2118 Project Group 7 SEM 003


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2118 Project Group 7 SEM 003

  1. 1. The United Kingdom<br /> Group 7<br />Carmen<br /> Maggie<br /> Vivian<br /> Kathy<br />
  2. 2. The Introduction<br />made up of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland <br />one of the 27 member states of the European Union (EU)<br />Capital cities<br />London – England <br />Edinburgh – Scotland <br />Cardiff – Wales <br />Belfast – Northern Ireland<br />
  3. 3. Geography of Britain<br />Small <br />Island state<br />Area<br />Land and water: 152,033 square miles<br />Population<br />approximately 60.6 million England 50,714,000<br /> Wales 2,977,000 <br /> Scotland 5,108,000 <br /> Northern Ireland 1,733,000<br />
  4. 4. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Location of hotels<br />population - relatively constant<br /> trend to live in the south of England<br /> large part of the hospitality industry is <br /> geographically concentrated in London, <br /> Southeast England<br />
  5. 5. Languages<br />two official languages <br /> - English <br /> - Welsh<br />English -most widely spoken <br />Scottish Gaelic -spoken in some parts of Scotland<br />
  6. 6. Currency<br />Pound sterling<br />The sign for the Great British Pound (GBP) is £.<br />
  7. 7. Differences among the four countries <br />Each has its own flag, culture, writers, artists and sports team<br />Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have their own regional political parties<br />Scotland and Northern Ireland have legal and educational systems that are separated from those used in England and Wales<br />Wales is officially bilingual<br />
  8. 8. Mixed Race Society<br />majority of population - English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish<br />extremely diverse nation <br />invaded by Romans ,Saxons , Vikings and Normans armies in early history<br />experienced a continuous immigration since the W WII<br />Race Relations Act (1976)<br /> principle of ‘equal rights and opportunities’ adapted to migrants and its children<br />
  9. 9. Racial diversity<br />Centuries of immigration<br />8% of population belongs to ethnic minority, 4.6 million people <br />
  10. 10. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Multiculturalism in UK’s hospitality industry<br />An important point of entry into the host country’s labour market for migrant workers <br />In 2005,12.5 % of the UK’s working<br /> age population was born abroad, <br /> up from around 8 % in 1995. <br />Now - 4.3 million adults <br /> of working age in the <br /> UK who were born abroad.<br />
  11. 11. Social class system<br />Rise of upper <br />middle class<br />Feudalism<br />Upper Class<br />people with inherited wealth <br />oldest families, titled aristocrats<br />Middle Class majority of the population <br /> industrialists, professionals, business people and shop owners<br />Lower or Working Classagricultural, mine and factory workers<br />
  12. 12. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Employee retention problem in hospitality industry<br />Rigid class system in past <br /> - serving --- low status job<br />Do not like serving others<br /> - often foreign workers serve in hotels, restaurants, pubs in major city centers<br />Lowest paid sector industry <br /> - Poor pay, unsocial hours, poor career opportunities<br /> High turnover rate in industry<br />Low unionization<br />
  13. 13. Constitutional monarch<br />Queen Elizabeth II <br />Head of the state<br />Head of the Armed Forces <br />Head of the Church of England <br />run by the government and led by the prime minister.<br />
  14. 14. Government type, party structure<br />Parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarchy <br />Multi-party system <br />Fusion of executive and legislature<br />
  15. 15. Governmental Influence <br />Working practice on labour market <br />introduce national employment protection legislation and regulations <br />Sex discrimination<br />Equal pay<br />Maternity and parental leave<br />
  16. 16. Governmental Influence<br />UK Hotel Development Incentive scheme (1968- 1973) <br /> - provided direct grants<br /> - helped in building of 1300 new hotels or extension<br /> - provided funds or free land in exchange<br /> for equity participation <br /> E.g. contribute 5% of GDP <br /> Government becomes part <br /> of the owner<br />
  17. 17. Political system - Democracy<br />“Government by the people”<br />All people have a say<br />Everyone have voting right <br />all citizens :<br />“equality and freedom” protected by a constitution<br />being equal before the law <br />having equal access to power<br />
  18. 18. Architecture<br />Stuart architecture <br />Dome-shaped<br />Victorian architecture<br />early19th century <br />romantic medieval gothic style <br />symmetry of Palladianism <br />
