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Firstly used on the Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS), fingerprint biometrics is now adapted to parallel markets such as Physical Access Control, Logical Access Control, Secured Payment Solutions and applications OEM. These devices profit from the vast expertise acquired by AFIS systems, while using the latest technology.

Published in: Technology, Business


  2. 2. WEAKNESSES OF ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Physical access control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cards can easily be lost, stolen or even copied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can’t prevent someone from using someone else’s card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual controls can’t deal with a large population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logical access control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More and more passwords are to remember </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No sure solution exists to face that challenge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Password change policies are barely applied </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT ARE THE MARKET NEEDS? <ul><li>Governments and Companies : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the 9/11 public areas are more and more secured on governments request : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ports, Airports, Nuclear plants, etc… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More and more industries such as (Pharmaceutics, petrol, etc…) reinforce the security of their accesses to protect their intellectual properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distant sites need a sure access control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Companies choose more often to reinforce their authentication policy : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication consists in combining several authentication mode : Cards, passwords, biometrics </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. PHYSICAL ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Physical access control architecture becomes IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet networks use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP controllers, IP readers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network can be protected by known technologies: SSL, IPSEC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical access control systems integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Card readers also tend to offer more security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive abandon of low frequency card technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New cards and readers development : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual authentication of the reader and the card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crypted radio communication between the card and the reader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multimode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biometrics compatibility </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. BIOMETRICS TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>Biometrics technologies are automated techniques that are designed to verify or identify people based on their physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Various forms have emerged. </li></ul>
  6. 6. CHOOSING YOUR BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>IRIS (9% of market share): </li></ul><ul><li>High cost </li></ul><ul><li>Very low false acceptance rate but a residual false reject rate still high </li></ul><ul><li>Contactless </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics : Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Data are stable </li></ul>No technology is 100% reliable <ul><li>Fingerprint (50% of market share) has many advantages : </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions are mature at an affordable price </li></ul><ul><li>Good performance </li></ul><ul><li>Good ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>Data are stable </li></ul><ul><li>Facial recognition (12% of market share) : </li></ul><ul><li>Recent technology </li></ul><ul><li>Few terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Very good ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>Contactless </li></ul><ul><li>Medium performance but in progress </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting is sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Re enrolment is necessary after some period of time </li></ul>
  7. 7. TWO COMPLEMENTARY CONCEPTS <ul><li>Verification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existant systems compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometrics is saved in a card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Datas can also be managed through a server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrolment and encoding can be done apart from the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database is managed by the terminals or the controllers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires fast network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires good calculation speed from the terminals or controllers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False acceptance rate must be guaranteed indepedently from the database size </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. BIOMETRICS ADDS SECURITY AND COMFORT <ul><li>Security (Verification) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muti-factor authentication (Biometric + badge and/or password) always improve the security level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less convenient for users compare to standard methods but more secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few modifications in existing systems are required if the biometric token is stored on a card </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security & Ergonomy (Identification) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The biometric identification can replace the badge and/or PIN verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a biometric technology performing accurate and fast identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More convenient for users: No badge nor token required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more modifications to existing and not scalable to all applications </li></ul></ul>Some governmental organizations (CNIL in France) recommends to store biometric data on card for privacy issues
  9. 9. HOW BIOMETRICS WORK ? Candidate List Acquisition Scanner Store ENROLMENT VERIFICATION / IDENTIFICATION Store Encoding
  10. 10. ACQUISITION & FEATURE EXTRACTION <ul><li>Different types of sensors can be used to capture the features : Cameras, Microphone, Silicon chip sensors, Ultrasonic sensors etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Each biometric technology has its own biometric features </li></ul>Biometric Type of feature Representation Fingerprint Minutiae points Easy to locate by humans (x,y,  ) IRIS Fiber location in the IRIS image Very difficult to locate for a human (phase of the fiber) FACIAL Projections in multi-dimensional space : Purely mathematical Not detectable by human
  11. 11. COMPARISON OF TWO BIOMETRIC TEMPLATES <ul><li>A score is a measure of similarity between two templates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The score is usually related to a probability of false match </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A biometric template is not KEY nor a unique ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A biometric template can not replace a signature </li></ul></ul>Biometric template 1 Biometric template 2 Matcher Matching Score <ul><li>The biometric template is a mathematical representation of the biometric characteristics </li></ul>Probability of Match Biometric template
  12. 12. COMPARISON OF TWO BIOMETRIC TEMPLATES <ul><li>Identification mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric templates are stored in a centralized database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An access or a secret may be released upon successful identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performances depends on the size of database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing time & False reject rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Verification mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometrics templates are stored on a card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performances are better than in identification mode (FRR remains constant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The verification can be done off the card (Match on Device, Match on server) or on the card (Match On card) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some assumes that the biometrics templates can be compared to a secret key but biometric data remains public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>On the main issue is the ability to detect liveliness </li></ul>
  13. 13. PERFORMANCE OF BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>The following measures are used to characterize these technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to Enroll (FTE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False Match Rate (FAR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False Non Match Rate (FRR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal Error Rate (ERR) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These performance are different from one individual to another and depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrolment conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The operation : Verification or Identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The algorithms accuracy, the biometric terminals used for the capture etc... </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. TEST METHODOLOGY False Reject False Acceptance
  15. 15. PERFORMANCE: A MATTER OF TRADE OFF Requirements Error rate % False Acceptance Rate (FAR) False Reject Rate (FRR) Types of authentication errors Comfort Security
  16. 16. TYPICAL ROC CURVE % % False Reject 0,1 0,01 0,001 False Acceptance 0,0001 1 2 ROC curve: Receiving Operating Curve
  17. 17. PERFORMANCE EXTRAPOLATION <ul><li>Performance extrapolation is driven by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The function performed: Identification or Verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The data set size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several models exist to estimate the performance of large scale identification systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrapolation from experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modelization of the 1:N Identification process as a succession of N verifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme value statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrapolation when the matching distance can be easily modeled </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. TEST METHODOLOGY SAGEM has collected large databases ... … and is able to evaluate accuratly its fingerprint solutions
  20. 20. AND THREE POSSIBLE APPROACHES To have 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # To know To be