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Total Eclipse


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Total Eclipse

  1. 1. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Mehmet Akif Ersoy Primary School Malatya
  3. 3. SOLAR ECLIPSES <ul><li>GÜNEŞTUTULMASI </li></ul><ul><li>é’clipse de soleil </li></ul><ul><li>eclisse di sole </li></ul>
  4. 4. ECLIPSE AND CULTURE <ul><li>Across the centuries, the Sun’s eclipse has been considered as an evil or a bad omen. </li></ul><ul><li>The early cultures saw the Sun as a life-giver in its unfailing everyday appearance.So, something that could actually undo the Sun was naturally reckoned as terribly bad event filled with foreboding. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Despite the awareness of the true nature </li></ul><ul><li>of this natural phenomena in contemporary </li></ul><ul><li>living, many people continue to beat </li></ul><ul><li>drums, gongs, pots and pans or fire guns into the </li></ul><ul><li>air or simply hide indoors. The event has been </li></ul><ul><li>associated with calamities ranging from </li></ul><ul><li>wars,floods and famines to political upheavals </li></ul><ul><li>and personal misfortunes. </li></ul>
  7. 7. WHAT IS AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN? <ul><li>The total eclipse of the Sun is the most </li></ul><ul><li>spectacular event in all of Nature! </li></ul><ul><li>Few people have ever witnessed one, but </li></ul><ul><li>once seen it is an experience never to be </li></ul><ul><li>forgetten. The Moon’s dark shadow plunges you </li></ul><ul><li>into an eerie twilight and the Sun’s mysterious </li></ul><ul><li>and incredibly beautiful corona is revealed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. THE MOON <ul><li>The Moon is a cold ,rocky body about 2.160 miles </li></ul><ul><li>(3.476 km) in diameter. It has no light of its own but </li></ul><ul><li>shines by sunlight reflected from its surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The Moon orbits the Earth about once every 29 and a </li></ul><ul><li>half days. </li></ul><ul><li>As it circles our planet ,the changing position of the </li></ul><ul><li>Moon with respect to the Sun causes our natural satellite </li></ul><ul><li>to cycle through a series of phases. </li></ul>
  9. 9. WHY DO ECLIPSES OCCUR? <ul><li>Phases of the Moon </li></ul><ul><li>New Moon>New Crescent>First </li></ul><ul><li>Quarter>Waxıng Gibbous> Full Moon > </li></ul><ul><li>Waning Gibbous>Last Quarter>Old </li></ul><ul><li>Crescent>New Moon (again) </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                         
  10. 10. <ul><li>An eclipse of the Sun (or solar eclipse) can only </li></ul><ul><li>occur at NEW MOON when the Moon passes </li></ul><ul><li>between Earth and the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>If the Moon’s shadow happens to fall upon </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s surface at that time we see some portion </li></ul><ul><li>of the sun’s disk covered or ‘eclipsed’ by the </li></ul><ul><li>Moon. </li></ul>
  11. 11. WHY DO SOLAR ECLIPSES NOT OCCUR EVERY MONTH? <ul><li>Since New Moon occurs every 29 ½ days you </li></ul><ul><li>may think that we should have a solar eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>about once a month. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately this does not happen. Because </li></ul><ul><li>the Moon’s orbit around Earth is tilted 5 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>to Earth’s orbit around the Sun. As a result, it </li></ul><ul><li>passes above or below our planet at New Moon. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>At least twice a year ,the geometry lines up just </li></ul><ul><li>right so that some part of the Moon’s shadow </li></ul><ul><li>falls on Earth’s surface and an eclipse of the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>is seen in that region. </li></ul>Geometry of the Sun, Earth and Moon During an Eclipse of the Sun
  13. 13. THE MOON’S SHADOW ACTUALLY HAS TWO PARTS <ul><li>1.PENUMBRA </li></ul><ul><li>The Moon’s faint outer shadow. </li></ul><ul><li>Partial solar eclipses are visible from within the penumbral shadow. </li></ul><ul><li>2.UMBRA </li></ul><ul><li>The Moon’s dark inner shadow. </li></ul><ul><li>Total solar eclipses are visible from within the umbral shadow. </li></ul>
