Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Process analysis paragraph

  1. 1. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 1 2012-2013 Process Analysis I. Definition The formal name of the mode is process analysis. Process = a step-by-step movement from a beginning point to anpointending. Analysis = a careful examination; a close, detailed look at something. So, a process paragraph is a series of steps that explain how something happens or how to make something or to give instructions on how to do something or to describe how something is done. It is another common organizational form of writing. Current self-help books on the market entitled How To . . . are examples of process writing. Process analysis serves readers well if some simple steps are followed to maintain clarity… It can explain anything from the way to enrich vocabulary to overcoming insomnia to the procedure of operating a machine. It may also give tips for improving pronunciation or for answering a telephone call. Because such explanations must be clear, the process paragraph must be written in chronological order, and it must include a topic sentence that clearly states the paragraph’s purpose. It must also include transition words and phrases such as “first,” “next,” “finally,” that connect each of the steps. Process analysis is usually written in third person (e.g., “wise writers leave plenty of time for revision”) and often includes the passive voice (“when paper has been edited, It is ready for submission”). Tone of your essay, and the amount and kind of detail you include will vary depending on your audience and purpose.
  2. 2. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 2 2012-2013 II. Elements of a Process Analysis Paragraph Process Analysis paragraphs contain a number of elements that are indispensable in this kind of writing: Chronology – all actions are described in a step-by-step manner which means that the order of in which subsequent actions are described is analogical to the order in which those actions are to be performed; Clarity – the instruction is concise and uses simples language. Process analysis paragraphs, if composed correctly, will never be written in a descriptive or subjective language and will also avoid opinion-based stances; Explanation – the paragraph explains how a particular result can be achieved. Sample: The problem of hairballs that have already formed in cat’s fur can be solved by proper brushing. In order to brush your cat’s hairballs, you’ll need two kinds of brushes: a wide-teeth wipe and a metallic one. The former will help you dissolve and, partially, remove tightly knotted hairballs without causing any pain or discomfort to your cat. The latter, used subsequently, will remove excess of loose puffy hair and decrease the possibility of reoccurrence the next day. Once brushing is over, make sure to polish your cat’s fur all over his body with the help of a clean, cotton, or woolen cloth. III. Type of process analysis paragraphs As we are aware A process paragraph is a series of steps that explain how something happens or how to make something or to give instructions on how to do something or to describe how something is done. There are two basic types of process writing:
  3. 3. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 3 2012-2013 1. Instructional/directional process: When you explain how to get from the registrar’s office to make perfect pastry, or any other how to topic, your purpose is how to enable your readers to perform the process themselves. Giving instructions or directions is often done in point form: think of a recipe, for example, or the instructions that come with a child’s toy, a barbecue, or a piece of furniture from Ikea. Instructions are usually written in the second person (you) and include commands (e.g., allow to dry for 10 minutes leave yourself time to revise”). 2. Informational process: This type of process analysis describes how something is done or is made, or worked. In explaining how hamburger get from the farm to table, how snow flack, how the stoke market operates; you don’t expect your readers to be able to reproduce the process. Your purpose is simply to inform them about it. IV. Part of Paragraph Generally, in English paragraph writing there are three parts of paragraph. Here are Topic Sentence, Supporting Sentence, and concluding sentence. But these sentences have different function in the paragraph. In Process analysis paragraph is also divided in three parts. There are Topic sentence, supporting sentence, and Concluding sentence. 1. Topic Sentence: The topic sentence names the process and indicates the reason someone should be interested in knowing about this process. They mention the topic and use words like “directions,” “steps,” “process” or “procedure.” Topic sentence is divided in to two parts. They are Topic and Controlling idea.
