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Git 101 
for everyone 
@sengopal
Who is this for? 
● Folks starting to use Git or foraying just now 
● Folks who are using SmartGit :) 
● Using Git as CVCS 
http://rogerdudler.github.io/git-guide/
Clearcase Vs. Git 
Central Vs. Distributed
Git How
Why command line 
No Installation 
Simple to use 
Comes bundled with Git as Git-Bash 
Consistent across OS
A simple workflow 
Clone or create new repository 
Update/Add files 
Stage the changes 
Review the changes 
Commit the changes
Git Setup 
$ git config --global user.name "John Doe" 
$ git config --global user.email johndoe@example.com 
$ git config --global color.ui true
Nomenclature
Create a new Repository 
$ cd project/ 
$ git init # initializes the repository 
$ git add . # add those 'unknown' files - ADDS FOR STAGE 
$ git commit # commit all changes, edit changelog entry 
- M 
$ git rm --cached <file>... # ridiculously complicated 
command to undo, in case you forgot .gitignore 
$ git reset HEAD <file> # same as before 
$ git init project002 #shortcut for mkdir project002 && 
cd project002 && git init
Git Clone 
$ git clone git://github.com/sengopal/simplegit.git 
Initialized empty Git repository in 
/private/tmp/simplegit/.git/ 
remote: Counting objects: 100, done. 
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (86/86), done. 
remote: Total 100 (delta 35), reused 0 (delta 0) 
Receiving objects: 100% (100/100), 9.51 KiB, done. 
Resolving deltas: 100% (35/35), done. 
$ cd simplegit/ 
$ ls 
copy the entire history of that project so you have it locally
Git status 
$ git status 
# On branch master 
# 
# Initial commit 
# 
# Changes to be committed: 
# (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage) 
# 
# new file: README 
# new file: hello.py 
# 
# Changed but not updated: 
# (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) 
# (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in 
working directory) 
# 
# modified: README 
#
Git add 
Start tracking new files and also to stage changes to already tracked files 
$ touch README.md; echo “test” > README.md 
$ git status 
$ git add . 
$ git status 
$ git diff 
Shortcut: git commit -a # the -a flag pulls in all modified files 
will commit all changed files (but not new files, those need to be added to the 
index with git-add). If you want to commit only certain files then you will need to 
stage them first with git-add
Git diff 
To compare two revisions of a file, or your current file and a previous revision 
$ git diff README.md 
$ git diff --staged README.md 
$ git diff HEAD README.md 
$ git diff --stat README.md 
To compare 2 revisions of a file: 
$ git diff <commit1> <commit2> <file_name>
.gitignore 
$ git add .gitignore 
will use its rules when looking at files to commit to ignore from staging 
$ git rm --cached filename 
will not ignore a file that was already tracked before a rule was added to this file 
# to remove the tracked file - Caution: This deletes the file 
$ git config --global core.excludesfile ~/. 
gitignore_global 
file can be committed into the repository, thus sharing the rule list with any 
other users that clone the repository.
Git Commit 
$ git commit -m 'my awesome changes' 
-m option not given - open a text editor for you to write your commit message. 
$ git commit -a 
automatically stage all tracked, modified files before the commit
Git push 
remote branches 
are identical to local branches except that Git will not allow you to check them 
out. However, you can merge from them, diff them to other branches, run 
history logs on them, etc. You do all of that stuff locally after you synchronize. 
$ git push <remote> <branch> 
# push new commits to the <branch> on the <remote> repository 
For someone coming from CVS, the commit to the central 
repository now requires two steps. 
