcenturywomenhadfew legal rights in allspheres of life.<br />Althoughthesituationimproved in thefirsthalf of thetwentiethcentury, womenstillhadtowinrightsfrommen and their role and status in societywasdecidedbymen.<br />
  80. 80. The XXth century was the beginning of the equal access to the women to education, paid work and political life. After the end of the Second World War in 1945, it became clear that women would play a more important role, in 1945 they were given the right to vote in France; in Italy obtained the right to be elected to the parliament and other political changes.<br />Women in Spain had already had these rights in 1931, but were lost after the Civil War in 1936, and recovered in 1978 after Franco’s dead.<br />The role of women was supposed to be important only in family affairs, they should be very good housekeepers or housewives, daughters or sisters. (Law named “Moyano” in force since 1857 until 1970)<br />Catholicchurchcontributedverymuchto set women in that role<br />
  81. 81. Professional Institute of women instruction<br /> Feminine attendance increased in Industry<br /> 73% of women working in agriculture, without salary helping the family.<br />1971 Women earn 75/pts/ day , and men 125/pts/day<br />1975 Working women increased to 50% in the total of feminine population, mainly in Teaching, Health, Trade and Office. and a few in Public Administration. <br />Until 1976 women needed the marital permission to accept any job, legal or economical act.<br />In 1995 in the Fourth World Conference in Pekín about women, was adopted to assure the equal participation of the women in the responsibilities, power and rights of every country Governments.<br />However, the most difficult task was to change the men’s mentality and even some women’s as well.<br />In 1984 onemillionwomenincorporatedtowork<br />In 1994 fourmillions<br />
  82. 82. But, there were two events that dramatically helped to reconfigure how women were seen and how they saw themselves: The scientific developments like the birth control pill in 1960( in Spain 1978) and the abolition of the 416 article of the CC referred to the “marital permission” and laws against adultery.<br />This two events helped to cast women’s roles in more assertive model, in a way that allowed them greater autonomy and to be the owners of their lives, choosing, in spite of Nature, their roles.<br />As a result of every change, at present women are active in any fields of Science, Business, Politics, University and carry out all kind of responsibilities successfully.<br />And thousands of anonyms women that go out to work every morning after doing, furthermore, the housework. <br />By:<br />Amelia Pardo Rama<br />Eloy Palenzuela Herrero<br />FloriPagán Saura<br />Francisca GareaMartinez<br />Elvira Albertino López<br />
  83. 83. Spanish and Portugal transition to democracy and integration into the EU, through the perspective of singer-songwriters<br />
  84. 84. Singer songwritersin Spain and Portugal<br /><ul><li>Manuela Corral Villar
  85. 85. Aida García López
  86. 86. Helena López Prado.
  87. 87. Francisco Morales Rey
  88. 88. Celia Quintana Martínez
  89. 89. Javier Rey Mancebo.</li></li></ul><li>Singer songwriters for freedom are a large group of singers who have left their mark on the music scene, social and political of our country, mainly in the final period of the dictatorship of Franco and the first years of democratic transition. <br />Through their compositions, not only protest and demand, but also love and solidarity, they collaborated with the weapons of their voices and guitars to convert these times of repression and shame in times of strength and hope. <br />
  90. 90. We are speaking about Raimon, Serrat, LuísLlach, PacoIbañez, Labordeta, Victor Manuel y Ana Belén, Amancio Prada, VocesCeibes, FuxanosVentos, <br />And also we are speaking about our brothers songwriters from across the Atlantic, like Victor Jara, Pablo Milanés, Quilapayún, Violeta Parra,.. We are talking about the songwriters for freedom. <br />
  91. 91. OPS<br />Portuguesesongwritersfromthe late 60’s sharedwiththeSpanish, the "samepolitical and social experience" againstthedictatorshipsof Francisco Franco and Oliveira Salazar, whichgeneratedamongthem a streamofmutualsympathy, understanding and solidarity.<br />
  92. 92. .LuisCília, Zeca Afonso, Paulo de Carvalho,... werekeypieces to makethePortuguesepeopleawareoftheirfight for freedom. <br />In Portugal therewas a revolution, on April 25th, 1974. "A Revolução dos Cravos" (CarnationRevolution): a militaryinsurrectionagainstthedictatorialregime.<br />Severalsongslike "GrândolaVila Morena" served as thesignal for theuprising in thebarracks<br />
  93. 93. The 60´sBriefhistoricalsituation<br /><ul><li>Seat car factory is born with a daily production of 15 cars.
  94. 94. End of international isolation.
  95. 95. The economic stability is achieved
  96. 96.  Comes the boom in tourism.
  97. 97. As a result of this situation there is a more permissive policy and weakens the censorship.
  98. 98. At this time songwriters emerge.
  99. 99. 200 artists.
  100. 100. 3000 songs. </li></ul>  <br /> <br />
  101. 101. <ul><li>All cultural activities in languages ​​other than Spanish are repressed; it was a threat
  102. 102. This situation continued for two decades until the arrival of the Constitution in 1976</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Many songwriters recovered the poems of poets who had been banned and repressed by the regime.
  103. 103. So ,J.M.Serratrecovered Machado and Miguel Hernandez.</li></ul>Cantares de Machado<br />“Nana de la cebolla” de Miguel Hernández<br /><ul><li>Francisco Ibañezsingspoems of poetssuch as Blas de Otero, Rafael Alberti, Quevedo, Gabriel Celaya, Miguel Hernández.
  104. 104. Raimon addsmusictothepoetry of AusíasMarch and Salvador Espriu</li></ul>“La poesía es un arma cargada de futuro”<br />Gabriel Celaya<br />“Cançó de l´Albada” de Espriu<br />“Veles e vents” de AusíasMarch<br /><ul><li>Fuxan os ventossingspoems of C.E. Ferreiro </li></ul>“Irmans” from C.E. Ferreiro<br />
  105. 105. The 70´s Briefhistoricalsituation<br /><ul><li>In September 1975, the regime sentenced to death and executed 3 members of FRAP and 2 of ETA
  106. 106. In March 1976 five workers were killed and 150 wounded by armed police in a church in Vitoria.
  107. 107. Luis Llach composed for this occasion, “Campanadas a muerte" and "L‘Estaca" songs that became emblematic of this time.
  108. 108. From the decade of the 60’s different media fight for freedom of expression; In 1976, join “El País" and "Diario 16.“</li></li></ul><li>PORTUGAL.<br />The 60´s and 70´sBriefhistoricalsituation<br /><ul><li>Colonial wars in Angola, Guinea and Mozambique produced conflicts between civil society and the military one.
  109. 109. With the economic model that the dictatorship implanted, the country became impoverished and a strong emigration was generated.
  110. 110. Singer songwriters exiled like: José MárioBranco, SérgioGodinho, Luis Cília,...denounced the colonial wars and the lack of freedom in Portugal</li></li></ul><li>Our Continent – Our Culture2009-2010<br />Universidade Sénior<br />Universidade da CoruñaSpain<br />Theend<br />International Meeting “OC – OC”Belfast, May 12-16th 2010<br />