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Programming

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Chapter 5 P

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Programming

  1. 1. Action 1 Action 2 False True Condition VISUAL BASIC C++ JAVA PASCAL C PROGRAMMING PROGRAMMING CHAPTER 5.0 VISUAL BASIC C++ JAVA PASCAL Action 1 Action 2 False True Condition C
  2. 2. DEFINITION CONTROL STRUCTURE DATA TYPES OPERATOR CONSTANT & VARIABLE TRANSLATOR FLOW CHART LEVEL & GENERATION DEVELOPMENT PHASES DEFINITION CONTROL STRUCTURE DATA TYPES OPERATOR CONSTANT & VARIABLE TRANSLATOR FLOW CHART LEVEL & GENERATION DEVELOPMENT PHASES PROGRAMMING
  3. 3. FIRST GENERATION SECOND GENERATION THIRD GENERATION FOURTH GENERATION FIFTH GENERATION LEVEL OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES LOW LEVEL HIGH LEVEL 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5 th
  4. 4. LEVEL OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES LOW LEVEL FIRST GENERATION SECOND GENERATION THIRD GENERATION FOURTH GENERATION FIFTH GENERATION Machine Language Assembly Language High Level Language Very High Level Language Natural Language BASIC FORTRAN C C++ C# JAVA HIGH LEVEL
  5. 5. FIRST GENERATION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES SECOND THIRD <ul><li>1010 1001001 100101 </li></ul><ul><li>1110111 000110 </li></ul><ul><li>1001 101010 1001101 </li></ul>MACHINE LANGUAGE ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE
  6. 6. GENERATION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES THIRD FOURTH FIFTH Get me computer sales in February. List me students from class 5S2. SELECT SUM(total_price) FROM sales WHERE month = Feb SELECT student FROM datafile WHERE class = 5S2 n = 1 Do If class =“5S2” Then name[n] = NameFromFile End If n = n + 1 Loop Until EOF(student) VERY HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE NATURAL LANGUAGE HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE
  7. 7. FIRST TYPE OF TRANSLATORS SECOND THIRD <ul><li>1010 1001001 100101 </li></ul><ul><li>1110111 000110 </li></ul>MACHINE LANGUAGE ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE ASSEMBLER INTERPRETER COMPILER IF MARKS > 50 THEN PRINT “LULUS” ELSE PRINT “GAGAL” END IF
  8. 8. High Level Language Machine Language into Compiler & Interpreter are programs that translate high level language into machine language Source Code (High Level Language) Object Code (Machine Language) 10 Input “Number 1” ; x 20 Input “Number” ; y 30 z = x + y 40 Print “Answer “ ; z 0010001 010010 0000100 0001001 001000 0010000 0010001 010010 0000001 0010011 010101 1010101
  9. 9. Interpreter Compiler Line by Line Entire program
  10. 10. Dim Name as String Dim Score as Integer Dim Mark as Integer examples Const PI = 3.142 Const GRAVITY = 9.8 Const WAGE = 5.5 Variables can change their value during the program execution. characteristics Constants retain their value during the program execution. Variables difference Constants
  11. 11. Date data type contains date and time value. Date Boolean data type contains either a true or false value. Boolean (Logical Value) String data type contains a sequence of character . String (Text) Double data type contains any decimal number value that has a fractional part. Double (Number) Integer data type contains any whole number value that does not have any frictional part. Integer (Number) Explanation Data types
  12. 12. Datatypes Examples Value Datatype N/A Any datatypes Variant 12/5/2008 Date or time Date True or False Logical values Boolean Abu Hassan Jalan Bahagia Text information String RM 123.45 3.5 kg Decimal numbers Double 107 students -6 0 Celcius Whole numbers Integer
  13. 13. Complete Datatype 0 to 255 Whole numbers Byte N/A Any of the preceding datatypes Variant Jan 1st 100 to December 31st 9999 Date and time information Date True or False Logical values Boolean Up to 65,000 characters for fixed-length strings and up to 2 billion characters for dynamic strings Text information String 922,337,203,685,477.5808 to 922,337,203,685,477.5807 Numbers with up to 15 digits left of the decimal and 4 digits right of the decimal Currency -1.79769313486232E308 to -4.94065645841247E-324 for negative values and 4.94065645841247E-324 to 1.79769313486232E308 for positive values Decimal numbers Double -3.402823E38 to -1.401298E-45 for negative values and 1.401298E-45 to 3.402823E38 for positive values Decimal numbers Single Approximately +/- 2.1E9 Whole numbers Long -32,768 to 32,767 Whole numbers Integer