  14. 14. TYPES OF ECLIPSES <ul><li>PARTIAL </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL </li></ul><ul><li>ANNULAR </li></ul><ul><li>HYBRID </li></ul>
  15. 15. PARTIAL ECLIPSES <ul><li>When the Moon’s penumbral shadow strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Earth, we see a partial eclipse of Sun from that </li></ul><ul><li>region. </li></ul><ul><li>Partial eclipses are dangerous to look at </li></ul><ul><li>because un-eclipsed part of the Sun is still very </li></ul><ul><li>bright. You must use special filters or home </li></ul><ul><li>made pinhole projector to safely watch a partial </li></ul><ul><li>eclipse of the Sun. </li></ul>
  16. 16. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSES AND PATH OF TOTALITY <ul><li>If the Moon’s inner or umbral shadow </li></ul><ul><li>sweeps across Earth’s surface ,then a total </li></ul><ul><li>eclipse of the Sun is seen. </li></ul><ul><li>The track of the Moon’s umbral shadow across </li></ul><ul><li>Earth is called the ‘Path of totality’ . </li></ul>
  17. 17. WHY IS A TOTAL ECLIPSE ONLY SEEN OVER A SMALL AREA ON EARTH? <ul><li>It is typically 10.000 miles long only about 100 </li></ul><ul><li>miles wide. It covers less than %1 of Earth’S </li></ul><ul><li>entire surface area. In order to see the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>become completely eclipsed by the Moon,you </li></ul><ul><li>must be somewhere inside the narrow path of </li></ul><ul><li>totality. </li></ul><ul><li>The phase of a solar eclipse is very brief. It </li></ul><ul><li>rarely lasts more than several minutes. The </li></ul><ul><li>Corona can only be seen during the few brief </li></ul><ul><li>minutes of totality. </li></ul>
  19. 19. STEPS OF TOTALITY <ul><li>FIRST CONTACT </li></ul>Partial eclipse : twelve minutes into the eclipse almost 1/5 of the sun’s diameter is obscurred.
  20. 20. STEPS OF TOTALITY Partial eclipse : 18 minutes before total eclipse begins about 80% of the Sun’s diameter is gone! Partial eclipse : Nearly ½ of the Sun’s disk is eclipsed. (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turkey)
  21. 21. DIAMOND RING AT 2 ND CONTACT Before totality begins, the corona appears during diamond ring effect. (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turkey)
  22. 22. OUTER CORONA (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turkey) VISUAL CORONA
  23. 23. FINAL DIAMOND RING (TSE of 1999 August 11 Lake Hazar Turkey) At 3rd contact the diamond ring effect heralds the end of totality.
  24. 24. Partial eclipse : Nearly 4/5 of the Sun’s diameter is still covered by the Moon.
  25. 25. Partial eclipse : Half of the Sun’s diameter is still covered 40 minutes after the totality ends.
  26. 26. Partial eclipse : The final 20% of the Sun remains covered by the Moon.
  27. 27. Animation of TSE
  28. 28. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSES <ul><li>Unfortunately, not every eclipse of the Sun is a </li></ul><ul><li>total eclipse. Sometimes the Moon is too small to </li></ul><ul><li>cover the entire Sun’s disk . </li></ul><ul><li>When the Moon is near side of its orbit, the </li></ul><ul><li>Moon appears larger than the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>If an eclipse occurs at that time, it will be total </li></ul><ul><li>eclipse. However, if an eclipse occurs while the </li></ul><ul><li>Moon is on the far side of its orbit, the Moon </li></ul><ul><li>appears smaller than the Sun and can’t </li></ul><ul><li>completely cover it. If an eclipse occurs at that </li></ul><ul><li>time it will be ‘Annular Solar Eclipse’. </li></ul>
  30. 30. THE HYBRID ECLIPSE <ul><li>A hybrid ,or annular/total, eclipse is an eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>which is seen as annular by some parts of the </li></ul><ul><li>Earth, and total by others (and also as a partial </li></ul><ul><li>eclipse over a much larger area) </li></ul><ul><li>This image illustrates how a hybrid eclipse can </li></ul><ul><li>occur. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The Moon is just far </li></ul><ul><li>enough from the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>that umbra can’t reach </li></ul><ul><li>the ‘sides’ of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>so, as the eclipse begins, </li></ul><ul><li>the western portions of </li></ul><ul><li>the Earth see an annular </li></ul><ul><li>eclipse as the day begins, </li></ul><ul><li>in the diagram, observers </li></ul><ul><li>in the ‘outer’parts of the </li></ul><ul><li>eclipse track, coloured </li></ul><ul><li>green, see an annular </li></ul><ul><li>eclipse. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>As the eclipse path </li></ul><ul><li>Moves on, the umbra has </li></ul><ul><li>less for to travel to reach </li></ul><ul><li>the Earth, and is just long </li></ul><ul><li>enough to reach the </li></ul><ul><li>‘’ centre’’ so observes in </li></ul><ul><li>the area coloured blue </li></ul><ul><li>above see a total eclipse. </li></ul><ul><li>People standing near, </li></ul><ul><li>but not in, the annular/ </li></ul><ul><li>total eclipse track, would </li></ul><ul><li>see a normal partial </li></ul><ul><li>eclipse. </li></ul>