  4. 4. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 4 2012-2013 Topic: good topic have many steps, but not too many. They are usually useful to the reader, but they could be humorous instead: for example, “How to embarrass your teenage daughter” could be a great topic. You will not really try to teach the reader anything with this topic, but they may laugh at your ideas. Note: Topic Sentence It’s time to choose the topic sentence. Complete the following brain storming activity to decide on a topic. Let’s start by looking at bad topics. A bad topic for this kind of writing could have any of these problems:  Too few steps: like “How to blink your eyes.”  Too many steps: like “How to design, build, paint, and decorate a new house.”  Not interesting enough: “How to turn off a computer.”  Too specific to one person: “How I get ready for bed every night.” (Notice, this could be a great topic for a personal essay – but the controlling idea of this topic is really “Information about me,” not “Teaching the reader how to do something.”) Controlling Idea: These paragraphs always have a very similar controlling idea. It’s something like “My directions for doing __________.” Remember that a controlling idea reflects the writer’s opinion; your opinion is the steps you choose to write. Also, the controlling idea may include your opinion of whether the process is easy or hard to do. Example: Polygraph Testing Many people know the terms polygraph and lie detector test, but many are not familiar with how the test actually works. The test uses a process that analyzes the physiological reactions in a person's body while he or she answers questions. First, a device called an anemograph is attached to a person's chest to record breathing patterns. Any abnormalities in respiratory
  5. 5. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 5 2012-2013 patterns are recorded during an official interview. Next, a machine similar to a hose used in doctors' offices is attached to the person's upper arm to measure blood pressure. During this part of the polygraph test, the pulse and changes in blood pressure and heartbeat are recorded. Finally, skin responses are used as a part of the lie detection examination. Usually, the tips of a person's fingers are attached to electrodes. An abnormal amount of sweating is an indicator that the person may be laying. After the preceding steps have been followed, polygraph experts analyze the results. From the data, the experts may conclude that the person is telling the truth, or they may decide that the person is most likely lying. 2. Supporting Sentence: The supporting sentences present the steps of the process in a clear manner and in sequential order. They contain transitional expressions to illustrate the sequence and to add interest, so that the paragraph doesn't sound like a mere laundry list.Supporting Sentence List the steps needed in order to accomplish the process from first to last. Be as simple and clear as possible. Topic: _______________________________________________ Steps: 1.____________________________________ 2.____________________________________ 3.____________________________________ 4.____________________________________ 5. ____________________________________ Example Polygraph Testing
  6. 6. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 6 2012-2013 Many people know the terms polygraph and lie detector test, but many are not familiar with how the test actually works. The test uses a process that analyzes the physiological reactions in a person's body while he or she answers questions. First, a device called a anemograph is attached to a person's chest to record breathing patterns. Any abnormalities in respiratory patterns are recorded during an official interview. Next, a machine similar to a hose used in doctors' offices is attached to the person's upper arm to measure blood pressure. During this part of the polygraph test, the pulse and changes in blood pressure and heartbeat are recorded. Finally, skin responses are used as a part of the lie detection examination. Usually, the tips of a person's fingers are attached to electrodes. An abnormal amount of sweating is an indicator that the person may be laying. After the preceding steps have been followed, polygraph experts analyze the results.From the data, the experts may conclude that the person is telling the truth, or they may decide that the person is most likely lying. 3. Concluding Sentence: The concluding sentence may congratulate the reader on now being able to do something new, reaffirm the significance of understanding the process, or summarize the results of the process that summarizes what the reader accomplished by following the process. Remember that you can use transitional words. Concluding Sentence: _____________________________________ Example: Polygraph Testing Many people know the terms polygraph and lie detector test, but many are not familiar with how the test actually works. The test uses a process that analyzes the physiological reactions in a person's body while he or she
  7. 7. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 7 2012-2013 answers questions. First, a device called a anemograph is attached to a person's chest to record breathing patterns. Any abnormalities in respiratory patterns are recorded during an official interview. Next, a machine similar to a hose used in doctors' offices is attached to the person's upper arm to measure blood pressure. During this part of the polygraph test, the pulse and changes in blood pressure and heartbeat are recorded. Finally, skin responses are used as a part of the lie detection examination. Usually, the tips of a person's fingers are attached to electrodes. An abnormal amount of sweating is an indicator that the person may be laying. After the preceding steps have been followed, polygraph experts analyze the results. From the data, the experts may conclude that the person is telling the truth, or they may decide that the person is most likely lying. V. Signal of Transitional As mentioned earlier, a process analysis paragraph is a type of paragraph that consists of connected steps. Therefore, the steps in the process must be logical and are usually explained chronologically. That is, you should write the steps in the order they are performed which makes the sequence of actions and events clear. Transition expressions and time words can be used in order to make the sentences flow together. Thus, the readers will be able to read your paragraph more smoothly. Transitions Conjunctions Prepositi ons Adjectives Linking Words (Time/Logical Order) Subordi nating Coordinat ing After Before The first (thing) The second
  8. 8. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 8 2012-2013 First (of all) To begin with At first Second Third Next Then After that At this point the first step in the beginning first of all to begin with to start with the second step next while you are . . . as you are . . . eventually after you have . . . then afterward the last step the final step After Before Since When While Until And In addition to Prior to Since The third The next The last The final
  9. 9. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 9 2012-2013 USE AND PUNCTUATION NOTE After common linking words like first, second, third, next, finally, etc., use a comma. However, comma is not necessary with then. Example:First/Second/Third/Next, boil the eggs. Then peel the potatoes. First can come at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence. When it is at the beginning, use a comma. When it is in the middle or at the end of a sentence, comma is not necessary. Example:First, the chef boiled the eggs. The chef firstboiled the eggs. finally at last Later on At last Last (of all) In the end Finally Firstly, Secondly, Thirdly, Lastly are also possible in British English.
