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Desenvolvimentos recentes para uma produção sustentável


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Desenvolvimentos recentes para uma produção sustentável - Recent Developments for a Sustainable Production
Palestrante: Eng. Markus Röhner - Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology – FhG IPK / Alemanha

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Desenvolvimentos recentes para uma produção sustentável

  1. 1. Production Technology Centre BerlinDesenvolvimentos recentespara uma produção sustentável-Recent Developments for aSustainable ProductionDipl.-Ing Markus Röhner 1
  2. 2. Agenda I Fraunhofer Production Technology Centre Berlin (PTZ) I Global Trends The Global Markets Beyond Tomorrow I Brazilian Market Aerospace, Energy, Automotive I Sustainable Production Innovations for your Production Systems I Services of Fraunhofer IPK Example of Projects I Fraunhofer IPK in Brazil Cooperation Projects I Contact 2
  3. 3. FraunhoferProduction Technology Centre Berlin 3
  4. 4. The German R&D Innovation Chain 3. Industrial application implements application-ready solutions in the economy. 2. Application-oriented research transfers basic innovations to the application stage and creates 1. Basic research prototypical solutions. creates basic innovations. 4
  5. 5. From Idea to Practice : Who stands where? 3. Industrial application  Companies implements application-ready solutions in the economy. 2. Application-oriented research  Industrial research centers  Fraunhofer Institutes transfers basic innovations to the application stage and creates 1. Basic research prototypical solutions.  Universities  Helmholtz Centers Max-Planck-Institutes creates basic innovations. 5
  6. 6. The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaftin Germany Itzehoe Lübeck Rostock Bremerhaven Hamburg Oldenburg Bremen Hannover Berlin Potsdam 60 Institutes Braunschweig Teltow Magdeburg more than 20,000 employees Paderborn Cottbus Oberhausen Halle Dortmund Schkopau Leipzig Duisburg Kassel Leuna Schmallenberg Dresden St. Augustin Erfurt Jena Freiberg Aachen Euskirchen Gießen Chemnitz Wachtberg Ilmenau Darmstadt Bayreuth Würzburg Erlangen Bronnbach St. Ingbert Kaiserslautern Fürth Nürnberg Saarbrücken Karlsruhe Pfinztal Ettlingen Stuttgart Straubing Freising Freiburg Augsburg Garching München Oberpfaffenhofen Kandern Prien Efringen- Holzkirchen 6 Kirchen
  7. 7. Fraunhofer worldwide Subsidiary Center Project Center / Strategic Cooperation Representative Office Senior Advisor 7
  8. 8. PTZ BerlinTwo Institutes – One RoofFraunhofer IPK: IWF of the TU Berlin:Application-oriented Fundamental researchresearch
  9. 9. PTZ BerlinTwo Institutes – One Roof Corporate Management Assembly Technology and Factory Management Virtual Product Industrial Information Creation Technology Production Systems Machine Tools and Manufacturing Technology Joining and Coating Joining and Coating Technology Technology Automation Industrial Automation Technology Technology Quality Management Quality Science Medical Technology
  10. 10. PTZ BerlinTwo Institutes – For The Entire Manufacturing Process Chain Corporate Managing Assembly Technology and Management companies Factory Management Virtual Product Developing products Industrial Information Creation Manufacturing products… Technology Production Systems …with innovative Machine Tools and Manu- manufacturing technologies, facturing Technology Joining and Coating …machines and Joining and Coating Technology tools, Technology Automation …and automated Industrial Automation Technology methods Technology Quality Management Guaranteeing quality Quality Science
  11. 11. Global Trends & Brazilian MarketThe Global Markets Beyond Tomorrow 11
  12. 12. Global Trends Verkürzung und Dynamisierun g der Produktleben s-zyklen Individualität der Märkte Globalisierun g Lernende Mobilität Gesellschaft/ Wissens- gesellschaft Durchdringu ng mit neuen Technologien Klimawandel © Image. Fraunhofer IPK und Demografischer Ressourcen- Wandel Production and verknappung 12
