Laser applications in                       tool and die making                       How light can enable new product fea...
Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1       Using light for production – Lasers as flexible prod...
Laser applications in tool and die makingWhat differentiates laser light from white light?Properties of white light       ...
Laser applications in tool and die makingPrimary process influencing factorsn Intensity distribution in working planeÚ Int...
Laser applications in tool and die makingBeam guidance and formation   Laser source        Beam guidance                St...
Laser applications in tool and die makingInfluence of intensity and processing time on processcharacteristics  Heat influe...
Laser applications in tool and die makingExample laser hardening                                                          ...
Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1       Using light for production – Lasers as flexible prod...
Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringThe challenge of "surface decoration" for tool and d...
Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringThe laser beam as a "tool" – fast, flexible and prec...
Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuring"Removal rate and surface quality" – process basics ...
Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuring"Complex shaped surfaces" – machine tools and CAM-sy...
Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringApplication example "free formed surface“ – tulip de...
Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringApplication example "injection mold" – free formed s...
Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringApplication example "injection mold" – airbag shock ...
Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringApplication example “mould ring" – Tool deairingn Ba...
Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1       Using light for production – Lasers as flexible prod...
Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolOne “Tool“ – a variety of customized possibilities             ...
Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production tool “Material and surface variety”: Process basics                ...
Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolChallenge: Wear resistance within tool making                  ...
Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production tool“Complex geometries”: Machining system and CAM-systemn Integrat...
Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolCAx-Framework – Graphical User Interface (GUI)                 ...
Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolAutomated laser surface treatment – Machining system Alzmetall ...
Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production tool5-axis laser surface treatment – Movie of the process© WZL/Frau...
Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolExample of laser dispersing: Forging die “Pedal”               ...
Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolExample of laser alloying: “Aluminum die casting tool”         ...
Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1       Using light for production – Lasers as flexible prod...
Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsIntegrated deposition welding and milling                  ...
Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsTool repairInitial situationn Mould defectTargetn New build...
Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsTool modificationInitial situationn Design changeTargetn Pa...
Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsTool build for filigree geometriesInitial situationn Mould ...
Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsAdditive Manufacturing of a Mock-up Compressor Blade       ...
Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsCAx Solutions for Digital MeasurementsCAM Solutions for Inl...
Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsMachine and Process SimulationMachine Simulationn Simulatio...
Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1       Using light for production – Lasers as flexible prod...
Laser-assisted cuttingTechnical ceramics – Fields of application                       Main fields of application for tech...
Laser-assisted cuttingTechnical ceramics – Application examples                                               Application ...
Laser-assisted cuttingMachining of high-strength materials                                                  Process charac...
Laser-assisted cuttingTool turret with integrated laser beam guidance                       n Flexibility: Any combination...
Laser-assisted cuttingMachine tool with integrated laser beam guidanceTechnical specificationsn 2-axes CNC-turning lathen ...
Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1       Using light for production – Lasers as flexible prod...
Laser applications in tool and die makingOutlook and vision                       Lasers in tool and die manufacturing can...
Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1       Using light for production – Lasers as flexible prod...
Your contact to Fraunhofer IPT                       Dipl.-Ing. Kristian Arntz                       Head of department La...
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Palestra 5 - Aplicação do laser como ferramenta de fabricação de moldes.

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Laser application for tool and die making.

Palestrante: Msc. Kristian Arntz – Instituto Fraunhofer Tecnologias da Produção - FhG IPT - Alemanha

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Palestra 5 - Aplicação do laser como ferramenta de fabricação de moldes.

