First section, typical instruction in the United States K-8 science classrooms. Second section, the contrasting view of science as practice Third section ◦ common forms of scientific practice ◦ the different types of instruction design ◦ the challenges students encounter Fourth section, strategies that teachers and curriculum developers can use to promote students learning of science through practice.
The dynamics of the discipline: ◦ asking questions, ◦ finding ways to explore them empirically, ◦ Investigating ◦ evaluating challenging alternative models, ◦ arguing severely lacking : ◦ The U.S. curriculum and classrooms. ◦ Most importantly, in the expectations the students have about science and what it means to learn and do science in schools.
Activities offered everyday in class only cover a narrow portion of Science, so this practice is leaving students with limited sense of science and what it means to understand and use science.
Whatcan be done tostructure, support, anddevelop student’sknowledge, and use andunderstanding ofscience?
Provide students with theopportunity to: learn topics in depth to use science in meaningful contexts to engage in scientific practices
Instructional programs that scaffold science as practice. Students: ◦ develop scientific explanations and models ◦ Participate in scientific argumentation ◦ Design and conduct scientific investigations ◦ work on Meaningful problems ◦ learn the skills in the context of their application
Designing and conducting empirical investigations argumentation, explanation, and model building Interacting with texts Evidence of student learning
With appropriate Current practice, provides students with instruction students narrowly conceived, can engage in making misleading hypotheses, gathering opportunities to “do evidence, designing science” investigations, Focusing exclusively in validating theories by evaluating hypotheses following routine in light of evidence laboratory experiments and build their or doing activities with understanding of the no clear intellectual goal. phenomenon they are investigating. Appropriate Current Practices Instruction
Argumentation Students conduct investigations to develop and apply explanations to observable facts, they develop claims, defend them with evidence, and explain them using scientific principles. Produce supporting Representing patterns evidence in data. Convincing peers of the Generating general explanation models to explain Responding to critiques Reaching consensus topics. Explanation Model Building
Reading and texts are an important part of science practice and plays an important role in science classrooms. Students are allowed to: ◦ select a topic in a domain. ◦ Select a book to read related to that topic. Innovative books: ◦ offer a combination of exposition, narration, description, and argumentation. ◦ offer support for the development of scientific knowledge and reasoning.
Elementary grades Middle grades: One common approach to students acquire engage students is problem inquiry skills: based or project based ◦ Develop questions science. ◦ Discuss ways to A research question about a problem can provide the organize their context for extended questions in investigations observations Characteristics: ◦ Understanding ◦ Collect data ◦ Real world application ◦ Interpret data ◦ Apply findings ◦ Debate conclusions ◦ Concentrate on the original problem ◦ Include a culminating activity
Social interactions ◦ will help students understand better and get different points of view. Appropriating the language of science ◦ to understand the terms. representations and tools ◦ to get a hands-on and visual experience while learning.These elements will ensure learning and adeeper understanding of the subject.
Science is better understood when it is presented and examined in social interactions. Social interactions: ◦ seeing everyones point of view ◦ seeing everyones opinions ◦ Having discussions to get ideas and thoughts running
Science terms tend to throw students off track due to the lack of usage. Words like “variable” and “hypothesis” are not used in their daily life so students don’t recognize them. Once the teacher explains the meaning of these words get a better understanding of the concepts.
Scientific representations like diagrams and charts show how things are done or how they work. Some of these give real life examples, to which students can relate to. Actual science equipment can be helpful since the student is experiencing what they are studying using hands-on activities.
There are many methods for learning, as well as learning aids. However, the teacher has to contribute in order for the student to learn successfully. The students still needs assistance from the teacher at some points. Teachers also have to adjust the learning tools so that students can learn little by little instead of having everything thrown at them at once.
Sequencing down or breaking down units of study is very helpful for learning better. Students cant do everything at once since the beginning, so the teacher breaks down their unit of study into little parts. As the student goes through all the small parts of learning, the students fits them all together like a puzzle. This provides the students with a more meaningful experience.
Science is in students daily lives, but not strictly as to the point where their life revolves around science. However, when learning about science, students sometimes get confused during the process. An actual scientific task or experience can change a students initial thoughts about science.
Scaffolding is used to facilitate learning for students. Scaffolding goes in a process: ◦ first the teacher explains the objective to the whole class. ◦ Next, the whole class works on it together, ◦ Then, the class is broken down into groups so that students can help each other out ◦ Finally the students work on their own.
Students can become puzzled when learning about science. Students tend to have doubts in science, questioning its principles. Teachers break down the scientific processes and the reasons why things happen with science so that in the end they can fit it all together.
basically students working together. Students are often placed in teams by the teacher or they pick their own team. This can be effective if: ◦ Students can help each other ◦ Some students understand better the topic ◦ Teacher provides one- on- one assistance
Methods and tools: Technology for example can make learning a lot simpler. Computer programs and websites with educational resources for example, can show how things are done. Your students can see patterns and trends by using these tools and get a better understanding of the concepts.
Articulation is helpful in science when you have an idea and need to put it into the appropriate terms for your assignment. It is also helpful for saying things clearly and in a way that everyone will understand. Reflections in science help students track what is going on in an experiment and how it changes.
Formative Assessment helps both the teacher and the student improve their learning as they move through their content of instruction. The fact that the teacher knows what their doing can give a student confidence that their work is right and has a purpose.
Practices prepare students for an assessment. Practices might help teachers to improve the outcomes in the future. With more practice students get better results Practice assessments prepare the teacher and the students for the real assessments.