  13. 13. Global Trends Shortening and dynamic of the product life cycles Individuality of the markets Global Markets Learning Mobility Society / Knowledge Society New technology Climate © Image. Fraunhofer IPK change and Demographic resource change Production and scarcity 13
  14. 14. Brazilian MarketAerospace, Energy, Automotive 14
  15. 15. Important sectors of the Brazilian Industry  Oil & Gas Sector, Raw materials © Brasil Maior  Renewable and Clean Energy © Brasil Maior  Automotive © Toyota © Image. Fraunhofer IPK © Embraer  Aerospace 15
  16. 16. Brazilian Industry Needs  Development of turbo machines  Development of micro and small gas turbines for © Brasil Maior decentralized CHP plants using renewable energy sources (biomass, waste process)  Efficient tools, kinematics and machining technologies  ceramic tools, rope kinematic © Brasil Maior  Hybrid process  robot based systems for milling, positioning of parts, pre treatments  Services, monitoring systems, maintenance © Toyota concepts © Image. Fraunhofer IPK  Downsizing, Lightweight Design, emission © Embraer reduction (CO2), new materials (Flex motor) 16
  17. 17. Sustainable ProductionInnovations for your Production Systems 17
  18. 18. Content Sustainability in Production  Future strategies, dimensions of sustainability, major developments Key technologies for production systems and manufacturing processes © Image. Fraunhofer IPK 18
  19. 19. Content Sustainability in Production  Future strategies, dimensions of sustainability, major developments Key technologies for production systems and manufacturing processes © Image. Fraunhofer IPK 19
  20. 20. The Term »Sustainable Development« »Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.« (Brundtland Report, Work Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Oxford, 1987.) »Sustainability is the concept of a permanent, future proof development of the economic, ecological and social dimension of human existence. These three pillars of sustainability are interdependent and require a long-term balanced coordination.« (Final report of the Enquete Commission of the 13th German Bundestag, printed paper 13/11200, Berlin, 1998.) © Image. Fraunhofer IPK 20
  21. 21. Sustainability in productionDimensions of Sustainability Sustainability in Production Economic Ecological Social •Minimizing production costs •Life cycle extension of •Employee satisfaction (fast flawless production, resources •Health 0-failure production (reuse, low-wear process chain reduction, components, modular •Minimum social process substitution) concepts, availability standards •Versatile production management) •Safety •Efficient employee •Renewable and recycled •Education assignment materials •Human-centered •Regenerative use of energy production •Resource productivity © Image. Fraunhofer IPK (materials, energy, supplies, operating resources) •Technology competence 21
  22. 22. Sustainability in productionStrategies for guaranteeing the future of production Innovation degree Product & Process  Intelligent technologies  Novel technologies New  Market leadership  Technology leadership Products & processes  Safety strategies  Pioneer strategies  Customer adapted technologies  Customer/ culture adapted with regard to costs, quality & technologies Existing time  Global business networks Products & processes  Local business networks  Expansion strategies © Image. Fraunhofer IPK  Surviving strategies Existing markets New markets Market growth 22
  23. 23. Sustainability in production The way to sustainability orientationStrategy production marketing customer sustainability orientation orientation orientation orientationProduct mass product variety product individual product hybrid productProduction Combine with temporary business factory subsidiary company business alliances network localized regionalized internationalized globalized relocalized flexibiltyCharacteristic productivity costs quality environment mutability intagratibility costs emissions time of energy number of employees manufacturing time resource product development waste variety of products © Image. Fraunhofer IPK service variety of methods production safety customer proximity material variety competition need of knowledge 1900 1950 2000 2050 23