  14. 14. OPERATOR Assignment Operator Mathematical Operator Comparison Operator Logical Operator An operator is a symbol that causes VB to take an action causes the left side operand to have right side value to perform mathematical operations to compare two value and return value whether true or false to perform logical operations and return value whether true or false
  15. 15. Age = 17 operand Asssignment operator
  16. 16. OPERATOR Divide / Not Operator Not Multiply * Or Operator Or Minus - And Operator And Plus + Meaning Logical Operator Meaning Mathematical Operator
  17. 17. OPERATOR Not Equal <> Equal = Less Than or equal <= Less than < Greater Than or equal >= Greater than > Comparison Operator Meaning Comparison Operator
  18. 18. Action 1 Action 2 False True Condition Action 1 Action 2 Action 3 SEQUENCE SELECTION CONTROL STRUCTURE
  19. 19. BEGIN READ Number Of Share IF Number Of Share >= 1 THEN Dividend = Number Of Share x 5 % PRINT Dividend ELSE PRINT Error Message END IF END END BEGIN READ Number of Share False True
  20. 20. END BEGIN Average = (Number1 + Number2 + Number3)/3 Print Average Get Number1 Get Number2 Get Number3 Declaration Dim Number1 as Double Dim Number2 as Double Dim Number3 as Double Dim Average as Double Process Average = (Number1 + Number2 + Number3)/3 Output txtAverage.text = Average Input Number1 = txtNumber1.text Number2 = txtNumber2.text Number3 = txtNumber3.text
  21. 21. Syarat Kemasukan SERATA <ul><li>Bahasa Arab = Lulus </li></ul><ul><li>Bilangan A > 4 </li></ul><ul><li>If BahasaArab = Lulus And BilA > 4 Then </li></ul><ul><li>DiTerima Masuk Serata </li></ul><ul><li>Else </li></ul><ul><li>Sila mohon ke sekolah lain </li></ul><ul><li>End If </li></ul>Logical Operator Comparison Operator
  22. 22. FLOW CHART 5
  23. 23. FLOW CHART parallelogram rectangle diamond oval arrow 5
  24. 24. FLOW CHART parallelogram rectangle diamond oval arrow DECISION PROCESS INPUT/OUTPUT FLOWLINE TERMINAL 5
  25. 25. FLOW CHART parallelogram rectangle diamond oval arrow DECISION PROCESS INPUT/OUTPUT FLOWLINE TERMINAL FORMULA READ / PRINT IF – THEN - ELSE BEGIN / END 5
  26. 26. STRUCTURED APPROACH OBJECT ORIENTED APPROACH Structured Approach is a computer programming technique in which the program is divided into modules like function or subroutine. Object Oriented Approach is a computer programming techniques based on the concept of an “ object ” that combine both data and the function into a single unit.
  27. 27. 10 INPUT “X” 20 IF X = 2 THEN GOTO 60 ELSE GOTO 90 30 PRINT “NUMBER ”;X 40 PRINT “PLEASE TRY AGAIN” 50 END 60 PRINT “NUMBER “;X 70 PRINT “GOOD” 90 END BASIC FORTRAN COBOL Spaghetti Kangaroo Code Code
  28. 28. STRUCTURED APPROACH Structured Approach is a computer programming technique in which the program is divided into modules like function or subroutine. GetInput (x, y) z = Process (x, y) DisplayResult (z) Sub GetInput (x as integer) Input “Number 1” ; x Input “Number 2” ; y End Sub Function Process (x as integer) as integer Process = x + y End Function Sub DisplayResult (x as integer) Print x;”+”;y;”=“;z End Sub
  29. 29. OBJECT ORIENTED APPROACH Object Oriented Approach is a computer programming techniques based on the concept of an “ object ” that combine both data and the function into a single unit. object data function Class aCircle Const PI = 3.142 Dim mRadius As Single Function Diameter() As Single Return 2 * mRadius End Function Function Area() As Single Return PI * mRadius * mRadius End Function Function Circumference() As Single Return 2 * PI * mRadius End Function End Class Dim my Circle As New a Circle my Circle . Radius = 10 Print my Circle .Area Print myCircle.Diameter Print my Circle .Circumference ( method )
  30. 30. OBJECT ORIENTED CONCEPT Inheritance Polymorphism Overloading 1 2 3 4 Encapsulation
  31. 31. Object Properties Method Event 1 2 3
  32. 32. main() { int radius; cout << “Area of circle is “ << getArea(4); cout << “Circumference of circle is” << getCircumference(4); } double getArea(int r) { double area; area = 3.142 * r * r; return area; } double getCircumference(int r) { double circumference; circumference = 2 * 3.142 * r ; return circumference; } class Circle { private int radius; public void setRadius(int r) { radius = r; } public double getArea() { double area; area = 3.142 * radius * radius; return area; } } class FindCircle { public static void main() { Circle circle1; circle1.setRadius(4); cout << “Area of circle is” << circle1.getArea(); } STRUCTURED data function class Circle { private int radius; public void setRadius(int r) { radius = r; } public double getArea() { double area; area = 3.142 * radius * radius; return area; } } OOP object
  33. 33. Kangaroo Code Structured Object Oriented goto function object = function + data Approach Approach

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