  19. 19. Architecture<br />Twentieth century architecture<br />new form of design:<br /><ul><li>Use of arts and crafts informal
  20. 20. non symmetrical form with mullioned or lattice windows
  21. 21. multiple gables and tall chimneys</li></li></ul><li>Religions<br />Most people are Christian (71%) <br />other religions:<br /> Buddhism, Judaism, Islam and Sikhism <br />About 23% of Britain follow no particular religion<br />Growing Muslim and Hindu minorities<br />Trends: Growing diversity<br />
  22. 22. Music<br />London -- world&apos;s major centre for classical music<br />The 16th century:<br /><ul><li>Church & religious music </li></ul> affected by Reformation<br /><ul><li>Early period: </li></ul> mainly church music, folk music, classical music <br /><ul><li>Until the early 19 th century :</li></ul> classical music as an important element of British <br />
  23. 23. Music <br />Pop music singers are <br /> more popular than classical<br /> composers and jazz musicians<br />E.g., The Beatles, <br /> The Rolling Stones, <br /> Led Zeppelin <br />Youths – punk, garage, rock,<br /> pop and R&B<br />Development of Rock and Roll,<br /> punk music and heavy metal<br />
  24. 24. Influence on hospitality industry<br />Restaurants<br /> Classical music, folk music <br /> --- more formal and popular <br /> in older generation<br />Bars <br /> Pop music, jazz and R&B <br />
  25. 25. Literature - Shakespeare<br />Shakespeare– <br /> English poet & playwright<br />England&apos;s national poet <br />the &quot;Bard of Avon”<br />comedies, histories and tragedies and tragicomedies<br />
  26. 26. Shakespeare---opera<br />made a lasting impression on later theatre and literature<br />More than 40 theatres in London <br />from Royal Opera House (world&apos;s leading opera houses) to London Palladium<br />
  27. 27. Sports<br />association football<br />rugby football <br />boxing <br />badminton <br />cricket <br />tennis<br />Golf<br />Football – most popular<br />
  28. 28. Festivals and activities <br />Sports events<br />Horseracing festivals – Royal Ascot, The Grand National and The Epsom Derby <br />The Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Championships <br />British Formula 1 Grand Prix<br />Boat race between Oxford and Cambridge<br />
  29. 29. Festivals and activities<br />English cultural and entertainment events <br />West End musicals<br />Opera and ballet<br />Concerts & festivals<br />Fashion shows <br />Royal Academy’s Summer Exhibition<br />RHS flower shows at Chelsea <br />
  30. 30. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Increase the number of tourists<br />generated &gt; £135m<br />providing a unique and <br /> special occasion to <br /> entertain top clients <br /> and to reward staff<br />
  31. 31. Key dates in British history<br /><ul><li>1536-42 Union with Wales
  32. 32. 1707 Union with Scotland
  33. 33. 1801 Legislative union with </li></ul> Ireland<br /><ul><li>1914-18 W W I
  34. 34. 1918 Parliamentary Qualification </li></ul> of Women Act <br /> --Women over age 30 <br /> can vote <br /><ul><li>1928 Equal Franchise Act</li></ul> --All women can vote<br /><ul><li>1939-45 WWII</li></li></ul><li>History – Industrial Revolution <br />“technological innovation”<br />major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport <br />1st started in Britain --spread throughout the world <br />1800s, First Industrial Revolution began<br />Mechanization, use of steam power, textiles , mining <br />1850s onwards, Second Industrial Revolution<br />electricity, chemicals, petroleum, steel industries, invention of telephone <br />
  35. 35. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Establishment of trade unions<br />Industrial Revolution---cruel exploitation of labour <br />world’s 1st trade union <br /> movement to protect the right of labour <br />
  36. 36. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Increase the scope of attractions and facilities to tourists<br />E.g. Wales,<br />Heavy industrial past – attractive to tourists <br />Industrial museums <br />Developed “Great Little Railways of Wales”<br />Harbour such as Plas Menai transformed to offer wide range of water sports<br />Gold mining area – Dolgellau : popular tourists attraction<br />All these helped to increase the profits of hotels in Wales<br />
  37. 37. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Work ethic<br />Not ‘devotion to duty’ or ‘hard work’<br />Many national projects in that period was ‘lubricated’ with alcohol <br />British love drinking—has more bars (public house/pub) than any countries in the world<br />
  38. 38. History – Labour shortage<br />Post - 1970s, <br />Baby- bust problem<br />Demographic change – fall in birth rate<br />Entry-level workers difficult to find <br />Workers demanded more pay and improved working condition<br />