  24. 24. Content Sustainability in Production  Future strategies, dimensions of sustainability, major developments Key technologies for production systems and manufacturing processes © Image. Fraunhofer IPK 24
  25. 25. Key technologies for a sustainable production Process chains Manufacturing Innovation fields of production technology technologies Materials Tools Machines and componentsMachines and Tools Manufacturing -components Materials - Coating technologies- Innovative machine - Ultra hard materials Process chains technologies - High speed machining components (ni, ti based) Reducing process - Innovative cutting - High performance chains by:- Self-optimizing, machining - Lightweight materials adaptronic structures tools - Process substitution - Hard machining (Mg, Al-alloys, metal- Magnetofluidic - Micro tools foams) - Near-Net-Shape - Ultra precision and positioning systems - Holistic view on micro machining - Composite materials technologies- Strut and rope design, production - Hybrid technologies (FRP, CFRP, MMC, - Highly integrated reinforced ceramic) © Image. Fraunhofer IPK kinematics and inset - Dry machining production- Reconfigurable - Rapid Prototyping - Sintered materials - Integrated machines (metallic, ceramic) production and - und Rapid Tooling process development 25
  26. 26. Hybrid processing Combination of micro miller and laser abrasion form constructionSpindle I Spindle II  Milling processing hardened tool steel with ultra(milling) (milling) micro grain-Hard metal tools up to nominal diameter 0.2 mm  Nearly meltfree laser abrasion using pulsed laser radiation (puls duration < 15 ps, average power High precision- 800 mW) machine tool for combined  laser processing of pre-milled structured formeasuring scanner, lenses milling/laser shortening process times in comparison to(geometry) (laser abrasion) processing complete processing via laser Micro milling Geometry Laser abrasion Manufacture identification of parts © Image. Fraunhofer IPK 100 μm Measuring point 100 μm Die-set 26
  27. 27. Selective Laser Melting – Form-flexible production of turbine blades Advantages  Flexible, additive manufacturing process  Manufacturing and repair of compressor and turbine blades of TiAl6V4, TiAl6Nb7, INC 718, Hastelloy X , Renè 80 using laser radiation Exposure of partgeometrie  Potentials in design and functionality by assembling parts layer by layer  Strength of generated structures corresponds to those of cast parts  Reduction of inner density of parts by 90 % and of inertia of rotating components by 30 % using a lattice structure for high part stiffness Topics  Processing turbine materials with selective laser melting e.g. René 80 Generated blade  Tailor made adjustment of workpiece properties e.g. density, strength Tensile Strength [MPa] 0,2 % Proof Stress [MPa] Breaking Elongation [%]IN 718, conventional, T = 20°C [1] 1276 1034 6 - 12IN 718, conventional, T = 650°C [1] 1000 862 6 - 12IN 718, melted, T = 20°C [2] 1295 1110 10 - 13IN 718, melted, T = 650°C [2] 1065 905 10 - 13[1] Special Metalls: INCONEL ® alloy 718, Huntington US, 2007, Firmenschrift [2] Inno-Shape: Laserschmelzen von Nickelbasiswerkstoffen; Aachen, Firmenschrift 27
  28. 28. HSC of Titan-Aluminides Motivation Conventional Machining of TiAl  Outstanding material properties: low density, high tensile strenght, high oxidation and corrosion resistance  Conventional machining induce the generation of cracks at the workpiece surface vc = 30 m/min vc = 300 m/min HSC-Machining 10 μm 10 μm Conventional machined TiAl HSC-machined TiAl 28
  29. 29. High Performance Milling of Ni-Superalloys with ceramic cutting tools HPC with Indexable Inserts Performance of ceramic cutting tools  Increase of cutting velocity by factor 50  Increase of the material removal rate by factor 40Conventional machining ofa Ni-based superalloy. Source: IPK  Significant reduction of the machining time  Significant reduction in the manufacturing costs Milling of IN718 500 Machining Time th s 250 125 0HPC-Machining with ceramic cutting conventional HPCtools. Source: IPK (vc = 35 m/min) (vc = 600 m/min) Cutting Speed 29
