Palestra 1 - Otimização do processo produtivo


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Workshop Internacional - NOvas tecnologias aplicadas ao setor metalmecânico.

Palestrante: Kristian Arntz, do Instituto Fraunhofer de Tecnologias da Produção - FhG IPT

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Palestra 1 - Otimização do processo produtivo

  1. 1. Process chains in tooling The design of technological process chains as a key factor to success Kristian Arntz Fraunhofer IPT, Aachen, Germany International Seminar: Application of new technologies in the metal mechanic sector Joinville, Brazil, September 2011© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
  2. 2. Presentation outline 1 Introduction 2 Adjusting levers for process chains 3 Examples of typical process chains 4 Approach for technology chain configuration 5 Conclusions© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 1
  3. 3. IntroductionProduction technology in Aachen, Germany Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT n Institute of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft n Founded in 1980 n approx. 400 employees Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) n Institute of the RWTH Aachen University n Founded in 1906 n approx. 570 employees WZLforum gGmbH n Educational training and qualification n Founded in 1992 as Aachen Demonstration Laboratory for Integrated Production Engineering ADITEC n 22 employees© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 2
  4. 4. The Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT Executive Director n Prof. Fritz Klocke Board of Directors n Prof. Fritz Klocke, Prof. Christian Brecher, Prof. Robert Schmitt, Prof. Günther Schuh Activities n Process Technology n Production Machines n Production Quality and Metrology n Technology Management Affiliated OrganizationsWe operate a quality n Fraunhofer Project Group Mechatronic Systems Design, Paderborn,management system Germanycertified according to n Fraunhofer Center for Manufacturing Innovation CMI Boston, USADIN ISO 9001:2008© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 3
  5. 5. IntroductionHighlights from current EIP-competition and Survey (I/II) Vertical integration Employees distribution 81,6% 79,5% Depth of added value 79,3% EIP-participants 76,6% 2005 76,4% 2006 2007 Depth of added value 68,5% 2008 EIP Top 10 2009 Construction / Production Try Out / Quality Order preparation Standardization Division of labour Proportion of non-variable parts of a typical tool [today] Division of work/specialization 74,5% 21,1 must increase in the future 5 75 25,5% applies average does not apply Maximal achievable proportion of non-variable parts [in future] 38,3 5 95 averageSource: Survey „Operative Exzellenz im Werkzeug- und Formenbau“, n=64, 2010© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 4
  6. 6. IntroductionHighlights from current EIP-competition and Survey (II/II) Controlling and liquidity planning Differentiation On time delivery 6,54 Low running time 6,21 Quality of the 6,08 tool Price of the tool 5,04 Evaluation: Differentiation 1 = not promising Liquidity planning exact to the week 7 = very promising Process performance Distribution Value per day On time New customers [€/day] delivery [%] 33,3% in new sectors 2006 1092 2006 78,1% New customers in 30,2% 2007 1178 2007 75,7% established sectors 2008 1443 2008 73,4% 2009 1409 2009 74,3% Top 10 aim 100,0% 1847 2009 -24% -26%Source: Survey„Operative Exzellenz im Werkzeug- und Formenbau“, n=64, 2010© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 5
  7. 7. IntroductionThere is a trend for automation and no saturation in the marketAutomation arrangements in milling technology* n Automation is an essential Handling systems element of tool and die Machine interlinking makers 2011 Job-Management 2004 n Handling systems and machine interlinking still Integrated measurement provide high potentials 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% n There still is a noticeable increase of automation effortsAutomation arrangements in die sinking technology* in the branch Handling systems n Summarized the development does not measure up toMachine interlinking 2011 former expectations 2004 Job-Management Integrated measurement 0% 20% 40% 60% 80%*Source: Competition Excellence in Production 2004 / 2011© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 6
  8. 8. IntroductionAn increasing level of technology and academization enable industrialization Increasing level of technology Industrialization Academization Advanced Machine Process Long-term Tool Performance Technology Education Focusing & Cooperation Performance Product standardization Technology- and Professional Systematic Use of Capital Assets manufacturing Process standardization Research Knowledge chains SynchronizationSource images: Audi AG; Deckel Maho Gildemeister; t-mobile;© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 7
  9. 9. Process standardization complements and supports productstandardization Employees + Change Administration Value creation Product Process systems for standardization standardization industrial tool making Value creation systems for industrial tool making Pulsing Flow production Focusing Cooperation Process outcome in production needs to be included in the examination to enable benefits from all advantages of standardizations.Source: Klotzbach 2007© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 8
  10. 10. Presentation outline 1 Introduction 2 Adjusting levers for process chains 3 Examples of typical process chains 4 Approach for technology chain configuration 5 Conclusions© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 9