  1. 1. Laser applications in tool and die making How light can enable new product features Kristian Arntz Fraunhofer IPT, Aachen, Germany International Seminar: Application of new technologies in the metal mechanic sector Joinville, Brazil, September 2011© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
  2. 2. Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1 Using light for production – Lasers as flexible production systems 2 Surface structures – ablating material to generate design features 3 Wear resistance – modifying material properties for better tool lifetime 4 Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional moulds 5 High strength materials – enhancing machining capability by laser softening 6 Outlook – how Lasers will contribute to future process chains© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 1
  3. 3. Laser applications in tool and die makingWhat differentiates laser light from white light?Properties of white light Properties of laser lightn polychrome, light with different wavelengths / n monochrome, light of a single wavelength / frequencies frequencyn Low coherence, short wave trains n High coherence, long wave trainsn High divergence, broad diffusion, difficult to be n Low divergence, nearly straight spreading, focussed and low intensity easy to be focussed and high intensity Laser source LASERQUELLE µm-area bis 1000 km© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 2
  4. 4. Laser applications in tool and die makingPrimary process influencing factorsn Intensity distribution in working planeÚ Intensity is depending on time P(t) - Laser source and beam parameters Intensity [W/cm²]Ú Intensity distribution depends on geometry I(x, y, z) - Intensity distribution in primary beam (laser source) - Beam caustics (result of optical system) - Location (and orientation) of working plane y [mm]n Influencing time x [mm]Ú Feed rate (cw- and pw-mode)Ú Pulse duration (and form), Pulse frequency z- (pw-mode) Focal plane Working plane z+cw: Continuous Wave Modepw: Puls Wave Mode© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 3
  5. 5. Laser applications in tool and die makingBeam guidance and formation Laser source Beam guidance Strahlformung Collimation Focussing Focal planeDirect emission lense lense Expansion Rayleigh length lense Field depth MirrorsFibre coupled Fibre optic (up to 100 m)© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 4
  6. 6. Laser applications in tool and die makingInfluence of intensity and processing time on processcharacteristics Heat influence zone Melt Metal steam Ejected material Intensity ≥ 103 W/cm² ≥ 105 W/cm² ≥ 106 W/cm² ≥ 108 W/cm² ≥ 109 W/cm² ≥ 1011 W/cm²Processing time s - ms ms ms - µs µs µs - ps ps - fs n Heating n Melting n Melting n Evaporating n Evaporating n Sublimating Result n Melting n Evaporating n Sublimating n Hardening n Hard brazing n Deep pene- n Drilling n Engraving n Texturing tration welding n Soft brazing n Welding Processes n Cutting n Deposition welding Any change in process and system parameters influencing the intensity and ist distribution results in a considerable change of process characteristics and result!© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 5
  7. 7. Laser applications in tool and die makingExample laser hardening 1000 100 10 1 0,1 [K/s]Principle 1200 1100n Absorption of laser light at part‘s Laser beam PL 1000 surface AC1 1100n Heating up of near-suface areas MS homogene austenite Temperatur 1000 inhomogene austenite to the temperature of 900 austenitasation by heat Hardened area 800 Ferrit + Perlit + Austenit conduction (depth d £ 1 mm) vW 700 Ferrit + Perlit Bulk material 600n Uench hardening by fast heat conduction into the inner part‘s 0,1 1 10 100 1000 10000 [s] area (formation of martensite) ZTA diagram Zeit 900 1200°C T [°C] Austenite [%] Martensite [%] 800Advantages 700 F Ac1 600n High surface hardness with fine A P Temperatur 100% 500 grained texture MS 400 Msn Local heat input only 300 B Mf 200n Low distortion 100 Heating Hold Cooling t [s] 760 533 200n Now chilling liquid 0,1 1 10 100 1000 10000 [s] ZTU diagram time© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 6
  8. 8. Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1 Using light for production – Lasers as flexible production systems 2 Surface structures – ablating material to generate design features 3 Wear resistance – modifying material properties for better tool lifetime 4 Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional moulds 5 High strength materials – enhancing machining capability by laser softening 6 Outlook – how Lasers will contribute to future process chains© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 7
  9. 9. Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringThe challenge of "surface decoration" for tool and diemanufacturers Etching n High manual effort n Poor reproducibility n Limited material range© Eschmann Textures n Restricted flexibility related to the structure design Electroforming n High manual effort n Moderate reproducibility n Poor flexibility n No consistency of a (digital) data chain © Galvanoform n Limited material range A wider scope related to the structure design, the increase of the reproducibility and the reduction of the manual effort require innovative solutions for the surface texturing in the tool and die manufacturing!© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 8
