Introduction To Journalism


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Introduction To Journalism

  1. 1. News Sources
  2. 2. Organization News Sources <ul><li>Newspaper story obviously come from many sources. </li></ul><ul><li>They include all available offices of the country, the governmental offices, city the headquarters of all civil and professional organizations. Universities, Ministries and many individuals, public and private who occupy key positions in business, industry, transportation utilities and other major fields </li></ul>
  3. 3. Staff reporters <ul><li>Staff reporters are the most useful source of news stories </li></ul><ul><li>They operate from the newsroom or from branch offices, and sometimes independently in districts and are controlled and briefed by news editor </li></ul><ul><li>Briefings can vary from a simple inquiry by telephone or personal call arising out of a letter or information, to complicated jobs involving a team of reporters in several locations </li></ul><ul><li>Some stories can have both home and foreign ends and last all day or several days </li></ul>
  4. 4. Staff reporters <ul><li>Reporter’s copy is telephoned or e-mailed from locations when edition deadline is pressing </li></ul><ul><li>In big staff organizations a newspaper might use a number of reporters as an investigative team on long-term news projects under a leader or editor who collects the material for use </li></ul><ul><li>This is usually planned into the paper in advances as a special news feature </li></ul>
  5. 5. Freelance reporters <ul><li>Freelance reporters are used mainly on special assignments and are paid per job or per days or weeks worked </li></ul><ul><li>They are not tied to any paper except where they have specific contract covering a job or sequence of shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Local correspondents: </li></ul><ul><li>They are journalists mostly working for a local newspaper, or in local places </li></ul>
  6. 6. News Agencies <ul><li>News agencies are vital to the newspaper industry </li></ul><ul><li>National and international agencies work around the clock to provide materials from bureaus and correspondents in cities and countries, checking and editing and then distributing it </li></ul>
  7. 7. News Agencies <ul><li>The huge agencies in the world are Reuters, Associated Press and Agence France Presse that controlled news flow for a very long time and are considered among the giant media organization around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries have their own national agencies </li></ul><ul><li>In Egypt our national agency is the Middle East agency known as (MENA) </li></ul>
  8. 8. The internet <ul><li>The internet has exerted influence on the way reporters and editors in all media are gathering information </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to search the internet by topic provides an incomparable way of gaining information </li></ul><ul><li>The internet also provides access to thousands of online news sites. By surfing through news sites, you can gain information about issues that can tailor to your community </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sources and Beats <ul><li>At most newspapers , as much as 90 percent of all local news </li></ul><ul><li>comes from regular beats and sources. They are the same at </li></ul><ul><li>almost every newspaper. Reporters are assigned to them by the </li></ul><ul><li>city editor to cover daily. They are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The ministry cabinet and the presidency office. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The ministries' offices. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The city police station. city jail, governor's office, police </li></ul><ul><li>stations, fire department and local hospitals. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The city courthouse. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The cities offices </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sources and Beats <ul><li>6. The governmental building or offices. </li></ul><ul><li>7. City, private schools; college; universities and labor organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Civic and professional organizations . </li></ul><ul><li>9. Chambers of commerce, business firms, industries and labor </li></ul><ul><li>organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Business and industrial important to the local community. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Convention centers, hotels, airlines and other firms engaging </li></ul><ul><li>in tourism or accommodating meeting and visitors, such as the </li></ul><ul><li>local tourist bureau. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sources and Beats <ul><li>12. Motion picture theaters, radio and televising stations and all </li></ul><ul><li>organizations offering theaters or musical productions. </li></ul><ul><li>Many newspapers also have specialized beats dealing with the </li></ul><ul><li>environment, agriculture, science news and other areas of public </li></ul><ul><li>concern </li></ul>
  12. 12. News Organization Publisher General Manager Editorial department Mechanical Department Business Department
  13. 13. Editorial Department <ul><li>The function of the newspaper's editorial department is to gather news from various sources and to write it into readable, interesting stories, edit them and plan how they will displayed on the printed plates. </li></ul><ul><li>Other functions of the editorial department are to instruct or influence the public through editorials, commentary and analysis, as well as to entertain the public through its by-lined columns, comics and other features. All the editorial content of the newspaper is processed by the editorial department </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mechanical department: <ul><li>The complicated and highly technical process of transforming the reporter's stories into type and reproducing them on thousands of pages of newsprint is done by the mechanical department, which include the composing room and the pressroom. </li></ul><ul><li>In the past decade the printing process has become highly computerized </li></ul>
  15. 15. Business department: <ul><li>To finance the two other departments, advertising space must be sold, subscriptions must be solicited and the finished product must be deliver to the readers. </li></ul><ul><li>To handle these important duties, most newspapers have separate advertising and circulation departments under the business department. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Business department <ul><li>A third division handles problems of management, personnel and business administration at many newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising, circulation and management may be combined into one unit at small newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>At larger ones, they generally operate as separate unites and report to a business or general manager. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Details of Organization <ul><li>The organization of newspaper will vary considerably, depending on its size. </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan newspapers frequently have highly developed organization charts. </li></ul><ul><li>At smaller newspapers some of the duties of various departments may overlap. </li></ul><ul><li>And in rare cases, there may be no formal organization chart at all; everyone does what has to be done to get the paper out. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The publisher <ul><li>All papers have a publisher. The title often is assumed by the owner or the majority stockholder in the corporation or it can be given to someone hired to serve in that position. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of involvement by the publisher in the daily operation of the newspaper varies greatly. </li></ul><ul><li>On smaller newspapers a publisher may also be the editor and general manager. </li></ul><ul><li>On large newspapers he or she may serve as the chief executive officer of the company and delegate authority for daily operation to a general manger </li></ul>