$ git clone 
# creates a remote called origin for push and fetch
Git pull and fetch 
$ git pull <remote> <branch> 
# fetches code and merges it 
$ git fetch <remote> <branch> 
# fetches code without merging 
$ git pull --tag <remote> <branch> 
# pulls tags as well
Git reset 
just a plain old git reset should unstage accidental git add 
$ git reset --soft 
undo the last commit and put the files back onto the stage 
$ git reset --hard 
undo the last commit, unstage files AND undo any changes in the working dir 
$ git-reset --hard <hash> 
Revert to a previous commit by hash 
$ git-reset --hard HEAD^ 
your last commit before pull/merge
Git reset 
$ git reset HEAD <file> 
unstage file and copy from latest commit 
$ git reset -- <file> 
unstages specific files and copy files from the stage 
$ git checkout HEAD -- files 
copies files from the latest commit to both the stage and the working directory. 
$ git checkout -- files 
copies files from the stage to the working directory. Use this to throw away local 
changes.
git branch 
The default branch in a git repository is called master. 
$ git branch <branch-name> 
To create a new branch use 
$ git branch 
To see a list of all branches in the current repository type 
$ git checkout <branch-name> 
If you want to switch to another branch you can use 
$ git checkout -b <branch-name> 
To create a new branch and switch to it in one step 
$ git branch -d <branch-name> # To delete a branch 
$ git stash branch <branch-name> # To create a branch with current 
changes
git rebase 
$ git checkout experiment 
$ git rebase master 
First, rewinding head to replay your work on top of it... 
Applying: added staged command 
$ git rebase -i 
$ git rebase --interactive
git merge 
If you want to merge a branch (e.g. master to release), make sure your current 
branch is the target branch you'd like to merge into (use git branch or git status to 
see your current branch). 
$ git merge experiment 
where experiment is the name of the branch you want to merge with the current 
branch 
$ git diff 
to see pending conflicts you have to resolve. 
$ git checkout -b linux-work # create a new branch 
$ <make changes> 
$ git commit -a 
$ git checkout master # go back to master branch 
$ git merge linux-work # merge changesets from linux-work
git merge 
$ git checkout master 
$ git rebase topic 
First, rewinding head to replay your work on top of it... 
Fast-forwarded master to topic. 
This command lays the latest changes to topic right on top of the master 
branch, and preserves all of your commit history- laying them right on the end 
of the master branch’s commit history. 
$ git merge --squash topic 
This command will result in a commit log like a normal merge- meaning that all 
of the individual commit messages from the topic branch will become one 
single “merge” message.
mergetool 
$ cat /usr/local/bin/extMerge 
#!/bin/sh 
/Applications/p4merge.app/Contents/MacOS/p4merge $* 
$ git config --global merge.tool extMerge 
$ git config --global mergetool.extMerge.cmd 'extMerge 
"$BASE" "$LOCAL" "$REMOTE" "$MERGED"' 
$ git config --global mergetool.trustExitCode = false 
~/.gitconfig 
[merge] 
tool = extMerge 
[mergetool "extMerge"] 
cmd = extMerge "$BASE" "$LOCAL" "$REMOTE" "$MERGED" 
trustExitCode = false
gitconfig 
$ git config --global core.editor emacs 
$ git config --global core.pager '' 
$ git config --global color.ui true 
$ git config --global diff.external extDiff 
$ git config --global core.whitespace  
trailing-space,space-before-tab,indent-with-non-tab 
$ git config --global merge.stat true
Branching
git remote 
$ git remote add origin user@server:/path/to/project.git 
adding a remote branch 
$ git remote -v 
origin git@github.com:github/git-reference.git (fetch) 
origin git@github.com:github/git-reference.git (push) 
list the remotes available 
$ git remote rm origin 
removing an existing remote alias
Quick tips 
$ git log -- filename 
see the history of revisions to a file 
$ gitk 
inspect history visually, shows you how the revisions are connected 
$ git log 
this pipes a log of the current branch into your PAGER 
$ git log -p 
# same as above, but append a patch after each commit message 
$ git show HEAD 
show commit info, diffstat and patch of the tip of current branch
Quick tips 
$ git filter-branch --tree-filter 'rm -f filename' HEAD 
remove all instances of a file from every commit 
$ git filter-branch --env-filter  
"export GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL=you@email.com" HEAD 
change your email in all commits 
$ git blame <file-name> 
history of user changes in a file 
$ git log --pretty=oneline --graph 
pretty log with a graph of changes done
Future References 
http://gitimmersion.com 
http://git-scm.com/doc 
http://help.github.com

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Git and github 101