  39. 39. Changing structure of family<br />Nowadays<br />small families<br />delays having children <br />Changing attitudes towards marriage - “partner”<br />Increase rates of divorce<br />Growing number of children born outside marriage<br />No. of people living alone increase (longer life expectancy)<br />
  40. 40. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Working patterns and Contracts<br />part-time and casual staff<br />More female works part-time than males<br />only 5 % of hotel and accommodation managers and 10% of restaurant managers work part-time <br />lower than average working hours in the UK<br />Flexibility of hours - no specified hours, overtime <br />may be employed on highly flexible hours contracts, including zero hours contracts<br />
  41. 41. Colonization<br />Since 1815, Britain already started overseas expansion over Africa and Asia<br />“Expansion is everything” <br />Influence -Location/Distribution of hotels<br />strongly concentrated in Europe and some presence in Africa and the Caribbean<br /> - former colonial relationship<br />
  42. 42. Hospitality industry in the UK <br />expanded in the past five years<br />current shortage of skilled staff<br />International (e.g. Hilton International, Holiday Inns, Forte PLC)<br />Hotel ownership<br />penetration of corporate activity <br />chain-type operations<br />independent operators<br />
  43. 43. Size of UK’s hospitality sector<br />British Hospitality Association(2006) : <br />Made up of about 127,000 businesses<br />approximately 22,000 hotels and guest houses, 16,000 bed and breakfasts<br />Workforce : 1.6 million people <br />Restaurants employ 1/3 of workforce<br />High proportions of female, young, part-time and unskilled labour<br />
  44. 44. Trends and development <br />Branding &gt; services’ level<br /> e.g. -HI Express, <br /> -Travelodge, <br /> -Holiday Inn<br />brand&apos;s expansion<br /> e.g. Accor – <br /> Southwark Rose in London <br />
  45. 45. Liberalism<br />Individual freedom<br />Liberty and freedom <br />Improvement or progress<br />
  46. 46. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Hotel classification <br />Totally voluntary procedure <br />opt to be classified by different organization<br /> e.g. National Trust Board <br />No direct national or local government involvement <br />VS France - compulsory <br />
  47. 47. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Employment practices<br />Informality of management practices <br />Limited training <br />ineffective personnel and human resource management <br />Management : inexpert<br />Informal rewards<br />High rates of labour instability <br />
  48. 48. Moderately high-context culture<br />messages depends on contextual cues like gender, age, balance of power<br />not on physical written text<br />focus on tradition and class ,is more conservative in than France and Italy <br />more individualistic and less risk averse than the French and Italians<br />there are things that are not said but are understood<br />
  49. 49. Individualism<br />emphasize “independence” and “self-reliance”<br />promote exercise of one&apos;s goals <br /> and desires <br />oppose external interference upon one&apos;s choices<br />oppose to collectivism<br />
  50. 50. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Discouragement of collective actions<br />Employers - discourage unionism <br /> (membership marginal below 5%)<br />Hospitality managers - believe in their own management style and power <br />Collective representation – only when individual managers’ style fail<br />Duty and responsibility – ‘look after’ their employees properly <br />
  51. 51. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Other ways<br />Employees - non-interventionist stance <br />rapid career progression<br />opportunities for ambitious graduates <br />self-employment for experienced managers<br />
  52. 52. Economic philosophy - Capitalism<br />Free and competitive market <br /> government intervention<br />Private production, distribution, exchange<br />Mixed economy – ownership shared between state and private sector <br />
  53. 53. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />High profile ownership and management changes<br />High level of expansion and takeover activities <br />E.g. sale of Ritz by Trafalgar House to Barclay brothers in 1995<br />Selling hotel assets freely at a profit <br />Refurbishment developments <br /> E.g. Charing Cross hotel – 83 luxury twins <br /> and double rooms were created <br />
  54. 54. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Increased room occupancy and average room rates<br />Business and conferences markets<br />Low inflation<br />Favourable low exchange rate<br /> - Cheaper holiday option for overseas visitors <br />