  30. 30. High Performance Milling of Ni-Superalloys with ceramic cutting tools Development of ceramic milling cutters Motivation  Transfer potentials of ceramic cutting tools to applications with tool diameters smaller 16 mm. Goals  Establishment of a knowledge base for design and use of monolithic ceramic cutting tools.  Development of prototype tools as innovation impulse for tool producers and turbine production. Background  Substantial knowledge in tool design, use of ceramic cutting tools and their application in industrial environments  Excellent equipment for development, manufacturing andFace milling tool made of SiAlON-ceramic test of tool under one roof in Production Technology CenterSource: IPK Berlin (PTZ) 30
  31. 31. High Performance Milling of Ni-Superalloys with ceramic cutting tools Projects and Experiences since 2005 AdvanCer „CerCut“  Fraunhofer internal research project  Manufacturing and test of first prototypesFirst prototype tool with diameter of  Identification and syndication of industrial partners25 mm (CerCut) , Source: IPK InnoNet „TechVolk“  Public and industrial funded research project: four research institutes and eight companies  Development of complete process chain: manufacturing of raw material, grinding of tools, application with modern machine tools Industrial Implementation conceptMilling cutter with diameter of 4 mm  Bilateral projects with gas turbine manufacturersmade of whisker-ceramic (TechVolk)Source: IPK  Machining concept for guide vanes: strategies und parameters, clamping, machine tool. 31
  32. 32. High Performance Milling of Ni-Superalloys with ceramic cutting tools Industrial Implementation concept Part Geometry Allowances Accessibility Machining Strategy Machine Tool Technology Clamping and Set-ups Kinematics Tool Geometries Drives and Dynamics Path Planning Spindle Technology 32
  33. 33. High Performance Milling of Ni-Superalloys with ceramic cutting tools Benchmark of Cemented Carbide and SiAlON  Comparative investigations with cemented carbide tools  Groove-milling in MAR M247 with full cut and cutting material adapted parameters  Increase of cutting speed by factor 40  Increase of material removal rate by factor 8High speed machining with ceramic 2.500 Cutting Material CC Sialonmilling cutters. Source: IPK Material Removal Rate QW Material MAR M247 mm³/min Lubricant Emulsion dry a) b) D [mm] 4 1.500 z [1] 4 ae [mm] 4 1.000 ap [mm] 1 0.2 vc [m/min] 10 400 500cutters for comparative investigations:a) cemented carbide; b) Sialon fz [mm] 0.02Source: IPK Qw [mm3 /min] 255 2.037 0 33
  34. 34. Fabrication of Seal Slots in Turbine Components Objectives and Work Packages  Development of a quality management system for the qualification of tool electrode suppliers  Optimization of the EDM-machining process for producing seal slots – reduction of process time and electrode wear  Guarantee the requirements for machining results (roughness, cracks, form accuracy and thermal influenced layer)  Modification of machine-tool for producing seal slots by application of piezo-actuatorsGP 7000 for Airbus A380(Quelle: MTU Aero Engines) 34
  35. 35. Fabrication of Seal Slots in Turbine Components Results  Development of two distinct technologies:  maximum increase of the material removal rate about 173%  maximum reduction of the machining time about 54%  maximum reduction of tool electrode wear about 30%  Implementation of the multi step-technology  All quality requirements to the produced seal slots have been reached  Implementation and validation of results at theGP 7000 for Airbus A380(Source: MTU Aero Engines) project partner’s machine tool 35
  36. 36. Combined Laser-EDM Machining Center (IPK-ILT) Manufacturing of cooling holes Motivation  Development of a flexible hybrid Laser-EDM machining center for producing boreholes with complex forms Application  Cooling holes in turbo machinery ,  Injection nozzles in automotive Results  Reduction of process time about 50 %  Development of a vibration unit through piezoelectricBoreholes Laser (left), Laser+ EDM (right) actuators aiming the improvement of the flushing conditions 36