  19. 19. The publisher <ul><li>Although a publisher technically has the power to dictate all polices, editorial as well as business, it usually does not work that way. </li></ul><ul><li>Policies are generally worked out among the publisher or owners, if the publisher is hired ,the editors and often members of the business staff. </li></ul><ul><li>The publisher is ultimately and legally, responsible for everything that appears in the newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>On smaller dailies and weeklies, the publisher may be the owner, editor and even one of the reporters. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Business manager <ul><li>The business manager generally has authority over advertising, circulation and the office manager, if the newspaper is large enough to need an office manager. </li></ul><ul><li>In many instances the business manager also fills that position. In that type of organization, the advertising and circulation managers report to the business manager, who then reports to the general manager or publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>On smaller newspaper it is not uncommon for the publisher also to act as the business manager and an advertising sales representatives. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reporting and editing <ul><li>In the past two decades, the process of getting a story into print has changed dramatically, with the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Reporter write their stories on a video-display Terminal (VDT) or a computer. Copy editors use VDTs to edit stories and write headline . Graphic artists use personal computers, often the Apple Macintosh for designs, charts, graphs and maps and at same papers to design the pages. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Computers and composition <ul><li>Computers drive the photocomposition machines that produce the finished stories and headlines on smooth, flexible photographic paper that is glued to page- forms and photographed. </li></ul><ul><li>The image is produced on newsprint by the offset method .The result is generally a much sharper, cleaner - appearing newspaper. The most modern newspaper presses are computer driven </li></ul>
  23. 23. Computers and composition <ul><li>Major benefits of computerization have been increased speed and the reduction of personnel, particularly in the composition and printing operations. </li></ul><ul><li>However. there is still considerable debate in newsrooms over whether the end product is as good. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The reporting & editing process <ul><li>The editor of a newspaper works in concert with the publisher and often the business manager, he or she is primarily responsible for the running the daily operation to a managing editor who, in turn, directs the activities of the city editor and the various department editors. </li></ul><ul><li>All local news stories are written by staff reporters who work under the city editor. Stories received from the national wire services are handled by the wire editor. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The reporting & editing process <ul><li>Correspondents work through the managing editor. Editors in charge of lifestyles, sports, entertainment, business and other editorial departments handle all the stories for their pages. </li></ul><ul><li>However, they work closely with the managing editor, the city editor and the graphics editor in an effort to coordinate their efforts. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The reporting & editing process <ul><li>Editorials are written by editors and editorial writers. Usually, </li></ul><ul><li>if an editor has administrative duties, he or she may write few </li></ul><ul><li>editorials. Some newspapers may buy editorials from syndicated </li></ul><ul><li>services. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the public relations offices of a number of the </li></ul><ul><li>national business and professional organizations and other special </li></ul><ul><li>interest groups send materials for editorials to newspapers. Some </li></ul><ul><li>newspapers use them, but others consider their use unethical and </li></ul><ul><li>will not print them. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Stories written by staff reporters are carefully read by copy </li></ul><ul><li>editors not only for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>but also for errors in facts and in style . </li></ul><ul><li>Staff members also serve on the rewrite desk. They may take </li></ul><ul><li>stories by phone from out-of- the- office reporters working their </li></ul><ul><li>beats or covering a breaking news event, or they may be given </li></ul><ul><li>press releases to rewrite. </li></ul><ul><li>On larger newspapers most headline are written by the copy </li></ul><ul><li>editors. </li></ul><ul><li>On smaller ones much of the copy reading and headline </li></ul><ul><li>writing may be done by the city ,wire and state editors. And on </li></ul><ul><li>very small publications, a reporter may write the headline on the </li></ul><ul><li>story he or she has just composed </li></ul>
  28. 28. Photographers <ul><li>Photographers may serve under a chief photographer, but their assignments generally </li></ul><ul><li>come from a photo editor or one of the departmental editors </li></ul><ul><li>They may accompany a reporter on an </li></ul><ul><li>assignment, or they may cover an event alone. </li></ul><ul><li>On smaller newspapers reporters often serve as their own photographs. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Department editors <ul><li>Department editors are in charge of special sections devoted to </li></ul><ul><li>such topics as business; sports; and entertainment, including </li></ul><ul><li>radio, television, motion pictures, the arts, music and books. </li></ul><ul><li>Department editors also are responsible for the special sections </li></ul><ul><li>of most newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>However, on smaller newspapers coverage of those areas may </li></ul><ul><li>be assigned to various staff reporters in addition to their regular </li></ul><ul><li>duties. The book page editor may be an editorial writer, for </li></ul><ul><li>example. Or a beat reporter may also for movie reviews </li></ul>
  30. 30. Personal computers and reporting <ul><li>The availability of personal computers and the growing use of </li></ul><ul><li>computers to collect data and sort vast collections of government </li></ul><ul><li>records introduced a new term to the journalism vocabulary at the start of the last decade of the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-assisted reporting&quot; .Reporters quickly learned to make good use of data bases and many have moved on to using computer software programs to analyze government data bases </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative reporters say computer analysis of data bases can cut months or years of hard work </li></ul>
  31. 31. Thanks