  • 1. Git 101 for everyone @sengopal
  • 2. Who is this for? ● Folks starting to use Git or foraying just now ● Folks who are using SmartGit :) ● Using Git as CVCS http://rogerdudler.github.io/git-guide/
  • 3. Clearcase Vs. Git Central Vs. Distributed
  • 5. Why command line No Installation Simple to use Comes bundled with Git as Git-Bash Consistent across OS
  • 6. A simple workflow Clone or create new repository Update/Add files Stage the changes Review the changes Commit the changes
  • 7. Git Setup $ git config --global user.name "John Doe" $ git config --global user.email johndoe@example.com $ git config --global color.ui true
  • 9. Create a new Repository $ cd project/ $ git init # initializes the repository $ git add . # add those 'unknown' files - ADDS FOR STAGE $ git commit # commit all changes, edit changelog entry - M $ git rm --cached <file>... # ridiculously complicated command to undo, in case you forgot .gitignore $ git reset HEAD <file> # same as before $ git init project002 #shortcut for mkdir project002 && cd project002 && git init
  • 10. Git Clone $ git clone git://github.com/sengopal/simplegit.git Initialized empty Git repository in /private/tmp/simplegit/.git/ remote: Counting objects: 100, done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (86/86), done. remote: Total 100 (delta 35), reused 0 (delta 0) Receiving objects: 100% (100/100), 9.51 KiB, done. Resolving deltas: 100% (35/35), done. $ cd simplegit/ $ ls copy the entire history of that project so you have it locally
  • 11. Git status $ git status # On branch master # # Initial commit # # Changes to be committed: # (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage) # # new file: README # new file: hello.py # # Changed but not updated: # (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) # (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) # # modified: README #
  • 12. Git add Start tracking new files and also to stage changes to already tracked files $ touch README.md; echo “test” > README.md $ git status $ git add . $ git status $ git diff Shortcut: git commit -a # the -a flag pulls in all modified files will commit all changed files (but not new files, those need to be added to the index with git-add). If you want to commit only certain files then you will need to stage them first with git-add
  • 13. Git diff To compare two revisions of a file, or your current file and a previous revision $ git diff README.md $ git diff --staged README.md $ git diff HEAD README.md $ git diff --stat README.md To compare 2 revisions of a file: $ git diff <commit1> <commit2> <file_name>
  • 14. .gitignore $ git add .gitignore will use its rules when looking at files to commit to ignore from staging $ git rm --cached filename will not ignore a file that was already tracked before a rule was added to this file # to remove the tracked file - Caution: This deletes the file $ git config --global core.excludesfile ~/. gitignore_global file can be committed into the repository, thus sharing the rule list with any other users that clone the repository.
  • 15. Git Commit $ git commit -m 'my awesome changes' -m option not given - open a text editor for you to write your commit message. $ git commit -a automatically stage all tracked, modified files before the commit
  • 16. Git push remote branches are identical to local branches except that Git will not allow you to check them out. However, you can merge from them, diff them to other branches, run history logs on them, etc. You do all of that stuff locally after you synchronize. $ git push <remote> <branch> # push new commits to the <branch> on the <remote> repository For someone coming from CVS, the commit to the central repository now requires two steps. $ git clone # creates a remote called origin for push and fetch
  • 17. Git pull and fetch $ git pull <remote> <branch> # fetches code and merges it $ git fetch <remote> <branch> # fetches code without merging $ git pull --tag <remote> <branch> # pulls tags as well
  • 18. Git reset just a plain old git reset should unstage accidental git add $ git reset --soft undo the last commit and put the files back onto the stage $ git reset --hard undo the last commit, unstage files AND undo any changes in the working dir $ git-reset --hard <hash> Revert to a previous commit by hash $ git-reset --hard HEAD^ your last commit before pull/merge
  • 19. Git reset $ git reset HEAD <file> unstage file and copy from latest commit $ git reset -- <file> unstages specific files and copy files from the stage $ git checkout HEAD -- files copies files from the latest commit to both the stage and the working directory. $ git checkout -- files copies files from the stage to the working directory. Use this to throw away local changes.