  33. 33. HOW TO VIEW AN ECLIPSE <ul><li>EYE SAFETY </li></ul><ul><li>Do not try to view the Sun directly with the </li></ul><ul><li>naked eye or through an optical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>without proper solar filter. </li></ul><ul><li>Human eye does not sense any pain in </li></ul><ul><li>case of a direct sunlight! </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun can be viewed safely with naked </li></ul><ul><li>eye only during the total solar eclipse. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Partical eclipses, annular eclipses and the </li></ul><ul><li>partial phases of total eclipses are never safe to </li></ul><ul><li>watch without taking special precautions. </li></ul><ul><li>Even when 99% of the Sun’s surface is </li></ul><ul><li>obscured during a partial phases of a total </li></ul><ul><li>eclipse, the remaining photospheric crescent is </li></ul><ul><li>intensely bright and cannot be viewed safety </li></ul><ul><li>without eye protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not attempt to observe the partial or annular </li></ul><ul><li>phases of any eclipse with the naked eye. </li></ul>
  36. 36. HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY There are safe ways to view the sun. The simplest requires only a long box (at least 6 feet long), a piece of aluminum foil, a pin, and a sheet of white paper. 1. Find or make a long box or tube
  37. 37. HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY 2. Cut a hole in the center of one end of the box. 3. Tape a piece of foil over the hole. 4. Poke a small hole in the foil with a pin.
  38. 38. HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY 5. Cut a viewing hole in the side of the box. 6 . Put a piece of white paper inside the end of the box near the viewing portal.
  39. 39. HOW TO MAKE A SIMPLE PINHOLE PROJECTOR TO VIEW TSE SAFELY Point the end of the box with the pinhole at the sun so that you see a round image on the paper at the other end. If you are having trouble pointing, look at the shadow of the box on the ground. Move the box so that the shadow looks like the end of the box (so the sides of the box are not casting a shadow). The round spot of light you see on the paper is a pinhole image of the sun. Do not look through the pinhole at the sun! Look only at the image on the paper.
  40. 40. TSE THAT WE OBSERVED IN TURKEY ON 29 th MARCH 2006 On Wednesday, 29th March 2006, the shadow of the Moon swept a band starting from Brazil, through Atlantic Ocean, Gold Coast of Africa, Saharan Dessert, Mediterranean Sea, Turkey, Black Sea, Georgia, Russian Federation, northern shores of Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan; ending in Mongolia. The duration of totality was less than 2 minutes near the sunrise and sunset limits, but as long as 4 minutes and 7 seconds in Libya, at the moment of greatest eclipse. The path of totality was 180 kilometers wide at that moment. It was observed over many regions in Turkey. March 29th, 2006 Total Solar Eclipse had a duration of totality of about 4 minutes in Antalya.
  43. 46. SHADOWS
  44. 47. SHADOWS Projected images of the Sun may be seen on the ground in the small openings created by interlacing fingers, or in the dappled sunlight beneath a leafy tree. Binoculars can also be used to project a magnified image of the Sun on a white card, but you must avoid the temptation of using these instruments for direct viewing.
  46. 49. SOURCES <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Fred Espenak’s web site(nasa) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. colorsofindia .com/ eclipse / ecliseculture .html </li></ul>
  47. 52. Coordinator : Şengül ARSLAN E-Mail : sengularslan1@ hotmail .com Phone Number : +90 532 515 79 71 MAE Primary School - 2008