  10. 10. Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringThe laser beam as a "tool" – fast, flexible and preciseSystem setup Pulsed laser source Laser scanner Dynamic beam expander Telecentric F-Theta lens Work piece Fraunhofer IPT© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 9
  11. 11. Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuring"Removal rate and surface quality" – process basics n Use of pulsed laser sources – Pico- and nanosecond laser n Ablation with ps-laser (1 picosecond = 10-12 sec) – Material removal by sublimation (multi-photon-absorption): "Cold" ablation process => no thermal conduction – Nearly all materials are processableFraunhofer IPT – Removal of a small material volume by a single laser pulse – No melt formation on the surface n Ablation with ns-laser (1 nanosecond = 10-9 sec) – Linear absorption – Predominantly melt ablation: Thermal process with melt formation – Limited range of processable materials – Removal of a large material volume by single laser pulse – Low-cost laser sources© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 10
  12. 12. Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuring"Complex shaped surfaces" – machine tools and CAM-system Work 3D-model pieceFraunhofer IPTn Machining centers n Completely CAM-based tool path planning and – Modified 5-axis- precision-machine tools process parameter selectionn 4 additional axes by beam guidance system n Simulation, analysis und optimization of tool paths (x´, y´, z´ and c´-axis) n Advantagesn Integrated laser sources – Modular setup guarantees the transferability to industrial – Picosecond laser (LUMERA Laser) used CAM systems – Nanosecond laser (EdgeWave) – Simulation of the machine kinematics for collisionn Heidenhain 530i - control monitoring between work piece and machine© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 11
  13. 13. Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringApplication example "free formed surface“ – tulip design Work piece specification n Demonstrator with an arched surface n Basis material 1.2343 (X38CrMoV5-1) n Quenched and tempered to 50 +2 HRC Result n Large-scale and seamless surfaceFraunhofer IPT structuring n Laser structured area: 80 mm x 60 mm n Maximum depth of structure: 150 µmFraunhofer IPT© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 12
  14. 14. Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringApplication example "injection mold" – free formed surface Work piece specification n Injection mold n Basis material 1.2343 (X38CrMoV5-1) n Quenched and tempered to 50 +2 HRC n Laser structured area: Fraunhofer IPT 196 mm x 152 mm Result n Large-scale and seamless surfaceFraunhofer IPT structuring – Leather-grain K3A of the Volkswagen Golf VI Fraunhofer IPT – Hybrid-structure with micro- and macro structures – Geometrically defined pyramid structures Fraunhofer IPT© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 13
  15. 15. Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringApplication example "injection mold" – airbag shock absorbing pad Work piece specification n Injection mold for the sample production of an airbag shock absorbing pad (VW Golf VI) n Basis material 1.2311 (40CrMnMo7) n 240 mm x 130 mm x 240 mmFraunhofer IPT Result n Laser structured area with a diameter of 175 mm n Large-scale and seamless surface structuring with a smooth structure transition – Leather-grain K3A of the Volkswagen Golf VI Fraunhofer IPT – Design-triangle structure© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 14
  16. 16. Laser beam structuring – an innovative process for surface structuringApplication example “mould ring" – Tool deairingn Base material 1.2379 (X153CrMoV12)n Part diameter: 55 mmn Micro structure was modeled in CADn Depth gradient of micro structure: 10 µm to 200 µmn Applied laser system enables melt and burr free manufacturing Fraunhofer IPT© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 15
  17. 17. Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1 Using light for production – Lasers as flexible production systems 2 Surface structures – ablating material to generate design features 3 Wear resistance – modifying material properties for better tool lifetime 4 Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional moulds 5 High strength materials – enhancing machining capability by laser softening 6 Outlook – how Lasers will contribute to future process chains© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 16
  18. 18. Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolOne “Tool“ – a variety of customized possibilities n Laser hardening Process principle Laser Powder Gas n Laser cladding Laser beam Work piece Treated zone n Laser alloying Laser feed Feed rate rate n Laser dispersing© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 17
  19. 19. Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production tool “Material and surface variety”: Process basics n Fibre-coupled diode laser system – Laserline LDF 400-5000 – Power output 5000 W – Variable focusing of laser spot diameter from 0.8 to 3 mm n Additive material – Alloying/dispersing: WC-Co-Cr, VC, TiC as powder material – Cladding: Stellite, similar material (powder or wire)1000 HV 0,1 – Powder feeding is proceeded by a co-axial nozzle (optional also sideways)800 – Wire-feeding is proceeded using a sideward feeding system600 42 HRC400 45 HRC 53 HRC n Process gas 56 HRC200 – Argon 0,1 0,5 0,9 1,3 1,7 2,1 2,5 Dist ance f rom surf ace [mm] – Supplied with the additive material© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 18