  10. 10. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 10 2012-2013 The chef boiled the eggs first. Next can come at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. When it is at the beginning, use a comma. When it is at the end, comma is not necessary. Example:Next, the chef peeled the potatoes. The chef peeled the potatoes next. Then can come at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. Using then after the subject and before the verb is more formal. In both cases, comma is not necessary. Example:Then the chef set the timer for 10 minutes. The chef then set the timer for 10 minutes. Finally can come at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence. When it is in the middle and at the end, the meaning is “at last”, not the final step/process. Use a comma when it is at the beginning. Comma is not necessary when it is in the middle or at the end. Example: Finally, serve the meal with yoghurt. The students finally came. She smiled finally. After adjectives like the first/second/third/next/last/final + step/thing, comma is not necessary. Example: The first step is to boil the eggs. The next thing you should do is to peel the potatoes.
  11. 11. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 11 2012-2013 Example of using signal transition It is fairly easy to cook a delicious apple cobbler. First, you will need to have at least two cupsof apples on hand, and they should be peeled and sliced into thin crescent shapes. Almost any type of apple will do--either red delicious or granny style or whatever your local grocery store offers. Next, you will need about one half cup of sugar for extra added sweetness. Either white granulated sugar or brown refined will work equally well. (I have used both kinds with the same success.) Finally, about two sticks of butter or two pounds of margarine will be necessary to give the cobbler that lip-smacking smoothness that my family just loves. The actual making of the cobbler is also fairly simple. You’ll need a very large mixing bowl, into which you will pour all the carefully cut apple slices as well as the sugar and the butter. Now you’ll need a rather large fork or spatula to mix and “mush up” all the ingredients together until they are all fairly well blended. While you have been doing all this, the oven has been pre-heating to a toasty 425 degrees Fahrenheit. When you think the mixture is well blended, then place the bowl carefully near the back of the center oven rack and leave it there for about thirty minutes. After about half thattime, you will begin to smell the enchanting aroma of baked apples filling your home, thus telling everyone that the wonderful time of fall is definitely here. VI. Instructions in writing process analysis 1. Be sure to take some time and think about the element you want to write about. Be sure that you are knowledgeable about the element you choose, so that your process analysis instructions will be clear for the reader. Be sure to draft out your step-by-step instructions for the element that you are writing about. 2. A Standard Recipe/Format for a Process Analysis Paragraph:
  12. 12. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 12 2012-2013 a).Write 1 clear topic sentence that states the element that you are writing about. In this sentence, try to include how many steps there are for your instructions. There should be at least 3 steps and no more than 6 steps. b).Write 1 sentence that tells the first step in this process. c) Write 1-2 sentences that provide an explanation or an example of this first step. Your explanation should tell what this step involves and why this step is needed. d) Using a transitional phrase, write 1 sentence that states the second step in your process. e) Write 1-2 sentences that explain your second step. Again, your explanation should tell what the step involves and why it is needed. f) Using another transitional phrase, write 1 sentence that mentions the third step in your process. g) Write 1-2 sentences that fully explain your third step. h) Write 1 closing sentence that seals off your paragraph. Note if your process analysis has more then three steps, then simply carry on after letter (g) and use the same format that appears in (b-g) 3. A student sample of a well developed and focused process analysis paragraph: The lower case letters are a guideline to show my readers how the paragraph follows the format in step 2. (a) Writing a well-developed essay can be easily done in about three to four steps. (b) The first thing that should be done in order to write a great essay is to brainstorm.