  37. 37. Abrasive Flow Machining Finishing of complex geometries by cylinder piston machining with abrasive suspension Applications w orkp iece  w orkpiece ho lder Machining of hard materials with SiC or diamond grains  Deburring, edge rounding and polishing cylinder abrasive me dium piston  Optimization of surface quality (up to Ra = 0.1 μm)  Improvement of air flow conditions  Process simulation by Discrete Element MethodTurbine Blade and work piece holder for machining with AFM Before AFM After AFM 37
  38. 38. Services of Fraunhofer IPKExample of Projects: factory planning,process chain and technology developments 38
  39. 39. Power Machines, St. Petersburg, RussiaFactory Planning Initial situation: 4 manufacturing sites  TAG: gas, steam, water turbines  LMZ: gas, steam, water turbines  Elektrosila: generators  ZTL: blades Goal:  Green field planning for the production of gas, steam and water turbines  Optimization concept for TAG and blades manufacturing site 39
  40. 40. Siemens Gas Turbine Parts Ltd., Shanghai,Optimization of the manufacturing concept  Validation of the developed rough layout  Layout and capacity planning  Determination and optimization of the material flow  3D – Visualization of the layout  Evaluation and improvement of the ramp-up plan 40
  41. 41. „INLINE“ Siemens Gas Turbine Plant, Berlin,Planning of the Blades Manufacturing  Development and Implementation Factory planning Manufacturing of manufacturing, organization, IT Technology and technology concepts Analysis and Assessment  Reduction of the manufacturing Developing Identification of costs by 15%, throughput time Rough Concept Key Innovations by 40 % Specification and Ensuring  Company-wide implementation of Validation Potentials the technology Roadmap (Lead factory Berlin) Developing Proposals for Implementation  R&D Partnership initiation 2nd place in Siemens „Team Award“category „3i Manufacturing Excellence„ (500 submitted projects) Figure: Gas Turbine Blade 41
  42. 42. Introduction into Technology RoadMapping Approach of IPK Proceeding in technology road mapping Detection of relevant technologies  Analysis of technological environment, company and competitors  Targets, time horizon and level of detail Demand analysis and Potential analysis and prognosis prognosis  Analysis of technology  Scenario analysis complexes Generation of the road map  Detailed performance requirements  Relations of dependencies  Date of realization  Sufficiency and economy analysis 42
  43. 43. mro in Energie und Verkehr MRO in Energy and Transport Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul  Goods with high investment costs and long product lifecycles  Revenues from after-sales (MRO) contracts account for a substantial portion of the overall profit  Low level of scientific background, high research demand on MRO techniques  High technological and economical potential Sectors Transport Energy Road Aviation Stationary Solar energy Aero-engines Turbines Railway Wind energy Transfer of the technical expertises to other sectors 43© Fraunhofer
  44. 44. mro in Energie und VerkehrPartner des Innovationsclusters MRO 44© Fraunhofer
  45. 45. mro in Energie und Verkehr Structure and organisation Goals of the Innovation Cluster:  Formation of an internationally renowned, highly component MRO-region in Berlin and Brandenburg  Know-how transfer between the transportation, energy and other sectors  Conservation of resources due to the extended service life time enabled by the deployment of enhanced MRO-strategies and technologies Funding:  industry: 4.200.000 €  Berlin and Brandenburg: 6.800.000 €  Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft: 4.600.000 € Research and development on MRO-Topics by the Fraunhofer innovation cluster MRO in 3 years is funded with 15 600 000 € 45© Fraunhofer
  46. 46. mro in Energie und Verkehr Project Forms in the Innovation Cluster MRO Innovation Cluster are project cluster  Financing of projects Industrial project :  Research by order: Direct applicability Subject defined by and project paid by Industrial industrial partners, confidentiality Projects Transfer project:  Definition of contents and work plan by Transfer projects R&D-partners and industry, mixed funding with different public portion Initial research Initial research:  Interdisciplinary subjects, definition by R&D- Interdisciplinarity partner based on recommendation by industry, public funding, publication of results 46© Fraunhofer