  20. 20. Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolChallenge: Wear resistance within tool making Forging dies for hot tooling n Local crack formation due to variations in temperature n Abrasive wear at edges Die casting moulds n Local fire crack formation n Abrasive wear at edges, bars and within the inlet area Dies and punshes for cold forming n Fatigue fractures starting at surface n Abrasiver wear Injection moulds n Abrasive wear at edges and junctions n Importance of keeping the surface quality and geometry Need for local enhancement of material properties and surface quality for complex geometries in individual or small series production within tool making!© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 19
  21. 21. Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production tool“Complex geometries”: Machining system and CAM-systemn Integration of all components in a precise fixe n Complete CAM-integrated machining pathaxis machining system planning and process parameterizationn Robust, enclosed machining system including n Simulation, analysis and optimization ofsuction machining path and coatingn Using of all control functionalities and n Modularity ensures a transferability tointegration of laser features by interpolation customary CAM-systemsclock n Simulation of machine kinematic for collision monitoring of part and machine© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 20
  22. 22. Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolCAx-Framework – Graphical User Interface (GUI) Technology n Graphical User Interface (GUI) Active Domain classes parameter Graphic for all processing steps input n Process-specific strategy options n Intuitive guidance through menu n User-defined parameter input – Geometry, Strategy, Tool, Process etc. n “Active Graphics” for ad-hoc visualization of active input parameter n Input status is signalized by set of “traffic lights” n Direct feedback and help texts for the user n Bilingual implementation (German/English) Status of n Simplified and expert mode Parameter Parameters parameter description input© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 21
  23. 23. Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolAutomated laser surface treatment – Machining system Alzmetall n Target Machining system for 5-axes laser surface treatment of parts to enhance the wear resistance n Used processes – Laser hardening, Laser remelting – Laser alloying, Laser dispersing – Laser cladding n Technical specifications – Gantry-Concept (5-Axes simultaneous) – Traverse path X-,Y-Axis: 800 mm; Z-Axis: 600 mm – Position accuracy 0.007 mm n Rotary/ Tilting unit – A-Axis tilting range ± 140° – C-Axis turning range 360° (continuously) – Turning table diameter 320 mm n Fibre coupled diode laser system n NC-Control Siemens SINUMERIK 840 D Solution Line© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 22
  24. 24. Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production tool5-axis laser surface treatment – Movie of the process© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 23
  25. 25. Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolExample of laser dispersing: Forging die “Pedal” Specifications of the die n Treatment of upper and lower die n Base material 1.2344 (X40CrMoV5-1) n 400 x 140 x 100mm³ n Conventional: Gas nitriding (thickness: 0.2 mm) n Innovative process chain:Forged part Laser surface treatment Laser dispersing and nitriding Result n Conventional: Lifetime 6000 parts n Laser surface treated: Lifetime 10800 respectively 11000 partsLaser dispersed area of the Increase in lifetime of about 80% Use in applicationdie© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 24
  26. 26. Local wear resistance – Laser as a flexible production toolExample of laser alloying: “Aluminum die casting tool” Specifications of the die n Treatment of Aluminum die casing inserts n Base material 1.2343 (X38CrMoV5-1) n Max. dimensions: 55 mm n Conventional: gas nitridingSurface which has to be n Innovative process chain:treated Laser alloying and nitriding Result n Conventional: Lifetime 5 000 parts n Laser surface treated: Lifetime circa 10 000 partsEmbedded insert of an Increase in lifetime of about 100% Laser surface treatmentAluminum die casting tool© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 25
  27. 27. Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1 Using light for production – Lasers as flexible production systems 2 Surface structures – ablating material to generate design features 3 Wear resistance – modifying material properties for better tool lifetime 4 Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional moulds 5 High strength materials – enhancing machining capability by laser softening 6 Outlook – how Lasers will contribute to future process chains© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 26