  11. 11. Adjusting leversWhat to think about when starting? n Where can we find adjusting levers within process chains? Material Flow – Initial state of raw material – What’s the performance of used technologies? § Technical standpoint § Economic standpoint – Process interface quality (e.g. clamping systems) n 80% to 95% of the lead time consists of waiting times which means that there is no value-adding process during this time – Motivation for process step reductions – Handling systems – Closed loop process chains© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 10
  12. 12. Adjusting leversThe initial state of the raw material influences the first process steps n The first process step is defined by the raw material state n The range of raw material state is wide: – Unhardened steel with low tolerances and low surface quality up to – Pre-manufactured (hardened) blanks with precise dimensions, surfaces and pre-formed shapes n The vertical outsourcing in case two is expensive as the supplier accomplishes necessary process steps, but: n Manifold advantages: – Concentration on core competencies – Concentration on high-value adding processes – Lower in-house complexity – Lower technology diversity n Disadvantages are: – Know-how transfer to the supplier – Transaction and coordination costs – Dependency of foreign companies© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 11
  13. 13. Adjusting leversThere are three possible configurations!Subsequent using oftechnologiesComplete machining withHSCIntegrated use oftechnologies Lead time Strength of HSC milling n High cutting speeds, precision and reproducibility, low manual efforts Strength of EDM n High aspect rations, very hard material, good process control Successful combination of both technologies n Product specific process chain configuration, Machine networks and automation© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 12
  14. 14. Adjusting leversComplete hard machining 5-axis complete machining n Substitution of complex EDM processes n Increased surface quality and accuracy n New machine bearing and damping concepts n Die and material specific process technology Savings n No electrode production und positioning n Radical lead time reduction und less clamping effort n Reduced manual finishing due to increased surface quality und accuracy© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 13
  15. 15. Adjusting leversOptimal efficiency utilization of technologies Intelligent process combinations n Utilization of technology specific strengths and avoidance of technology specific weaknesses n A waste minimized combination is necessary in order to use the whole potential of such a combination n A prevailed process chain in the course of intelligent combinations is an automated electrode milling and EDM process Improvements n Highly automated processes are possible n High resource utilization© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 14
  16. 16. Presentation outline 1 Introduction 2 Adjusting levers for process chains 3 Examples of typical process chains 4 Approach for technology chain configuration 5 Conclusions© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 15
  17. 17. Today’s classification of the most important hard machiningtechnologies Aspect ratio (L/D) 25 EDM Casting 20 mold near future forge- 15 tools Milling injection mold fine blanking tools 10 Pressing tools technical injection molds Grinding 5 Today’s possibilities State of the art 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 Workpiece hardness (HRC)Source: YASDA, H. Otsubo 2002© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 16
  18. 18. Adjusting leversProcess example: Hard milled crank shaft dieProcess chain comparison Surface polishing Advantage of completefor a crankshaft die Electrode milling machining of dies Cavity conditioning Burr milling n only one machine in use Processing time Drilling of the flush borings 54,5 hours Face milling of the die block n less process steps Drilling of the transport borings n 50% shorter processing time n 83% shorter running time n 40% lower production costs Processing time n no qualified manual labor 26,2 hours n higher production tolerance n higher environmental friendliness EDM and further Complete machining onprocessing operations a machining centre Source: Krupp Gerlach© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 17
  19. 19. Adjusting leversUsing synergy with complementary technologies!Material Process chain options HSC-finishingn Tool steel 1.2083 30 h processing time 15 h processing timen 56 HRC Tool- 24 12 diameterGeometry 9 18 < 4mmn Surface areasn Small and deep grooves 6 < 2 mm 12n Smallest inside radius: 0,15 3 < 1 mm 6 0 0 HSC + complete EDM Milling + HSC (graphite) EDM (Cu) Substitution rough machining finishing or by EDM residual material electrode milling machining EDM© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 18
  20. 20. Presentation outline 1 Introduction 2 Adjusting levers for process chains 3 Examples of typical process chains 4 Approach for technology chain configuration 5 Conclusions© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 19
  21. 21. Approach for technology chain configurationApproach n The production systematic offers an approach for process variance reduction n For this reduction a frequency analysis of process chains is necessary n For this analysis, the most frequent process chains get analyzed in detail: – Identical chains as sub-chains – Production operation is missing („gap“) – Production operation is inverted – Production operation is different n Frequency of process chains is recorded n Aims: n Similarities are well known – Technological approach for an evaluation of the identified process chains n Subsumption is possible to some extent – Technological solution statements for harmonization of chains with similarities n Solution statements: – Technology change n Design has to take account of the defined – Technology substitution process chains § Technology performance extension § Constructive adaptation § New technologies© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 20