  • 20. git branch The default branch in a git repository is called master. $ git branch <branch-name> To create a new branch use $ git branch To see a list of all branches in the current repository type $ git checkout <branch-name> If you want to switch to another branch you can use $ git checkout -b <branch-name> To create a new branch and switch to it in one step $ git branch -d <branch-name> # To delete a branch $ git stash branch <branch-name> # To create a branch with current changes
  • 21. git rebase $ git checkout experiment $ git rebase master First, rewinding head to replay your work on top of it... Applying: added staged command $ git rebase -i $ git rebase --interactive
  • 22. git merge If you want to merge a branch (e.g. master to release), make sure your current branch is the target branch you'd like to merge into (use git branch or git status to see your current branch). $ git merge experiment where experiment is the name of the branch you want to merge with the current branch $ git diff to see pending conflicts you have to resolve. $ git checkout -b linux-work # create a new branch $ <make changes> $ git commit -a $ git checkout master # go back to master branch $ git merge linux-work # merge changesets from linux-work
  • 23. git merge $ git checkout master $ git rebase topic First, rewinding head to replay your work on top of it... Fast-forwarded master to topic. This command lays the latest changes to topic right on top of the master branch, and preserves all of your commit history- laying them right on the end of the master branch’s commit history. $ git merge --squash topic This command will result in a commit log like a normal merge- meaning that all of the individual commit messages from the topic branch will become one single “merge” message.
  • 24. mergetool $ cat /usr/local/bin/extMerge #!/bin/sh /Applications/p4merge.app/Contents/MacOS/p4merge $* $ git config --global merge.tool extMerge $ git config --global mergetool.extMerge.cmd 'extMerge "$BASE" "$LOCAL" "$REMOTE" "$MERGED"' $ git config --global mergetool.trustExitCode = false ~/.gitconfig [merge] tool = extMerge [mergetool "extMerge"] cmd = extMerge "$BASE" "$LOCAL" "$REMOTE" "$MERGED" trustExitCode = false
  • 25. gitconfig $ git config --global core.editor emacs $ git config --global core.pager '' $ git config --global color.ui true $ git config --global diff.external extDiff $ git config --global core.whitespace trailing-space,space-before-tab,indent-with-non-tab $ git config --global merge.stat true
  • 27. git remote $ git remote add origin user@server:/path/to/project.git adding a remote branch $ git remote -v origin git@github.com:github/git-reference.git (fetch) origin git@github.com:github/git-reference.git (push) list the remotes available $ git remote rm origin removing an existing remote alias
  • 28. Quick tips $ git log -- filename see the history of revisions to a file $ gitk inspect history visually, shows you how the revisions are connected $ git log this pipes a log of the current branch into your PAGER $ git log -p # same as above, but append a patch after each commit message $ git show HEAD show commit info, diffstat and patch of the tip of current branch
  • 29. Quick tips $ git filter-branch --tree-filter 'rm -f filename' HEAD remove all instances of a file from every commit $ git filter-branch --env-filter "export GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL=you@email.com" HEAD change your email in all commits $ git blame <file-name> history of user changes in a file $ git log --pretty=oneline --graph pretty log with a graph of changes done
  • 30. Future References http://gitimmersion.com http://git-scm.com/doc http://help.github.com