  28. 28. Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsIntegrated deposition welding and milling n Wire based technology n Layer-by-layer generation of metallic parts in a combination of wire deposition welding and HSC milling n Integration of combined process into one machinning system n Post machining of every (n) layer offers the possibility to utilise small milling tools and though highly precise machining n Technology can be transferred to specific needs in terms of machining system and parts which have to be manufactured© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 27
  29. 29. Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsTool repairInitial situationn Mould defectTargetn New build up of defect aresSolutionn Failure identificationn Design of welding and milling area 10 mmn Generation of NC data Pre-milling and deposition welding Pre-machiningn Pre-machining by millingn Laser wire deposition weldingn Post machining of contourAprroximated time framen Programming: ca. 2,5 hn Manufacturing time: < 45 min© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 28
  30. 30. Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsTool modificationInitial situationn Design changeTargetn Partly automated geometry changeSolutionn Design of welding and milling arean Generation of NC data Application oif change Pre-machining of milling arean Pre-machining by millingn Laser wire deposition weldingn Post machining of contourAprroximated time framen Programming: ca. 60 minn Manufacturing time: ca. 30 min Applied welding geometry Finished part© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 29
  31. 31. Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsTool build for filigree geometriesInitial situationn Mould insert for injection mouldingn Base 50x50 mm²Targetn Build up of geometrySolutionn Splitting in base and build area 10 mmn Generation of NC data Splitting in base and build area Splitting in base and build arean Pre-machining by millingn Laser wire deposition weldingn Intermittent contour milling and final post machining of contourAprroximated time framen Appr. 2 days for each part Finished part Finished part© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 30
  32. 32. Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsAdditive Manufacturing of a Mock-up Compressor Blade CAM-Module CAM-Module CAM-Module Laser-additive Laser-additive manufacture Optical measurement Digitized model Adaptive milling manufactured of compressor blade of compressor blade of the built-up blade for contouring blade “CAx-Framework“ Simulation Simulation Simulation Module Module Module Simulation of Simulation of Simulation of laser scanning laser cladding re-contouring process process process Source: Fraunhofer ILT Simulation Simulation Simulation Screenshot Screenshot Screenshot Laser-additive manufacture Laser Scanning Adaptive milling Source: Fraunhofer IPT, Fraunhofer ILT 2011© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 31
  33. 33. Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsCAx Solutions for Digital MeasurementsCAM Solutions for Inline Metrology n CAM module for inline metrology – Toolpath planning for geometry acquisition using laser stripe sensors § For Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM), robot or machine tool integrated sensor – Sensor calibration using adequate strategies § 3-axis, 3+2-axis, 5-axis – Transformation and analysis of acquired geometry data § Specialized analysis functionalities e.g. for turbine blades – Direct availability of acquired data in CAD/CAM system for subsequent processes – Parameterized internal sensor model to support a wide range of sensors n Machine tool integrated laser stripe sensor overcomes disadvantages of measurements on CMM – High data rate – No transport time – Decreased set-up time – 5-axis measurements for best orientation of sensor to surface – Single reference for measuring and machining – no need to apply fitting functionsSource: Fraunhofer IPT / CAx-Technologies, Production Metrology 2011© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 32
  34. 34. Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional mouldsMachine and Process SimulationMachine Simulationn Simulation of: – Laser scanner path – Milling machine – Laser machine – Coordinate Measuring Machine - CMM Simulation of machine tool integrated scan systemn Simulation of CNC toolpath for cavity geometry for: – Laser scanning – Rough and finish milling – Milling to re-contour – Laser cladding Simulation of millingn Benefits Simulation of laser systems processes – Decision making on choice of handling systems – Simulation of toolpath for verification – Simulation of machine kinematics for collision detection of part and machine Integration of material – Material removal and tool-material-engagement removal and cutter conditions engagement simulation Source: Fraunhofer IPT / CAx-Technologies 2011© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 33
  35. 35. Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1 Using light for production – Lasers as flexible production systems 2 Surface structures – ablating material to generate design features 3 Wear resistance – modifying material properties for better tool lifetime 4 Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional moulds 5 High strength materials – enhancing machining capability by laser softening 6 Outlook – how Lasers will contribute to future process chains© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 34