  22. 22. Approach for technology chain configurationTechnology changes and substitutions enable lean process chains Technology substitution Technology Technology substitution Technology changes New Technologies performance extension by design n New technologies enable a combination of Milling the potentials of Milling EDM technology changes and performance extensions n In the course of this, well planned investment EDM appraisals are n Arbitrary exchange of technologies is possible necessary n Performance area can be increased by technology Range of production improvement ( Milling vs. EDM) Range of production after n Areas also need to be considered in which this technology design adaption is more profitable than other potential technologies (consequently two graphics – a technical and an economic one – enfold) Technology chain configuration can be improved by a reasonable technology strategies (optimizing, investments, new technologies) and by design adaption.© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 21
  23. 23. Approach for technology chain configurationDescription of possible measures Technology changes Technology substitution n Technology changes are possible in Technology performance Technology substitution by case of the possibility that the extension design component can be manufactured with another technology considering n Optimization of existing n Component geometries which operational technical and economic issues. technologies requires a certain technology n Which technological constraints – Contouring must be abolished have to be considered? – Process parameters – Geometry n This approach requests a – Tools – Surface layer bidirectional play between the – etc.. design department and – Surface conditions tactical – Material behavior n Capital assets production, in order to adapt – Manufacturing history – Machines the designs – Controls n Which economical constraints have to be considered? – CAM programs strategic – Production time n Innovation strategy – Impact on lead time – Comparison of process costs© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 22
  24. 24. Approach for technology chain configurationExample: Analysis of technology performance Analysis of technology performance Technology performance - Milling values Aspect ratio Performance value Material 1.2343 1.2083 1.2379 4 7 9 4 7 9 4 7 9 Maximum possible detail level* Aspect ratio 4 7 9 4 7 9 4 7 9 Maximum possible surface quality Detail level 4 7 9 4 7 9 4 7 9 Maximal possible tolerances Surface Quality 4 7 9 4 7 9 4 7 9 Maximal possible material hardness Tolerances 4 7 9 4 7 9 4 7 9 Side effects: Consideration of surface layer, Hardness manufacturing history, microstructural changes, etc. After accomplished this analysis, the actual technology performance gets compared to theoretically possible performance. The next step would be an improved technology portfolio*smallest gap between elements / smallest outline radius© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 23
  25. 25. Approach for technology chain configurationSystematically optimized technology interfaces with zero point clampings Mold Design Konstruktion Manufacturing Fertigung Analysis of the Analysis and machinery structuring of the Change range of M anagement Clamping products Employees M itarbeiter Processes Prozesse process-analysis Evaluation of Specification documents Clamping Systems Clamping Cystems Detailed Ramp-up Mold Design Konstruktion Fertigung Manufacturing Choice of Change Management Planning Ramp-up Change Management Employees M itarbeiter Processes Prozesse© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 24
  26. 26. Approach for technology chain configurationPotential analysis of complete hard machining Performance analysis of existing milling resources and process know how Process – Definition Basic decision information SWOT – Analysis Ideal Process Strengths Opportunities n Definition of a theoretic ideal process n consideration of the geometry requirements Weaknesses Threads Firm Specific Product analysis and geometry check n Process Comparison of the ideal process and possible firm specific processesn Complete hard machining offers a wide range of n considering existing resources and possible opportunities capital assetsn For many firms a complete hard machining is the n Derivation of a best-practice solution universal remedyn But this is wrong: It is not suited for any product programn Furthermore it requires high-performance resources and a deep understanding of the milling technology Process Implementationn CAM programming is difficult and complex© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 25
  27. 27. Presentation outline 1 Introduction 2 Adjusting levers for process chains 3 Examples of typical process chains 4 Approach for technology chain configuration 5 Conclusions© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 26
  28. 28. Conclusion n Process chain design include two different questions – What are the right technologies for my company considering technological and economical issues? – What is the right sequence of technologies within the factory? n A first analysis must begin with the three levers: – Vertical integration: Where does my process chain starts? – Technologies: What’s the performance of my technologies? – Technology and machine interfaces: Quality of process connection n The Fraunhofer IPT offers a comprehensive and proven procedure for designing lean and efficient process chains n Integrated machining processes and complete hard machining offers powerful procedures to design efficient (sub-) process chains© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 27
  29. 29. Your contact to Fraunhofer IPT Dipl.-Ing. Kristian Arntz Head of department Laser Materials Processing Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technologie IPT Steinbachstraße 17, 52074 Aachen Phone: +49 241 89 04-121 Mobile:+49 174 1902817 Fax: +49 241 89 04-6121 Mail:© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 28