  55. 55. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Working Style in Hospitality<br />Emphasize on efficiency and <br /> productivity<br />Quality of service <br />European guests measure hotel <br /> quality in terms of :<br /> -availability of formal dining,beverage <br /> -general efficiency <br /> -round- the- clock room service<br />
  56. 56. Fear of communism<br />Communism promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless society based on common ownership and control of the means of production and property<br />Contradicts to capitalism<br />Threat to western democracies <br />Especially during the <br /> Cold War period <br />
  57. 57. Philosophy - Nationalism<br />Common tradition and historical development <br />Duty , loyalty to nation - overemphasize<br />National superiority , glory <br />Justify colonization and expansion<br />
  58. 58. Terrorism<br />British Muslims ,2005 London bombing (home-grown)<br />Attacks on British mainland (Corera 2006)<br />Al-Qaeda( Britain vs. Pakistan )<br />
  59. 59. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Case study<br />Hilton Hotel Taba terror attack in Oct 2004<br />car bomb managed to drive straight into the lobby and explode without interruptions. <br />Hilton Hotel lacked any security measures<br /> Crisis management <br /> Safety measures<br />
  60. 60. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Registration procedure in the front desk<br />all guests &gt;16 - register their full name and nationality<br />Record is kept and opened to police inspection (12 months)<br />neither British nor Commonwealth citizens - give passport details<br />
  61. 61. Pub--- etiquette<br /><ul><li>18 years old</li></ul>Family pubs welcome people with <br /> children<br /> rough language<br />Common to “buying a round <br /> of drinks” <br />&quot;have a drink on me” <br /> = pay for the drink that he chooses <br />
  62. 62. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Operations/Rules of the Pub in hotels<br />Not common to receive a tip<br />offered a drink on the house - the pub pays for it<br />pub is not allowed to serve drinks after closing time<br />must stop drinking 20 minutes after closing time<br />
  63. 63. Food in Britain<br />Breakfast - between 7:00 and 9:00, <br />Lunch - between 12:00 and 1:30 p.m. <br />Dinner (Supper) - The main meal. between 6:30 and 8:00 p.m. (Evening meal) <br />OR<br />Breakfast - between 7:00 and 9:00, <br />Dinner (The main meal) - between 12:00 and 1:30 p.m. <br />Tea - anywhere from 5:30 at night to 6:30 p.m. <br />
  64. 64. Meals<br />A Traditional English breakfast- full English/fry up <br />Tea-break - 11:00a.m.<br />Brunch – breakfastlunch<br />Sunday roast -Lunch (main meal)<br />Afternoon tea (not common these days)<br /> - most adults go out to work<br /> - tea rooms around England<br />High tea(early evening)<br />- often replaced with a supper or dinner<br />
  65. 65. Supper/Dinner<br />Supper --- family meal<br />Dinner party --- formal evening meal --guests have been invited <br />Special effort made both in the food preparation and in table setting <br />meat and two veg ---<br />meat served together on the same plate with two types of vegetable<br />common to eat a dessert<br />Manner<br />cannot eat certain type of food or have some special needs, tell your host before<br />Arrive on time<br />Take a bottle of wine or some flowers or chocolates <br />
  66. 66. Eating Manner<br />Drinking tea<br />Do not pour the tea from a teapot as soon as it has been made; leave it for a minute or two.<br />If the teapot contains loose tea, place the tea strainer onto the cup before pouring.<br />Milk can be added to the cup either before or after pouring the tea.<br />Once the teapot is half-empty, or if the tea is too strong for you, pour the hot water into the teapot.<br />
  67. 67. Influence on UK’s hospitality industry <br />Type of food in hotel restaurant<br />not normal life <br />cooked breakfast every day if stay in a hotel or bed and breakfast<br />Most British people only eat these foods occasionally <br />
  68. 68. Serious health problem – obesity<br />24%adult (2004), only 2nd to US<br />not enough exercise<br />European diet<br /> - eat less fruit, vegetables, fishes <br />tends to eat out and love fast-food<br />
  69. 69. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture<br />Menu of restaurants in hotels<br />Food at a low price, and sufficient speed<br />In 2009,<br />introduce calorie information on their menus. <br />Includes :<br />workplace caterers, quick-service restaurants, theme parks and leisure attractions, pub restaurants, cafes ,etc <br />
  70. 70. Business manner<br />Handshake<br />a round of firm handshake<br />Typical greeting<br />‘hello , nice to meet you’ or ‘how do you do’<br />Punctuality<br />expect others to be punctual<br />considered rude to arrive late<br />
  71. 71. Business manner<br />First name<br />Take the lead from your host regarding the use of first name<br />Age difference – determinant <br />Young people - more inclined to use first name <br />