  13. 13. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 13 2012-2013 (c) Brainstorming allows the writer to take time to think about what he/she wants to write about. Furthermore, brainstorming helps the writer plan out and organize his/her thoughts and ideas, which will help with writing a focused essay. (d) The second step is to write a first draft and second draft. (e) Writing out a first and second draft will help the writer determine if he or she is staying on topic and following through with his/her outline from the brainstorm process. (f) The final step is to properly edit your second draft. (g) When editing your essay, the writer should edit to see if your essay has sufficient content and is well organized. Furthermore, the writer should edit for any grammatical or mechanical errors, in order to have a successful essay. (h) Finally, the essay should be ready to be turned into your professor. 4. A student sample of a well developed and focused process analysis paragraph: The lower case letters are a guideline to show my readers how the paragraph follows the format in step 2. (a) My grandmother's famous bread is easy to make; it can be done in three easy steps. (b) The first step is to layout all of the ingredients. (c) These ingredients include flower, water, sugar, yeast, salt, honey, and two eggs. Laying out these ingredients will allow you to stay organized when baking the bread. (d) The next step in baking my grandmother's famous bread is to mix all the ingredients in a mixing bowl.
  14. 14. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 14 2012-2013 (e) The best way to mix the ingredients is to mix the flower and water first, and then add all the other ingredients while mixing. This mixture will help blend all the flavors together. (f) The final step for this bread is to bake it in the oven. (g) When ready to bake it, you should pre-heat the oven to 450 f., and then bake the bread for about 30 minutes at this same temperate. This temperature and baking time will allow the bread to cook while keeping all of its moisture; therefore, the bread will not dry out. (h) Finally, the bread is ready to serve, so take it out of the oven, let it cool, cut it, and enjoy. 5. Always properly edit your work for content/organization and grammar/mechanics. VII. Paragraph Writing Concrete Slump Test To test concrete slump in Civil Engineering. First, you need something some equipment such as concrete, meter, wheel barrow, cone, board that support cone, and deformation bar. Second, you pour the concrete in wheel barrow into cone that supported by board three steps. Each step you hit the concrete 25 times. When you pour the concrete cover the top of the cone, then you hold the cone slowly and put it on the board. Finally, you take the meter survey the distance from the concrete that inclined to deformation bar that stay on the top of the cone. So you will know the concrete slump before you work with and use it. Written by: SengPhearun.
  15. 15. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 15 2012-2013 How to Make a Good Cup of Tea Making a good cup of tea is exquisitely simple. First, the teapot is heated by filling it with water that has just come to a boil. This water is then discarded, and one teaspoon of loose tea per cup is placed in the teapot (the exact amount may vary according to taste). Fresh water that has just come to a boil is poured into the pot. A good calculation is six ounces of water for each cup of tea. The tea must now steep for three to five minutes; then it is poured through a strainer into a cup or mug. A pound of loose tea will yield about two hundred cups of brewed tea. Using a tea bag eliminates the strainer, but it is still best to make the tea in a teapot so that the water stays sufficiently hot. The typical restaurant service a cup of hot water with the tea bag on the side will not produce the best cup of tea because the water is never hot enough when it reaches the table and because the tea should not be dunked in the water; the water should be poured over the tea. Although tea in a pot often becomes too strong, that problem can be dealt with very easily by adding more boiling water. Written by OuSokhom Process Analysis Writing To write a good process paragraph, you should pay attention to three important things. First, make sure that the steps in the process are complete. Following a procedure whose steps are incomplete will fail to produce the expected result. Second, present the steps in the right sequence. For example, if you are describing the process of cleaning an electric mixer, it is important to point out that you must first unplug the appliance before you remove the blades. A person could lose a finger if this part of the process were missing. Improperly written instructions have caused serious injuries and even death. Finally, use correct transitional words to indicate the sequence of the process
  16. 16. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 16 2012-2013 you are writing. The followings are transitions commonly used in process analysis. Written by PorLengeang How To Be A Good Friend To be a good friend, an individual has to spend time working on her friendships, or they will eventually fade. When two people first meet, they both need to be sure they are acting in good manor, so they don’t scare the other away. After they meet and start talking a few times, they will start getting to know each other, calling each other, and spending more time with each other. That is how a friendship begins. After they call each other “friends”, the friendship has to be made through the effort of more than just one person, so each has to do her own part. Friendships shouldn’t take a lot of money but they do take a lot of time and care. Friends should always listen to what the other has to say, and then should give advice only when asked for it. No matter how much friends are alike, everyone has differences, so a friend should be able to accept their differences. After being a friend to a person for a long period of time, one might get tired of hearing repeated problems everyday, but a good friend will always be there for her friend no matter what. Written by KheangHychhay.
  17. 17. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 17 2012-2013 Reference From Website http://www.englishparagraph.com/ http://www.processanalysisparagraph.com/ http://www.englishpage.com/
  18. 18. Norton University Department: Civil Engineering Page 18 2012-2013

×