  47. 47. mro in Energie und Verkehr Fields of innovationCondition monitoring MRO-Planning and Industrial cleaning Repair technologiesand diagnostics digital assistance 47© Fraunhofer
  48. 48. Relevance of MRO for Airlines 20 % of the total costs of an airline are MRO-costs. 8 % of operation costs are for the MRO of engines. Main costs  Assembling and disassembling Rupp, MTU Maintenance Hannover  Costs of repair of single partsDirect operation costs of airlines  Material costs of replaced components Example moving blade  OEMs allow only one single complete overhaul  Afterwards replacement of new parts  New part costs approx. 500.000 $ for one set of 1st HDT rotor stageDistribution of engine costs 48
  49. 49. Robot based automation of maintenance operations andfinishing of turbine blades Challenge  Varying conditions of parts and fast response times for lot size 1  Low process safety of particular repair steps due to manual operation Approach  Providing a complete solution for the entire repair process chain including technologies  Robot operated processing with functionality of machine tools and iterative processing up to requested precision Repair process chainDecoating Indication Cutting Repair Milling Grinding HardeningCleaning Parameterization welding Polishing 49
  50. 50. Processing of edges on rotor parts of aero turbinesMTU BLISK (Source MTU) Initial situation  Disks operate at loads up to 100t at temperatures up to 1000°C.  Cracks of 1/10 mm lead to catastrophic failures of the parts.  Edges of the parts are highly critical geometric elements with strict constraints regarding form and surface integrity.Manuel edge preparation  Actually mainly manual manufacturing with high qualified staff.  Automated edge preparation will increase due to demands from OEMs.  Milling and brushing using CNC machine tools needs high preparation efforts and is cost intensive due to high machine costs 50
  51. 51. Processing of edges on rotor parts of aero turbines Challenges  Find a economic and automated solution to fulfill the requirements  Flexible processes to manufacture different parts  Ability for offline programming  Manufacturing of complete batches without input of worker Approach  Combination of milling and brushing with pliant tools  Process development for representative features of the turbine parts  Robot based process offers high flexibility at low investment costs 51
  52. 52. Robot operated milling and grinding for finishing of complex parts Achievements  Realization of a forced controlled machining to achieve high accuracies  Planning of robot configurations under consideration of accessibility, movement capabilities and stiffness of the robot system and local adaption of iterative machining plan  Development of milling and grinding technologies for different machining tasks  Compensation of tool wear in milling operations  Test and implementation of developed processes and technologies at our customers Application  Finishing of blades and complex parts using belt grinding and vibratory finishing  Deburring and chamfering of complex parts 52
  53. 53. Fraunhofer IPK in BrazilCooperation Projects 53
  54. 54. Fraunhofer IPK in Brazil Actual Projects from Fraunhofer IPK in Brazil :  Turbine Producer: GMA (Gas Metal Arc) Narrow Gap Welding of Hydro Turbine Casings  PUC Rio/ MCTI: Prototypical Implementation of Intellectual Capital Statements in SME  SENAI: Planning and Development of the National Management of SENAIs Institutes as well as existing and future Innovation Institutes © Image. Fraunhofer IPK 54
  55. 55. Production Technology Centre Berlin Thank you for your attention! Desenvolvimentos recentes para uma produção sustentável -Recent Developments for a Sustainable Production © Image. Fraunhofer IPK
  56. 56.  Markus Roehner Head of Manufacturing Technologies Fraunhofer Institute Production Systems and Design Technology IPK Pascalstrasse 8-9 10587 Berlin Phone +49 (0)30 / 3 90 06-279 Email Internet 56