  36. 36. Laser-assisted cuttingTechnical ceramics – Fields of application Main fields of application for technical ceramics Mechanical engineering Chemistry and process engineering n Nozzles n Fillers n Rolling elements n Liners n Extruders n Tubes n Rings n … n Roller bearings Pumps Motors / Turbines n Bushings n Bushings n Plungers n Plungers n Sealings n Valves n bush bearings n Roller bearings n cylinders, … n Turbine wheels Textile machinery Medical equipment n Guiding elements n Globes n Spinning elements n Globe seats n Knifes n articular n Nozzles components n …© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 35
  37. 37. Laser-assisted cuttingTechnical ceramics – Application examples Application Examples (by industry sector) 1 Drawing, cold forging Non ferrous metal forming 2 µmMicrostructure of a silicon nitride ceramic Metal forming Mechanical engineeringProperties of Si3N4 – high strength and toughness – high wear resistance – good chemical resistance – excellent thermal fatigue resistance – low heat expansion© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 36
  38. 38. Laser-assisted cuttingMachining of high-strength materials Process characteristic n Improved machinability of high-strength materials like titanium-, nickel- and cobalt-based alloys as well as silicon nitride ceramics by localized heating of the cutting zone Advantages n Efficient cutting of materials that are difficult to machine – significantly higher cutting volumes and longer tool life times n Considerably shorter manufacturing times and lower costs n Elimination of cooling lubricants (dry machining) n Geometrically flexible, economic manufacture of complex components made from technical ceramics (silicon nitride ceramics) n Highly reproducible manufacturing quality due to very good control of the laser sourceSource: A. Monforts Werkzeugmaschinen GmbH & Co. KG (picture 1)© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 37
  39. 39. Laser-assisted cuttingTool turret with integrated laser beam guidance n Flexibility: Any combinations of – Laser-assisted cutting – Conventional cutting – Laser surface treatment (Hardening, …) n Modularity n Easy to handle – Handling of optical tools without laser-specific skills possible – Extremely short tool exchange and set-up times – Laser integration does not restrict the original functionality of the machine tool n Robustness – Wear-resistant – Low-maintenance n Retrofitting – Easy retrofitting in conventional turning lathes possible© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 38
  40. 40. Laser-assisted cuttingMachine tool with integrated laser beam guidanceTechnical specificationsn 2-axes CNC-turning lathen Main- and opposed spindlen Wear- and maintenance-free hydrostatic guidance of Z-axisn Travel increments as low as 0,001 mm without stick-slip- effectsn High stiffness and good dampingn True running accuracy of spindle: 0,003 mmn Max. swing diameter over cross slide: 280 mmn Max. turning length: 600 mmn Fibre-coupled diode laser systemSource: A. Monforts Werkzeugmaschinen GmbH & Co. KG© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 39
  41. 41. Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1 Using light for production – Lasers as flexible production systems 2 Surface structures – ablating material to generate design features 3 Wear resistance – modifying material properties for better tool lifetime 4 Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional moulds 5 High strength materials – enhancing machining capability by laser softening 6 Outlook – how Lasers will contribute to future process chains© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 40
  42. 42. Laser applications in tool and die makingOutlook and vision Lasers in tool and die manufacturing can contribute to n reduced processing time by developing intelligent machining and processing strategies n New functionalities by realising adapted and highly sophisticated surface properties n increased quality by realising local wear protection The integration of laser systems in machine tools contributes to n the design of continous process chains including preliminary work and finishing n Specific setting of local material properties by automatically combining different manufacturing processes n New functionalisation concepts by using reasonable tool materials combined with surface modifications© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 41
  43. 43. Laser applications in tool and die makingPresentation outline 1 Using light for production – Lasers as flexible production systems 2 Surface structures – ablating material to generate design features 3 Wear resistance – modifying material properties for better tool lifetime 4 Generating parts – Additive manufacturing for functional moulds 5 High strength materials – enhancing machining capability by laser softening 6 Outlook – how Lasers will contribute to future process chains© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 42
  44. 44. Your contact to Fraunhofer IPT Dipl.-Ing. Kristian Arntz Head of department Laser Materials Processing Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT Steinbachstraße 17, 52074 Aachen Phone: +49 241 89 04-121 Mobile:+49 174 1902817 Fax: +49 241 89 04-6121 Mail: kristian.arntz@ipt.fraunhofer.de© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 43

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