  72. 72. Business manner<br />Being friendly and real friendship<br />British - very reserved and private <br />Privacy - extremely important<br />use of first name - not necessarily equate <br /> with friendship<br />never mix business and pleasure<br />
  73. 73.  Superstitions - Good Luck<br />meet a black cat. <br />touch wood<br />find a clover plant with four leaves<br />White heather<br />Horseshoes over the door - sign of good luck. <br />
  74. 74. Superstitions - Good Luck<br />On the first day of the month it is lucky to say &quot;white rabbits, white rabbits white rabbits,&quot; before uttering your first word of the day. <br />Catch falling leaves in Autumn <br /> - Every leaf means a lucky month next year<br />Cut hair when the moon is waxing<br />Putting money in the pocket of new clothes<br />
  75. 75. Superstitions - Bad Luck<br />walk underneath a ladder<br />Seven years bad luck to break a mirror.<br />see one magpie, lucky to see two, etc..<br />spill salt<br />
  76. 76. Superstitions - Bad Luck<br />open an umbrella in doors<br />13<br />Friday the Thirteenth<br />put new shoes on the table <br />pass someone on the stairs<br />13<br />Friday<br />13<br />
  77. 77. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture <br />Name of the Hotel<br />The Horseshoe Inn<br />- Symbolize lucky <br />
  78. 78. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture <br />The omission of 13th Floor<br />No. 13 = unlucky <br />building owners will sometimes purposely omit a floor so numbered <br />Hence, the 13th floor is given the No.14<br />
  79. 79. Conclusion <br />Internal Influence<br />History – laid down the foundation of <br /> development of hospitality<br />Lifestyle (manner, dining) – affect the practices in <br /> the departments of hotels <br />Philosophy – influence the personality, behavior and <br /> belief of British<br /> greatly affect the political development <br />Demographic – determine the target customers and type <br /> of workers in UK’s hospitality<br /> formation of social norms and systems <br />All these helped to shape Britain’s image as strong European power with unique culture for over 9 decades <br />
  80. 80. Conclusion<br />External influence<br />Terrorism – unprecedented threat <br /> main concern in crisis and safety <br /> management<br />Communism – long-term fear of British<br />These are the underlying factors hindering the expansion of UK’s hospitality industry<br />
  81. 81. References<br />Mccormick, J. (2007). Contemporary Britain 2nd edition. China: Palgrave Macmillan.<br />Storry, M. & Childs, P. (2002). British Cultural Identities second edition. London and New York: Routledge.<br />Horrall, A. (2001). Popular Culture in London 1890-1918 The transformation of entertainment. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.<br />Bdo Hospitality Consulting (1996). Trends in the UK industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 6-10.<br />
  82. 82. References<br />Walker, J. R. (2009). Introduction to Hospitality,(5th edition). : Pearson Prentice Hall.<br />Norbury, P. (2003). Culture Smart!Britain. : Kuperard.<br />Brotherton, B. (2000). An introduction to the UK hospitality industry : a comparative approach. : Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann <br />Gee.C.Y.(2000).International Hotel Management .The Educational Institute of the AH&MA, East Lansing, MI.<br />
  83. 83. References<br />http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk<br />http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/UK.html<br />http://www.21stcenturynurse.com/UKSocialCulture.htm<br />http://www.justlanded.com/english/UK/Articles/Culture/British-Culture<br />http://www.justlanded.com/english/UK/Articles/Travel-Leisure/Hotels<br />glassowater.wordpress.com/<br />blogs.smarter.com/homegarden/2007/08/<br />www.answers.com/topic/hour-hand<br /> http://www.emaxhealth.com/2/74/30391/uk-brings-calories-menus.html#<br />http://www.seriouseats.com/2009/01/uk-restaurants-to-display-calorie-counts.html<br />http://www.europe-cities.com/en/630/uk_england/<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_the_United_Kingdom#Naming_convention<br />
  84. 84. References<br />http://www.ukmoz.com/society-and-culture<br />www.ukstudentlife.com<br />www.elam.com/articles/Iran-at-a-glance/<br />http://catholicwithattitude.blogspot.com/2009_05_01_archive.html<br />http://freefoto.com<br />http://epharmacies.com<br />http://blogs.propertyfinder.com<br />http://thevitaminm.wordpress.com/2009/01/22/beer-me/<br />www.abc.net.au/.../05/15/2245107.htm?site=news<br />http://www.toodoc.com/honda-europe-high-and-low-context-cultures-ebook.html<br />www.intransol.com/multicultural.html<br />https:/.../web/product_detail.jsp?PRODUCTID=577<br />www.bw.edu/resources/dean/multicult/<br />
  85. 85. Thank You !<br />